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Encyclopedia > French language
French
Français 
Pronunciation: /fʁɑ̃sɛ/
Spoken in: Listed in the article 
Region: Africa, Europe, Americas, Pacific, isolated regions of Asia
Total speakers: Native: 65[1]-109[2] million
Total: estimates from 115 million to 500 million

[3] [4] [5] [6]  A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...

Ranking: 18 (Native), total: 3 to 7
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Western
     Gallo-Iberian
      Gallo-Romance
       Gallo-Rhaetian
        Oïl
         French 
Official status
Official language in: 30 countries
Numerous international organizations
Regulated by: Académie française (France) Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec, Canada) Conseil pour le développement du français en Louisiane (Louisiana)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: fr
ISO 639-2: fre (B)  fra (T)
ISO 639-3: fra 

Map of the Francophone world
Dark blue: French-speaking; blue: official language/widely used; Light blue: language of culture; green: minority

This article is part of the series on: This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... Rhaeto-Romance languages are a Romance language sub-family which includes a few languages spoken in Switzerland and North-Eastern Italy. ... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern... The following is a list of the 29 countries where French is an official language: In addition to this, the State of the City of the Vatican lets itself register as a French-speaking country in the international organisations with which it has relationships. ... List of international organisations which have French as an official, administrative or working language. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... The Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF) (Quebec Office of the French language) was established on March 24, 1961 along with the Quebec ministry of Cultural affairs. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 372 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 631 pixels, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_La_Francophonie. ...


French language

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French (français, pronounced [fʁɑ̃sɛ]) is today spoken by about 350 million people around the world as either a native or a second language,[7] with significant populations in 54 countries. Dialects of the French language are spoken in France and around the world. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended from Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance dialects spoken in Northern France. ... The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts expanded the central control of the French state The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by François I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts. ... French has a grammar similar to that of the other Romance languages. ... French adverbs, like their English counterparts, are used to modify adjectives, other adverbs, and verbs or clauses. ... In French, articles and determiners are required on almost every common noun; much more so than in English. ... French pronouns are inflected to indicate their role in the sentence (subject, direct object, and so on), as well as to reflect the person, gender, and number of their referrents. ... Personal pronouns in French: The French possessive pronouns (mon, ma, mes, ton, ta, tes, son, sa, ses, notre, notre, nos, votre, votre, vos, leur, leur, leurs) are technically adjectives because they decline into masculine, feminine and plural forms and further agree with their heads (not their antecedents). ... French verbs are a complex area of French grammar, with a conjugation scheme that allows for three finite moods (with anywhere from one to five synthetic tenses), three non-finite moods, three voices, and two aspects. ... Main article: French verbs French verbs are divided into three conjugations (conjugaisons) by the ending of their infinitives: -er verbs, -ir verbs, and -re verbs. ... In French, a verb is inflected to reflect its mood and tense, as well as to agree with its subject in person and number. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The orthography of French was already more or less fixed, and from a phonological point of view outdated, when its lexicography developed in the late 17th century and the Académie française was mandated to establish an official prescriptive norm. ... The circumflex (^) is one of the five diacritics used in the French language. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In French, elision (from elide, to leave out or omit) refers to the practise of combining two logically separate words into one for the convenience of pronunication in live conversation. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ...


French is a descendant of the Latin language of the Roman Empire, as are languages such as Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Catalan and Romanian. Its development was also influenced by the native Celtic languages of Roman Gaul and by the Germanic language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ...


It is an official language in 31 countries, most of which form what is called in French La Francophonie, the community of French-speaking nations. It is an official language of all United Nations agencies and a large number of international organizations. An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The following is a list of the 29 countries where French is an official language: In addition to this, the State of the City of the Vatican lets itself register as a French-speaking country in the international organisations with which it has relationships. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... UN redirects here. ... List of international organisations which have French as an official, administrative or working language. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

Europe

Legal status in France

See also: Toubon Law and Languages of France

Per the Constitution of France, French has been the official language since 1992[8] (although previous legal texts have made it official since 1539, see ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts). France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education outside of specific cases (though these dispositions are often ignored) and legal contracts; advertisements must bear a translation of foreign words. The Toubon Law (full name: law 94-665 of 4 August 1994 relating to usage of the French language), is a law of the French government mandating the use of the French language in official government publications, advertisements, and some other contexts. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts expanded the central control of the French state The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by François I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ...


In addition to French, there are also a variety of regional languages. France has signed the European Charter for Regional Languages but has not ratified it since that would go against the 1958 Constitution.


Switzerland

Further information: Demographics of Switzerland and Swiss French

French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland (along with German, Italian, and Romansh) and is spoken in the part of Switzerland called Romandie. French is the native language of about 20% of the Swiss population. Switzerland sits at the crossroads of several major European cultures, which have heavily influenced the countrys languages and cultural practices. ... Swiss French (Suisse romand in French) is the name used for the different dialects of French spoken in the Francophone part of Switzerland known as Romandy. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ... Romandy (in French and German Romandie), or la Suisse romande, is the French-speaking part of Switzerland. ...


Belgium

Further information: Languages of Belgium and Belgian French
Bilingual signs in Brussels.
Bilingual signs in Brussels.

In Belgium, French is the official language of Wallonia (excluding the East Cantons, which are German-speaking) and one of the two official languages—along with Dutch—of the Brussels-Capital Region where it is spoken by the majority of the population, though often not as their primary language.[9] French and German are not official languages nor recognised minority languages in the Flemish Region, although along borders with the Walloon and Brussels-Capital regions, there are a dozen of municipalities with language facilities for French-speakers; a mirroring situation exists for the Walloon Region with respect to the Dutch and German languages. In total, native French-speakers make up about 40% of the country's population, the remaining 60% speak Dutch, the latter of which 59% claim to speak French as a second language.[10] French is thus known by an estimated 75% of all Belgians, either as a mother tongue, as second, or as third language.[11] A linguistic map of Belgium: mainly Dutch-speaking areas are marked in yellow; the areas of Belgium which are primarily Francophone are marked in red, with hatching in the Brussels region, which is bilingual with a French majority, and the almost uniformly German-speaking East Cantons in blue. ... Belgian French is primarily spoken in the French Community of Belgium, highlighted in red. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Brussels_signs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Brussels_signs. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... The German-speaking Community of Belgium or Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft Belgien in German is one of several federal communities in Belgium. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Flemish region is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium (alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Monaco and Andorra

Further information: Languages of Monaco and Languages of Andorra

Although Monégasque is the national language of the Principality of Monaco, French is the only official language, and French nationals make up some 47% of the population. The official language of Monaco is French, but there are several languages spoken, including Monégasque, the national language of the Monegasque people. ... Although Catalan, a Western Romance language somewhat close to Spanish and quite similar to Occitan is the only official language in Andorra and has traditionally been the national language (Andorra is normally included in the Catalan Countries), it is not the language spoken by the majority of the population, as... Street sign in French and Monégasc in Monaco-Ville Monégasque (natively Munegascu) is a Romance language and a dialect of the modern Ligurian language. ...


Catalan is the only official language of Andorra; however, French is commonly used due to the proximity to France. French nationals make up 7% of the population. Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ...


Italy

Further information: Languages of Italy

French is also an official language, along with Italian, in the province of Aosta Valley, Italy. In addition, a number of Franco-Provençal dialects are spoken in the province, although they do not have official recognition. Intuitive map of languages and dialets of Italy Italy currently has one national language: Standard Italian. ... The Aosta Valley (Italian: Valle dAosta, French: Vallée dAoste, Arpitan: Val dOuta) is a mountainous Region in north-western Italy. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ...


