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Encyclopedia > French intervention in Mexico
Franco-Mexican War

Battle of Puebla
Date 8 December 1861 - 21 June 1867
Location Mexico
Result Mexican Republican victory
Belligerents
Flag of France Second French Empire
Second Mexican Empire
Flag of Mexico United Mexican States and some Latin American Allies
Strength
38,493 French soldiers,
7,000 Austro-Hungarian volunteers,
2,000 Belgian volunteers
~80,000
Casualties and losses
6,654 French killed and wounded 12,000 Mexican killed and wounded
Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico
Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico
Napoleon III of France
Napoleon III of France
Juárez, Republican leader and President
Juárez, Republican leader and President

The French intervention in Mexico, also known as the Maximilian Affair, was an invasion of Mexico by the army of the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the British and Spanish. It followed President Benito Juárez's suspension of interest payments to foreign countries on 17 July 1861, which angered Spain, France and Britain. Napoleon III of France was the leader of this operation, and the three powers signed the Treaty of London on 31 October, to unite their efforts to receive payments from Mexico. On 8 December the Spanish fleet