Luxembourg

French is an official language of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, along with German and Lëtzebuergesch. Although Lëtzebuergesch (which is closely related to German) is the natively-spoken language, French is more widely used, particularly in the areas of government, business and education.


The Channel Islands

Further information: Languages of Jersey and Languages of Guernsey

Although Jersey and Guernsey, the two bailiwicks collectively referred to as the Channel Islands, are separate entities, both use French to some degree, mostly in an administrative capacity. Jersey Legal French is the standardized variety used in Jersey. The island of Jersey, in close proximity to the Norman coast of France. ... Many street names in St. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... This official stone which marks the inauguration of a municipal office in 1999 bears the names of the Connétable and the Procureurs du Bien Public of Saint Helier. ...


The Americas

Legal status in Canada

See also: French language in Canada, Spoken languages of Canada, and Official bilingualism in Canada
Bilingual (English/French) stop sign on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. An example of bilingualism at the federal government level in Canada.
Bilingual (English/French) stop sign on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. An example of bilingualism at the federal government level in Canada.

About 7 million Canadians are native French-speakers, of whom 6 million live in Quebec,[12] and French is one of Canada's two official languages (the other being English). Various provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms deal with Canadians' right to access services in both languages, including the right to a publicly funded education in the minority language of each province, where numbers warrant in a given locality. By law, the federal government must operate and provide services in both English and French, proceedings of the Parliament of Canada must be translated into both these languages, and most products sold in Canada must have labeling in both languages. French is the mother tongue of about 6. ... Bilingual (English/French) stop sign on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Image File history File links Bilingualstopsign. ... Image File history File links Bilingualstopsign. ... Stop sign used in English-speaking countries, as well as in most European countries, including Russia A stop sign is a traffic sign, usually erected at road junctions, that instructs drivers to stop and then to proceed only if the way ahead is clear. ... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ...


Overall, about 13% of Canadians have knowledge of French only, while 18% have knowledge of both English and French. In contrast, over 82% of the population of Quebec speaks French natively, and almost 96% speak it as either their first or second language. It has been the sole official language of Quebec since 1974. The legal status of French was further strengthened with the 1977 adoption of the Charter of the French Language (popularly known as Bill 101), which guarantees that every person has a right to have the civil administration, the health and social services, corporations, and enterprises in Quebec communicate with him in French. While the Charter mandates that certain provincial government services, such as those relating to health and education, be offered to the English minority in its language, where numbers warrant, its primary purpose is to cement the role of French as the primary language used in the public sphere. The Charter of the French Language (also known as Bill 101 and Loi 101) is a law in the province of Quebec, Canada defining French as the only official language of Quebec. ...

Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries
Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries[13]

The provision of the Charter that has arguably had the most significant impact mandates French-language education unless a child's parents or siblings have received the majority of their own primary education in English within Canada, with minor exceptions. This measure has reversed a historical trend whereby a large number of immigrant children would attend English schools. In so doing, the Charter has greatly contributed to the "visage français" (French face) of Montreal in spite of its growing immigrant population. Other provisions of the Charter have been ruled unconstitutional over the years, including those mandating French-only commercial signs, court proceedings, and debates in the legislature. Though none of these provisions are still in effect today, some continued to be on the books for a time even after courts had ruled them unconstitutional as a result of the government's decision to invoke the so-called notwithstanding clause of the Canadian constitution to override constitutional requirements. In 1993, the Charter was rewritten to allow signage in other languages so long as French was markedly "predominant." Another section of the Charter guarantees every person the right to work in French, meaning the right to have all communications with one's superiors and coworkers in French, as well as the right not to be required to know another language as a condition of hiring, unless this is warranted by the nature of one's duties, such as by reason of extensive interaction with people located outside the province or similar reasons. This section has not been as effective as had originally been hoped, and has faded somewhat from public consciousness. As of 2006, approximately 65% of the workforce on the island of Montreal predominantly used French in the workplace. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1218x1245, 83 KB) Knowledge French in the European Union, according to: Special Eurobarometer 243 of the European Commission with the title Europeans and their Languages Made by myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1218x1245, 83 KB) Knowledge French in the European Union, according to: Special Eurobarometer 243 of the European Commission with the title Europeans and their Languages Made by myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file... Section Thirty-three of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of the Constitution of Canada. ...


The only other province that recognizes French as an official language is New Brunswick, which is officially bilingual, like the nation as a whole. Outside of Quebec, the highest number of Francophones in Canada, 485,000, excluding those who claim multiple mother tongues, reside in Ontario, whereas New Brunswick, home to the vast majority of Acadians, has the highest percentage of Francophones after Quebec, 33%, or 237,000. In Ontario, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Manitoba, French does not have full official status, although the provincial governments do provide some French-language services in all communities where significant numbers of Francophones live. Canada's three northern territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut) all recognize French as an official language as well. This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located in the Canadian Maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — and some of the American state of Maine). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian territory. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ...


All provinces make some effort to accommodate the needs of their Francophone citizens, although the level and quality of French-language service vary significantly from province to province. The Ontario French Language Services Act, adopted in 1986, guarantees French language services in that province in regions where the Francophone population exceeds 10% of the total population, as well as communities with Francophone populations exceeding 5,000, and certain other designated areas; this has the most effect in the north and east of the province, as well as in other larger centres such as Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton, Mississauga, London, Kitchener, St. Catharines, Greater Sudbury and Windsor. However, the French Language Services Act does not confer the status of "official bilingualism" on these cities, as that designation carries with it implications which go beyond the provision of services in both languages. The City of Ottawa's language policy (by-law 2001-170) allows employees to work in their official language of choice and be supervised in the language of choice. The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... The French Language Services Act is law in the province of Ontario, Canada and is intended to protect the right of French speaking people in the province. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... For the First Nation, see Mississaugas. ... For other places with the same name, see London (disambiguation). ... , The City of Kitchener (IPA ) is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Industry and Liberality Location of St. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedificemus (Latin for Come, let us build together) Coordinates: , Country Province Established 1893 (as Sudbury)   2001 (as Greater Sudbury) Government  - Mayor John Rodriguez  - Governing Body Greater Sudbury City Council  - MPs Raymond Bonin (LPC), Diane Marleau (LPC)  - MPPs Rick Bartolucci (OLP), Shelley Martel (NDP) Area  - City 3,200 km... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ...


Canada has the status of member state in the Francophonie, while the provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick are recognized as participating governments. Ontario is currently seeking to become a full member on its own.


Haiti

French is an official language of Haiti, although it is mostly spoken by the upper class, while Haitian Creole (a French-based creole language) is more widely spoken as a mother tongue. Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ... A French creole, more properly French-based creole language, is a creole language with substantial influence from the French language. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ...


French overseas territories

French is also the official language in France's overseas territories of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Barthelemy, St. Martin and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. Saint-Barthélemy is a French island located in the Caribbean at 17°54N 62°50W . ... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Marigot Official languages French Government  -  President of France Jacques Chirac  -  Prefect Dominique Lacroix  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Albert Fleming is the mayor of Saint-Martin Overseas Collectivity of France   -  Island divided between France and the Netherlands 23 March 1648... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d...


The United States

French language spread in the United States. Counties marked in yellow are those where 6–12% of the population speak French at home; brown, 12–18%; red, over 18%. French-based creole languages are not included.
French language spread in the United States. Counties marked in yellow are those where 6–12% of the population speak French at home; brown, 12–18%; red, over 18%. French-based creole languages are not included.

Although it has no official recognition on a federal level, French is the third [14][15] most-spoken language in the United States, after English and Spanish, and the second most-spoken in the states of Louisiana, Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire. Louisiana is home to two distinct dialects, Cajun French and Creole French French language spread in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (693x773, 47 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): French language Languages of the United States French in the United States ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (693x773, 47 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): French language Languages of the United States French in the United States ... A French creole, more properly French-based creole language, is a creole language with substantial influence from the French language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ...


Africa

Main articles: African French and Maghreb French
Supermarket sign in French in Dakar, Senegal.
Supermarket sign in French in Dakar, Senegal.
     Countries usually considered as Francophone Africa. These countries had a population of 321 million in 2007. Their population is projected to reach 733 million in 2050.      Countries sometimes considered as Francophone Africa
     Countries usually considered as Francophone Africa. These countries had a population of 321 million in 2007.[16] Their population is projected to reach 733 million in 2050.[16]      Countries sometimes considered as Francophone Africa

A majority of the world's French-speaking population lives in Africa. According to the 2007 report by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, an estimated 115 million African people spread across 31 francophone African countries can speak French either as a first or second language.[17] Francophone Africa. ... Maghreb French is the French accent used by people who reside in Morocco. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 587 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 587 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... Image File history File links Francophone_Africa. ... Image File history File links Francophone_Africa. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ...


French is mostly a second language in Africa, but in some areas it has become a first language, such as in the region of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire[18] and in Libreville, Gabon.[19] It is impossible to speak of a single form of African French, but rather of diverse forms of African French which have developed due to the contact with many indigenous African languages.[20] Freeway along the Ébrié Lagoon near the Plateau, Abidjans business district and centre of the city. ... Libreville (population 578,156 January 1, 2005) is the capital and largest city of Gabon. ... Francophone Africa. ... Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ...


In the territories of the Indian Ocean, the French language is often spoken alongside French-derived creole languages, the major exception being Madagascar. There, a Malayo-Polynesian language (Malagasy) is spoken alongside French. The French language has also met competition with English since English has been the official language in Mauritius and the Seychelles for a long time and has recently become an official language of Madagascar.


Sub-Saharan Africa is the region where the French language is most likely to expand due to the expansion of education and it is also there the language has evolved most in recent years.[21][22] Some vernacular forms of French in Africa can be difficult to understand for French speakers from other countries[23] but written forms of the language are very closely related to those of the rest of the French-speaking world. Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area African countries considered sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially...


French is an official language of many African countries, most of them former French or Belgian colonies: Map of the Belgian colonial empire The Belgian colonial empire was the set of colonies of Belgium, lasting from 1901 to 1962. ...

In addition, French is an administrative language and commonly used though not on an official basis in Mauritius and in the Maghreb states: The Republic of the Congo, also known as Middle Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, and Congo (but not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which was also at one time known as the Republic of the Congo), is a former French colony of west-central Africa. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ...

Various reforms have been implemented in recent decades in Algeria to improve the status of Arabic relative to French, especially in education. Arabic redirects here. ...


While the predominant European language in Egypt is English, French is considered to be a more sophisticated language by some elements of the Egyptian upper and upper-middle classes[citation needed]; for this reason, a typical educated Egyptian will learn French in addition to English at some point in his or her education. The perception of sophistication may be related to the use of French as the royal court language of Egypt during the nineteenth century. Egypt participates in La Francophonie. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ...


French is also the official language of Mayotte and Réunion, two overseas territories of France located in the Indian Ocean, as well as an administrative and educational language in Mauritius, along with English. The French Overseas Departments and Territories (French: départements doutre-mer and collectivités doutre-mer or DOM-COM) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Asia

Lebanon

French was the official language in Lebanon along with Arabic until 1941, the country's declaration of independence from France. French is still seen as an official language by the Lebanese people as it is widely used by the Lebanese, especially for administrative purposes, and is taught in schools as a primary language along with Arabic. Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


Southeast Asia

French is an administrative language in Laos and Cambodia.[24] French was historically spoken by the elite in the leased territory Guangzhouwan in southern China. In colonial Vietnam, the elites spoke French and many who worked for the French spoke a French creole known as "Tây Bồi" (now extinct). French name French: (Territoire de) Kouang-Tchéou-Wan Kwang-Chou-Wan (also spelt Guangzhouwan or Kwangchowan) was a small enclave on the south coast of China ceded by Qing China to France as a leased territory. ... Tây Bồi, is a term used (sometimes pejoratively) to mean a type of verbal communication which consists of massacred French words mixed with Vietnamese words spoken by non French-educated Vietnamese, usually those who worked as servants in French households or milieus. ...


India

French has official status in the Indian Union Territory of Pondicherry, along with the regional language Tamil and some students of Tamil Nadu may opt French as their third or fourth language (usually behind English, Tamil, Hindi). A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Tamil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


French is also commonly taught as third language in secondary school in most cities of Maharashtra State including Mumbai as part of the Secondary (X-SSC) and Higher secondary School (XII-HSC) certificate examinations. , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Bombay redirects here. ...


Oceania

French is also an second official language of the Pacific Island nation of Vanuatu, along with France's territories of French Polynesia, Wallis & Futuna and New Caledonia. The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number is unknown. ... The Collectivity of Wallis and Futuna (French: Collectivité de Wallis et Futuna) is a group of mainly three volcanic tropical islands (Wallis, Futuna, and Alofi) with fringing reefs located in the South Pacific Ocean. ...


Dialects

Dialects of the French language are dialects of the French language, which is one of the Oïl languages. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Francophone Africa. ... Aostan French (French: français dAoste) is the dialect of French spoken in the Aosta region of Italy, where there is a significant French population. ... Belgian French is primarily spoken in the French Community of Belgium, highlighted in red. ... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... Canadian French is an umbrella term for the dialects or varieties of French found in Canada [1] and areas of French Canadian settlement in the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Indian French is a dialect of French spoken by Indians in past colonies of Pondicherry, Chandernagore, Karikal, Mahe and Yanam. ... This official stone which marks the inauguration of a municipal office in 1999 bears the names of the Connétable and the Procureurs du Bien Public of Saint Helier. ... Lao French is a dialect of the French language spoken in Laos. ... Maghreb French is the French accent used by people who reside in Morocco. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Maghreb French is the French accent used by people who reside in Morocco. ... Meridional French (French: Français Méridional) is a regional variant of the French language. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French territory of New Caledonia. ... Newfoundland French is a dialect of French that was once spoken by settlers in the French colony of Newfoundland. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... South East Asian French can refer to any number of French Dialects spoken in the region known as Southeast Asia, especially the areas that were once part of French Indochina. ... Swiss French (Suisse romand in French) is the name used for the different dialects of French spoken in the Francophone part of Switzerland known as Romandy. ... Vietnamese French is a dialect of French spoken in Vietnam. ...

History

Main article: History of French

French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended from Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance dialects spoken in Northern France. ...

Celtic influence

Before the Roman invasion of what is modern-day France by Julius Caesar (58–52 BC), the region was inhabited largely by a Celtic people that the Romans referred to as Gauls, although there were also other linguistic/ethnic groups in France at this time, such as the Iberians in southern France and Spain, the Ligures on the Mediterranean coast, Greek colonies like Marseille, and the Vascons on the Spanish/French border.


However the population was predominantly Celtic, with about 10 million Gauls. Although the French like to refer to their descent from Gallic ancestors (nos ancêtres les Gaulois), perhaps fewer than 200 words with a Celtic etymology remain in French today, largely places (ber, lande, grève (sandy bank); plant names (berle (water parsnip), chêne (oak), if (yew), baume (balsa(m)); and words dealing with rural life and the earth (notably: mouton, tonne, crème, charrue, charriot, barde, bouc, boue, brosse, caillou, cervoise, druide, magouille, orteil, souche). It should be noted that other Gallic words were imported into French through Latin, in particular words for Gallic objects and customs which were new to the Romans and for which there was no equivalent in Latin (e.g. braies, ambassade, matras). Latin quickly became a lingua franca across the entire Gallic region for both mercantile, official and educational reasons, yet it should be remembered that this was Vulgar Latin, the colloquial dialect spoken by the Roman army and its agents and not the literary dialect of Cicero.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Sounds

Main article: French phonology

Although there are many French regional accents, only one version of the language is normally chosen as a model for foreign learners, which has no commonly used special name, but has been termed français neutre (neutral French).[citation needed] Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français neutre or even le français international) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language. ...

  • Voiced stops (i.e. /b d g/) are typically produced fully voiced throughout.
  • Voiceless stops (i.e. /p t k/) are described as unaspirated; when preceding high vowels, they are often followed by a short period of aspiration and/or frication. They are never glottalised. They can be unreleased utterance-finally.
  • Nasals: The velar nasal /ŋ/ occurs only in final position in borrowed (usually English) words: parking, camping, swing. The palatal nasal /ɲ/can occur in word initial position (e.g. gnon), but it is most frequently found in intervocalic, onset position or word-finally (e.g. montagne).
  • Fricatives: French has three pairs of homorganic fricatives distinguished by voicing, i.e. labiodental /f/–/v/, dental /s/–/z/, and palato-alveolar /ʃ/–/ʒ/. Notice that /s/–/z/ are dental, like the plosives /t/–/d/, and the nasal /n/.
  • French has one rhotic whose pronunciation varies considerably among speakers and phonetic contexts. In general it is described as a voiced uvular fricative as in [ʁu] roue "wheel" . Vowels are often lengthened before this segment. It can be reduced to an approximant, particularly in final position (e.g. "fort") or reduced to zero in some word-final positions. For other speakers, a uvular trill is also fairly common, and an apical trill [r] occurs in some dialects.
  • Lateral and central approximants: The lateral approximant /l/ is unvelarised in both onset (lire) and coda position (il). In the onset, the central approximants [w], [ɥ], and [j] each correspond to a high vowel, /u/, /y/, and /i/ respectively. There are a few minimal pairs where the approximant and corresponding vowel contrast, but there are also many cases where they are in free variation. Contrasts between /j/ and /i/ occur in final position as in /pɛj/ paye "pay" vs. /pɛi/ pays "country".

French pronunciation follows strict rules based on spelling, but French spelling is often based more on history than phonology. The rules for pronunciation vary between dialects, but the standard rules are:

  • final consonants: Final single consonants, in particular s, x, z, t, d, n and m, are normally silent. (The final letters c, r, f and l, however, are normally pronounced.)
    • When the following word begins with a vowel, though, a silent consonant may once again be pronounced, to provide a liaison or "link" between the two words. Some liaisons are mandatory, for example the s in les amants or vous avez; some are optional, depending on dialect and register, for example the first s in deux cents euros or euros irlandais; and some are forbidden, for example the s in beaucoup d'hommes aiment. The t of et is never pronounced and the silent final consonant of a noun is only pronounced in the plural and in set phrases like pied-à-terre. Note that in the case of a word ending d as in pied-à-terre, the consonant t is pronounced instead.
    • Doubling a final n and adding a silent e at the end of a word (e.g. chienchienne) makes it clearly pronounced. Doubling a final l and adding a silent e (e.g. gentilgentille) adds a [j] sound.
  • elision or vowel dropping: Some monosyllabic function words ending in a or e, such as je and que, drop their final vowel when placed before a word that begins with a vowel sound (thus avoiding a hiatus). The missing vowel is replaced by an apostrophe. (e.g. je ai is instead pronounced and spelt → j'ai). This gives for example the same pronunciation for l'homme qu'il a vu ("the man whom he saw") and l'homme qui l'a vu ("the man who saw him").

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... A set phrase is an expression (i. ... In French, elision (from elide, to leave out or omit) refers to the practise of combining two logically separate words into one for the convenience of pronunication in live conversation. ... Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ...

Orthography

Main article: French orthography
  • Nasal: n and m. When n or m follows a vowel or diphthong, the n or m becomes silent and causes the preceding vowel to become nasalized (i.e. pronounced with the soft palate extended downward so as to allow part of the air to leave through the nostrils). Exceptions are when the n or m is doubled, or immediately followed by a vowel. The prefixes en- and em- are always nasalized. The rules get more complex than this but may vary between dialects.
  • Digraphs: French does not introduce extra letters or diacritics to specify its large range of vowel sounds and diphthongs, rather it uses specific combinations of vowels, sometimes with following consonants, to show which sound is intended.
  • Gemination: Within words, double consonants are generally not pronounced as geminates in modern French (but geminates can be heard in the cinema or TV news from as recently as the 1970s, and in very refined elocution they may still occur). For example, illusion is pronounced [ilyzjɔ̃] and not [illyzjɔ̃]. But gemination does occur between words. For example, une info ("a news") is pronounced [ynɛ̃fo], whereas une nympho ("a nympho") is pronounced [ynnɛ̃fo].
  • Accents are used sometimes for pronunciation, sometimes to distinguish similar words, and sometimes for etymology alone.
    • Accents that affect pronunciation
      • The acute accent (l'accent aigu), é (e.g. école—school), means that the vowel is pronounced /e/ instead of the default /ə/.
      • The grave accent (l'accent grave), è (e.g. élève—pupil) means that the vowel is pronounced /ɛ/ instead of the default /ə/.
      • The circumflex (l'accent circonflexe) ê (e.g. forêt—forest) shows that an e is pronounced /ɛ/ and that an o is pronounced /o/. In standard French it also signifies a pronunciation of /ɑ/ for the letter a, but this differentiation is disappearing. In the late 19th century, the circumflex was used in place of s where that letter was not to be pronounced. Thus, forest became forêt and hospital became hôpital.
      • The diaeresis (le tréma) (e.g. naïf—foolish, Noël—Christmas) as in English, specifies that this vowel is pronounced separately from the preceding one, not combined and is not a schwa.
      • The cedilla (la cédille) ç (e.g. garçon—boy) means that the letter c is pronounced /s/ in front of the hard vowels a, o and u (c is otherwise /k/ before a hard vowel). C is always pronounced /s/ in front of the soft vowels e, i, and y, thus ç is never found in front of soft vowels.
    • Accents with no pronunciation effect
      • The circumflex does not affect the pronunciation of the letters i or u, and in most dialects, a as well. It usually indicates that an s came after it long ago, as in hôtel.
      • All other accents are used only to distinguish similar words, as in the case of distinguishing the adverbs and ("there", "where") from the article la and the conjunction ou ("the" fem. sing., "or") respectively.

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through nose as well as the mouth. ... For other uses of N, see N (disambiguation). ... For other uses of M, see M (disambiguation). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (in Greek δίφθογγος) is a vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In phonetics, consonant length is when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ...

Grammar

Main article: French grammar

French grammar shares several notable features with most other Romance languages, including: French has a grammar similar to that of the other Romance languages. ...

French word order is Subject Verb Object, except when the object is a pronoun, in which case the word order is Subject Object Verb. Some rare archaisms allow for different word orders. In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... The redirects here. ... // Demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference) that indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...


Vocabulary

The majority of French words derive from Vulgar Latin or were constructed from Latin or Greek roots. There are often pairs of words, one form being popular (noun) and the other one savant (adjective), both originating from Latin. Example: Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ...

  • brother: frère / fraternel < from Latin FRATER
  • finger: doigt / digital < from Latin DIGITVS
  • faith: foi / fidèle < from Latin FIDES
  • cold: froid / frigide < from Latin FRIGIDVS
  • eye: œil / oculaire < from Latin OCVLVS
  • inhabitants of the city Saint-Étienne are called Stéphanois

The last example, Saint-Étienne/Stéphanois, illustrates common practice for gentilics throughout France. Coat of arms Motto: Franco-Provençal: Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Rhône-Alpes Department Loire (42) Canton Chief town of 9 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération Saint-Étienne Métropole Mayor Michel Thiollière  (UMP) (since 2001) Statistics Altitude 422 m–1... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ...


In some examples there is a common word from "vulgar" Latin and a more savant word from classical Latin or even Greek.

  • Cheval—Concours équestreHippodrome

The French words which have developed from Latin are usually less recognisable than Italian words of Latin origin because as French developed into a separate language from Vulgar Latin, the unstressed final syllable of many words was dropped or elided into the following word. Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...


It is estimated that 12% (4,200) of common French words found in a typical dictionary such as the Petit Larousse or Micro-Robert Plus (35,000 words) are of foreign origin. About 25% (1,054) of these foreign words come from English and are fairly recent borrowings. The others are some 707 words from Italian, 550 from ancient Germanic languages, 481 from ancient Gallo-Romance languages, 215 from Arabic, 164 from German, 160 from Celtic languages, 159 from Spanish, 153 from Dutch, 112 from Persian and Sanskrit, 101 from Native American languages, 89 from other Asian languages, 56 from Afro-Asiatic languages, 55 from Slavic languages and Baltic languages, 10 for Basque and 144 — about three percent — from other languages.[25] For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... There are a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising a number of families and unrelated isolate languages. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


Numerals

The French counting system is partially vigesimal: twenty (vingt) is used as a base number in the names of numbers from 80–99. The French word for eighty, for example, is quatre-vingts, which literally means "four twenties", and soixante-quinze (literally "sixty-fifteen") means 75. This reform arose after the French Revolution to unify the different counting system (mostly vigesimal near the coast, due to Celtic [via Basque] and Viking influence). This system is comparable to the archaic English use of score, as in "fourscore and seven" (87), or "threescore and ten" (70). The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ... 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


Belgian French and Swiss French are different in this respect. In Belgium and Switzerland 70 and 90 are septante and nonante. In Switzerland, depending on the local dialect, 80 can be quatre-vingts (Geneva, Neuchâtel, Jura) or huitante (Vaud, Valais, Fribourg). Octante had been used in Switzerland in the past, but is now considered archaic.[26] In Belgium, however, quatre-vingts is universally used. Belgian French is primarily spoken in the French Community of Belgium, highlighted in red. ... Swiss French (Suisse romand in French) is the name used for the different dialects of French spoken in the Francophone part of Switzerland known as Romandy. ...


Writing system

Main article: French alphabet

French is written using the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, plus five diacritics (the circumflex accent, acute accent, grave accent, diaeresis, and cedilla) and the two ligatures (œ) and (æ). Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ...


French spelling, like English spelling, tends to preserve obsolete pronunciation rules. This is mainly due to extreme phonetic changes since the Old French period, without a corresponding change in spelling. Moreover, some conscious changes were made to restore Latin orthography:

  • Old French doit > French doigt "finger" (Latin digitum)
  • Old French pie > French pied "foot" (Latin pedem)

As a result, it is difficult to predict the spelling on the basis of the sound alone. Final consonants are generally silent, except when the following word begins with a vowel. For example, all of these words end in a vowel sound: pied, aller, les, finit, beaux. The same words followed by a vowel, however, may sound the consonants, as they do in these examples: beaux-arts, les amis, pied-à-terre.


On the other hand, a given spelling will almost always lead to a predictable sound, and the Académie française works hard to enforce and update this correspondence. In particular, a given vowel combination or diacritic predictably leads to one phoneme. The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ...


The diacritics have phonetic, semantic, and etymological significance.

  • acute accent (é): Over an e, indicates the sound /e/, the ai sound in such words as English hay or neigh. It often indicates the historical deletion of a following consonant (usually an s): écouter < escouter. This type of accent mark is called accent aigu in French.
  • grave accent (à, è, ù): Over a or u, used only to distinguish homophones: à ("to") vs. a ("has"), ou ("or") vs. ("where"). Over an e, indicates the sound /ɛ/.
  • circumflex (â, ê, î, ô, û): Over an a, e or o, indicates the sound /ɑ/, /ɛ/ or /o/, respectively (the distinction a /a/ vs. â /ɑ/ tends to disappear in many dialects). Most often indicates the historical deletion of an adjacent letter (usually an s or a vowel): château < castel, fête < feste, sûr < seur, dîner < disner. It has also come to be used to distinguish homophones: du ("of the") vs. (past participle of devoir "to have to do something (pertaining to an act)"; note that is in fact written thus because of a dropped e: deu). (See Use of the circumflex in French)
  • diaeresis or tréma (ë, ï, ü, ÿ): Indicates that a vowel is to be pronounced separately from the preceding one: naïve, Noël. A diaeresis on y only occurs in some proper names and in modern editions of old French texts. Some proper names in which ÿ appears include Aÿ (commune in canton de la Marne formerly Aÿ-Champagne), Rue des Cloÿs (alley in the 18th arrondisement of Paris), Croÿ (family name and hotel on the Boulevard Raspail, Paris), Château du Feÿ (near Joigny), Ghÿs (name of Flemish origin spelt Ghijs where ij in handwriting looked like ÿ to French clerks), l'Haÿ-les-Roses (commune between Paris and Orly airport), Pierre Louÿs (author), Moÿ (place in commune de l'Aisne and family name), and Le Blanc de Nicolaÿ (an insurance company in eastern France). The diaresis on u appears only in the biblical proper names Archélaüs, Capharnaüm, Emmaüs, Ésaü and Saül. Nevertheless, since the 1990 orthographic rectifications (which are not applied at all by most French people), the diaeresis in words containing guë (such as aiguë or ciguë) may be moved onto the u: aigüe, cigüe. Words coming from German retain the old Umlaut (ä, ö and ü) if applicable but use French pronunciation, such as kärcher (trade mark of a pressure washer).
  • cedilla (ç): Indicates that an etymological c is pronounced /s/ when it would otherwise be pronounced /k/. Thus je lance "I throw" (with c = [s] before e), je lançais "I was throwing" (c would be pronounced [k] before a without the cedilla). The c cedilla (ç) softens the hard /k/ sound to /s/ before the vowels a, o or u, for example ça /sa/. C cedilla is never used before the vowels e or i since these two vowels always produce a soft /s/ sound (ce, ci).

There are two ligatures, which have various origins. The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The circumflex (^) is one of the five diacritics used in the French language. ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... The word ligature can mean more than one thing. ...

  • The ligature œ is a mandatory contraction of oe in certain words. Some of these are native French words, with the pronunciation /œ/ or /ø/, e.g. sœur "sister" /sœʁ/, œuvre "work (of art)" /œvʁ/. Note that it usually appears in the combination œu; œil is an exception. Many of these words were originally written with the digraph eu; the o in the ligature represents a sometimes artificial attempt to imitate the Latin spelling: Latin bovem > Old French buef/beuf > Modern French bœuf. Œ is also used in words of Greek origin, as the Latin rendering of the Greek diphthong οι, e.g. cœlacanthe "coelacanth". These words used to be pronounced with the vowel /e/, but in recent years a spelling pronunciation with /ø/ has taken hold, e.g. œsophage /ezɔfaʒ/ or /øzɔfaʒ/. The pronunciation with /e/ is often seen to be more correct. The ligature œ is not used in some occurrences of the letter combination oe, for example, when o is part of a prefix (coexister).
  • The ligature æ is rare and appears in some words of Latin and Greek origin like ægosome, ægyrine, æschne, cæcum, nævus or uræus.[27] The vowel quality is identical to é /e/.

French writing, as with any language, is affected by the spoken language. In Old French, the plural for animal was animals. Common speakers pronounced a u before a word ending in l as the plural. This resulted in animauls. As the French language evolved this vanished and the form animaux (aux pronounced /o/) was admitted. The same is true for cheval pluralized as chevaux and many others. Also castel pl. castels became château pl. châteaux. Å’ Å“ Å’thel (pronounced ) is a Roman script letter (Å’, Å“) used in medieval and early modern Latin, and in modern French, and also the vowel sound it represents. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For Æ, the Irish writer, see George William Russell. ...


Samples

(audio) This section includes inline links to audio files. If you have trouble playing the files, see Wikipedia Media help.
English French IPA pronunciation (Canadian accent) IPA pronunciation (French accent)
French français /fʀɑ̃sɛ/ /fʁɑ̃sɛ/
English anglais /ɑ̃glɛ/ /ɑ̃glɛ/
Yes Oui Except when responding to a negatively posed question, in which case Si is used preferentially over Oui /wi/ /wi/
No Non /nɔ̃/ /nɔ̃/
Hello! Bonjour ! (formal) Salut ! (informal) /bɔ̃ʒuːʀ/ /bɔ̃ʒuːʁ/
Good evening! Bonsoir ! /bɔ̃swɑ:ʁ/ /bɔ̃swa:ʁ/
Good night! Bonne nuit ! /bɔnnɥi/ /bɔnnɥi/
Goodbye! Au revoir ! /ɔʁvwɑːʁ/ /oʁøvwaːʁ/
Have a nice day! Bonne journée ! /bɔnʒuʀne/ /bɔnʒuʁne/
Please S'il vous plaît (formal) S'il te plaît (informal) /sɪlvuplɛ/ /silvuplɛ/
Thank you Merci /mɛʀsi/ /mɛʁsi/
You're welcome De rien ("it is nothing") / Je vous en prie (formal) Je t'en prie (informal)
I'm sorry Pardon / Je suis désolé (if male) / Je suis désolée (if female) /paʀdɔ̃/ / /dezɔle/ /paʁdɔ̃/ / /dezɔle/
Who? Qui ? /ki/ /ki/
What? Quoi ? (←informal {Used as "What?" in English) Comment? (←formal {Used the same as "Pardon Me?" in English) /kwa/ /kwa/
When? Quand ? /kɑ̃/ /kɑ̃/
Where? Où ? /u/ /u/
Why? Pourquoi ? /puʀkwa/ /puʁkwa/
What's your name? Comment vous appelez-vous ? (formal) Comment t'appelles-tu ? (informal)
Because Parce que / "À cause de" — literally "because of" or "due to" /paʁs(ə)kə/ /paʁs(ə)kə/
For (when used as "because") Car
Therefore Donc
How? Comment ? /kɔmɑ̃/ /kɔmɑ̃/
How much? Combien ? /kɔ̃bjɛ̃/ /kɔ̃bjɛ̃/
I do not understand. Je ne comprends pas. /ʒə nə kɔ̃pʀɑ̃ pɑ/ /ʒə nə kɔ̃pʁɑ̃ pɑ/
Yes, I understand. Oui, je comprends. Except when responding to a negatively posed question, in which case Si is used preferentially over Oui /wi ʒə kɔ̃pʀɑ̃/ /wi ʒə kɔ̃pʁɑ̃/
Help! Au secours !! (à l'aide !) /o səkuːʀ/
Can you help me please ? Pouvez-vous m'aider s'il vous plaît ? or Pourriez-vous m'aider s'il vous plaît ? (formal) Peux-tu m'aider s'il te plaît ? or Pourrais-tu m'aider s'il te plaît (informal)
Where are the bathrooms? Où sont les toilettes ? /u sɔ̃ le twalɛt/ /u sɔ̃ le twalɛt/
Do you speak English? Parlez-vous anglais ? /paʀlevu ɑ̃glɛ/ /paʁlevu ɑ̃glɛ/
I do not speak French. Je ne parle pas français. /ʒə nə paʀlə pɑ fʀɑ̃sɛ/ /ʒə nə paʁl(ə) pa fʁɑ̃sɛ/
I don't know. Je ne sais pas.
I know. Je sais.
I am thirsty. J'ai soif.
I am hungry. J'ai faim.
How are you? / How are things going? / How's everything? Comment allez-vous? (formal) Ça va? or Comment ça va ? (informal)
I am (very) well / Things are going (very) well // Everything is (very) well Je vais (très) bien. (formal) Ça va (très) bien. / Tout va (très) bien (informal)
I am (very) bad / Things are (very) bad / Everything is (very) bad Je vais (très) mal (formal) Ça va (très) mal. Tout va (très) mal (informal)
I am ok/so-so / Everything is ok/so-so Ça va comme ci, comme ça.
I am fine. Ça va.

Image File history File links Gnome-speakernotes. ... Image File history File links Francais. ... Image File history File links FrançaisF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Anglais. ... Image File history File links AnglaisF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Oui. ... Image File history File links OuiF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Non. ... Image File history File links NonF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Bonjour. ... Image File history File links BonjourF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Bonsoir. ... Image File history File links BonsoirF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Bonne_nuit. ... Image File history File links Bonne_nuitF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Au_revoir. ... Image File history File links Au_revoirF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Bonne_journee. ... Image File history File links Bonne_journéeF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links S_il_vous_plait. ... Image File history File links S'il_vous_plaitF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Merci. ... Image File history File links MerciF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Pardon. ... Image File history File links Desole. ... Image File history File links PardonF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links DésoléF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Qui. ... Image File history File links QuiF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Quoi. ... Image File history File links QuoiF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Quand. ... Image File history File links QuandF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Ou_french. ... Image File history File links Où.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Pourquoi. ... Image File history File links PourquoiF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Parce_que. ... Image File history File links ParcequeF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Comment. ... Image File history File links CommentF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Combien. ... Image File history File links CombienF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Je_ne_comprends_pas. ... Image File history File links Je_ne_comprends_pasF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Oui_je_comprends. ... Image File history File links Oui,_je_comprendF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Ou_sont_les_toilettes. ... Image File history File links Où_sont_les_toilettes. ... Image File history File links Parlez-vous_anglais. ... Image File history File links Parlez-vous_anglaisF.ogg‎ By Arka_Voltchek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

See also

The French Wikipedia is the French language edition of Wikipedia, spelled Wikipédia. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... The Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF) (Quebec Office of the French language) was established on March 24, 1961 along with the Quebec ministry of Cultural affairs. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended from Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance dialects spoken in Northern France. ... The Alliance française logo The Alliance française (AF) is a non-profit organisation whose mission is to promote French language and culture outside France. ... Dialects of the French language are spoken in France and around the world. ... A French creole, more properly French-based creole language, is a creole language with substantial influence from the French language. ... French is the mother tongue of about 6. ... French language spread in the United States. ... The following is a list of the 29 countries where French is an official language: In addition to this, the State of the City of the Vatican lets itself register as a French-speaking country in the international organisations with which it has relationships. ... Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. ... Great number of words of French origin have entered the English language to the extent that around 30% of its vocabulary is of French origin. ... A list of French proverbs can be found at Wikiquote:French proverbs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of French phrases used by English speakers. ... In French, a verb is inflected to reflect its mood and tense, as well as to agree with its subject in person and number. ... The orthography of French was already more or less fixed, and from a phonological point of view outdated, when its lexicography developed in the late 17th century and the Académie française was mandated to establish an official prescriptive norm. ... CRFL, often augmented to CaReFuL, is a memory aid for English-speaking students of French as a foreign language. ... In the French language, verlan is the inversion of syllables in a word which is found in slang and youth language. ... Louchébem or loucherbem is Parisian and Lyonnaise butchers (French boucher) slang, similar to Pig Latin and Verlan. ...

References

  1. ^ SIL Ethnologue
  2. ^ http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/francophonie/francophonie.htm[unreliable source?]
  3. ^ SIL Ethnologue
  4. ^ "Rapport sur l'état de la Francophonie dans le monde. Données 1997/98 et six études inédites", Haut Conseil de la Francophonie, Paris, la Documentation française, 1999 [1]
  5. ^ [2][unreliable source?]
  6. ^ http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/francophonie/francophonie.htm[unreliable source?]
  7. ^ (French) "Les francophones dans le monde" (Francophones worldwide") — Provides details from a report, (Rapport 1997–1998 du Haut Conseil de la Francophonie, "Etat de la francophonie dans le monde", La Documentation française, 1999, pp.612) which provides the following numbers: 112,666,000 with French as a first, second, or "adopted" language; 60,612,000 "occasional Francophones" for whom usage and mastery of French are limited only by circumstances or by expressive capability; 100–110 million "francizers", who have learned French for several years and have maintained limited mastery, or who have simply been required to learn enough to perform their job.
  8. ^ (French) Loi constitutionnelle 1992 — C'est à la loi constitutionnelle du 25 juin 1992, rédigée dans le cadre de l'intégration européenne, que l'on doit la première déclaration de principe sur le français, langue de la République.
  9. ^ Van Parijs, Philippe, Professor of economic and social ethics at the UCLouvain, Visiting Professor at Harvard University and the KULeuven. "Belgium's new linguistic challenge" (pdf 0.7 MB). KVS Express (supplement to newspaper De Morgen) March–April 2007: Article from original source (pdf 4.9 MB) pages 34–36 republished by the Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy — Directorate-general Statistics Belgium. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.  — The linguistic situation in Belgium (and in particular various estimations of the population speaking French and Dutch in Brussels) is discussed in detail.
  10. ^ (French) "La dynamique des langues en Belgique" (pdf) (June 2006). Regards économiques, Publication préparée par les économistes de l'Université Catholique de Louvain (Numéro 42) Retrieved on 7 May 2007. “Les enquêtes montrent que la Flandre est bien plus multilingue, ce qui est sans doute un fait bien connu, mais la différence est considérable : alors que 59 % et 53 % des Flamands connaissent le français ou l'anglais respectivement, seulement 19 % et 17 % des Wallons connaissent le néerlandais ou l'anglais. … 95 pour cent des Bruxellois déclarent parler le français, alors que ce pourcentage tombe à 59 pour cent pour le néerlandais. Quant à l’anglais, il est connu par une proportion importante de la population à Bruxelles (41 pour cent) 
  11. ^ 40%+60%*59%=75.4%
  12. ^ Population by mother tongue, by province and territory (2006 Census)
  13. ^ Source: [3], data for EU25, published before 2007 enlargement.
  14. ^ National Virtual Translation Center — Languages Spoken in the U.S.
  15. ^ U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3 — Language Spoken at Home: 2000
  16. ^ a b Population Reference Bureau. Eng.pdf 2007 World Population Data Sheet (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  17. ^ (French) La Francophonie dans le monde 2006–2007 published by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Nathan, Paris, 2007
  18. ^ (French) Le français à Abidjan : Pour une approche syntaxique du non-standard by Katja Ploog, CNRS Editions, Paris, 2002
  19. ^ (French) "De plus, le français est également devenu la langue maternelle de plus de 30 % des Librevillois et il est de plus en plus perçu comme une langue gabonaise."
  20. ^ (French) "En Afrique, il est impossible de parler d'une forme unique du français mais..."
  21. ^ (French) http://www.cecif.com/?page=la_francophonie "Le français, langue en évolution Dans beaucoup de pays Francophones, surtout sur le continent africain, une proportion importante de la population ne parle pas couramment le français (même s'il est souvent la langue officielle du pays). Ce qui signifie qu'au fur et à mesure que les nouvelles générations vont à l'école, le nombre de Francophones augmente: on estime qu'en 2015, ceux-ci seront deux fois plus nombreux qu'aujourd'hui."
  22. ^ (French) c) Le sabir franco-africain: "C'est la variété du français la plus fluctuante. Le sabir franco-africain est instable et hétérogène sous toutes ses formes. Il existe des énoncés où les mots sont français mais leur ordre reste celui de la langue africaine. En somme, autant les langues africaines sont envahies par les structures et les mots français, autant la langue française se métamorphose en Afrique, donnant naissance à plusieurs variétés."
  23. ^ (French) République centrafricaine: Il existe une autre variété de français, beaucoup plus répandu et plus permissive: le français local. C'est un français très influencé par les langues centrafricaines, surtout par le sango. Cette variété est parlée par les classes non instruites, qui n'ont pu terminer leur scolarité. Ils utilisent ce qu'ils connaissent du français avec des emprunts massifs aux langues locales. Cette variété peut causer des problèmes de compréhension avec les Francophones des autres pays, car les interférences linguistiques, d'ordre lexical et sémantique, sont très importantes. (One example of a variety of African French that is difficult to understand for European French speakers).
  24. ^ French Declines in Indochina, as English Booms, International Herald Tribune, October 16, 1993: "In both Cambodia and Laos, French remains the official second language of government."
  25. ^ Walter & Walter 1998
  26. ^ (French) Septante, octante, huitante, nonante. langue-fr.net.. See also the English Wikipedia article on Welsh language, especially the section "Counting system" and its note on the influence of Celtic in the French counting system.
  27. ^ (French) La ligature æ

“Native Language” redirects here. ... A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ... Francization is the process of giving a French character to something (a word, an organization) or someone. ... Philippe Van Parijs (born 1951) is a Belgian philosopher and political economist, mainly known as secretary of the Basic Income European Network. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... Harvard redirects here. ... The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Catholic University of Leuven in English) or in short K.U.Leuven, is the oldest, largest and most prominent university in Belgium. ... De Morgen (English: The morning) is a Belgian newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Population Reference Bureau is a non-governmental organization, founded in 1929 by Guy Irving Burch, with support of Raymond Pearl. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) is the largest and most prominent public research organization in France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

External links

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity, you can learn about:
French language
Wiktionary
French language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
Wikipedia
French language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
French

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Courses and tutorials

  • Learn French BBC
  • Learn French at About (including French gestures)
  • Learn the basic rules of French (easy tables)
  • French lessons at Target Language (extensive)
  • United States Foreign Service Institute French Language Course
  • French language resources and broadcasts in simplified French at Radio France Internationale (RFI) website

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Online dictionaries

  • WordReference.com English-French dictionary
  • Collins French Dictionary
  • LookWAYup French English Dictionary
  • Grand Dictionnaire Terminologique
  • Le Dictionnaire

Vocabulary

  • French vocabulary, with audio
  • Questions and answers
  • A Two-Page PDF Reference Guide of the 681 Most Common French/English Verbs

Audio

  • Free Audio base of French Words
  • French audio files of the Shtooka.net project

Peru is a multilingual nation. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language - more specifically, an Eastern Romannce language - that is today still spoken in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in what is now Croatia, but which was spoken in a substantially broader part of the... Southern Romance languages are parte of Romance languages that includes the Sardinian language and Sicilian language. ... Sassarese is a diasystem of the Sardinian and Corsican languages, spoken in some areas of the north-western part of Sardinia, in Italy, such as Sassari and a few other places, such as Porto Torres and Sorso. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sardo Campidanese is a diasystem of the Sardinian language primarily spoken in the Province of Cagliari. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... Italiano centrale is a group of dialects of Italian spoken in Lazio and areas East of Lazio in Italy. ... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... Romanesco is a group of Romance dialects spoken in Rome and most of the surrounding regions of Lazio, Umbria, central Marche and extreme southern Tuscany in central Italy. ... Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. ... Istriot is a Romance language spoken in the Western Region on the coast of the Istrian Peninsula, especially in the towns of Rovinj (Rovigno) and Vodnjan (Dignano), on the upper northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Judeo-Italian is a term referring to Italo-Romance linguistic varieties used between the 10th and the 20th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... This article is about the Northern Italian language occasionally called Cisalpine. ... Areas where Emiliano-Romagnolo is spoken Emiliano-Romagnolo (also known as Emilian-Romagnolo) is a Romance language mostly spoken in Emilia-Romagna. ... Ligurian is a Romance language, consisting of a group of Gallo-Italic dialects currently spoken in Liguria, northern Italy, and parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, and Monaco. ... Genoese (Zeneize) is the variety of the ligurian language spoken in Genoa, the capital city of Liguria (Italy) . The Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right (not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language). ... Street sign in French and Monégasc in Monaco-Ville Monégasque (natively Munegascu) is a Romance language and a dialect of the modern Ligurian language. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related varieties spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions) and Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Western Lombard is a Romance language spoken in Italy, in the Lombard provinces of Milan, Monza, Varese, Como, Lecco, Sondrio, a little part of Cremona (except Crema and its neighbours), Lodi and Pavia, and the Piedmont provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and a small part of Vercelli (Valsesia), and... The gallo-siculo dialects represent a group of dialects found in central-eastern Sicily that date back to migrations from Northern Italy during the time of Roger I of Sicily and which continued after his death under his successor Roger II (from around 1080 to 1120). ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern... Champenois is a language spoken by a minority of people in France and in Belgium. ... Franc-Comtois is a language spoken by a minority of people in Franche-Comté. It is one of the langues doïl and is a regional language of France. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Lorrain is a language spoken by a minority of people in Lorraine in France and in Gaume in Belgium. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is any of the various Rhaetian languages spoken in Switzerland. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ... The Occitano-Romance branch of Romance languages encompasses the dialects pertaining to the Occitan and the Catalan languages situated in Southern France, Andorra and Eastern Spain. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish las Islas Baleares), Spain. ... Catalan dialectal map Central Catalan is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest demographic weight, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most part of Girona province; except for it is northern part, where there... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Auvergnat (French name) or Auvernhat (native name) is one of several dialects of the Occitan language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... The Limousin dialect is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken or understood by about 400 000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... Vivaro-Alpine (English name) or Vivaroalpenc, Vivaroaupenc (native name) is the northeastern dialect of the Occitan language. ... Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... This article is about a subdivision of the Romance language family. ... Astur-Leonese is a Romance language group of the West Iberian group, spoken in the Spanish provinces of Asturias (Asturian Language, asturianu, or Bable), León, Zamora and Salamanca (Leonese language, Llïonés). ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... Cantabrian language or Mountain language is the name received the language used in the West of Cantabria and some zones of the Valley of Pas and the Valley of Soba, in its Eastern zone. ... Extremaduran is a Romance language spoken by some thousands in Spain, most of them in the autonomous community of Extremadura and the province of Salamanca. ... The Leonese language (Llïonés in Leonese) was developed from Vulgar Latin with contributions from the pre-Roman languages which were spoken in the territory of the Spanish provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca and in some villages in the District of Bragança, Portugal. ... The Mirandese language (Lhéngua Mirandesa in Mirandese; Língua Mirandesa or Mirandês in Portuguese) is spoken in northeastern Portugal. ... Barranquenho (Barranquenhu; English: Barrancainian) is a dialect of Portuguese heavily influenced by Extremaduran spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos (in the border between Extremadura and Andalusia, in Spain, and Portugal). ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Fala language (SIL Code: FAX; ISO 639-2 code: roa) is a Romance language from the Portuguese-Galician subgroup spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of which 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal. ... Eonavian or Eonaviego is a term used to refer a set of dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends in the zone of Asturias between the Eo and Navia rivers (or more exactly Eo and Barayo rivers). ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Caló (originally Zincaló) or Spanish Romani is a jargon spoken by the Gitanos or Zincarli originating from Spain: Caló blends native Romani vocabulary with Spanish grammar,[1] as Spanish Gypsies lost the full use of their ancestral language. ... Aragonese redirects here. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the Romance languages development in Iberia. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
French language. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (708 words)
Having served as an international language in diplomacy and commerce as well as among educated people during the last few centuries, it still enjoys great prestige culturally and is one of the languages used officially by the United Nations.
French is descended from Vulgar Latin, the vernacular Latin (as distinguished from literary Latin) of the Roman Empire (see Latin language).
In 1635 the French Academy was founded by Cardinal Richelieu to maintain the purity of the language and its literature and to serve as the ultimate judge of approved usage.
French language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3280 words)
French (français) is the third-largest of the Romance languages in terms of number of native speakers, after Spanish and Portuguese, being spoken by about 120 million people as a mother tongue or fluently.
It is the official language of the principality of Monaco and is spoken by a small minority in the principality of Andorra.
French is written using the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, plus five diacritics (the circumflex accent, acute accent, grave accent, diaeresis, and cedilla) and the two ligatures (œ) and (æ).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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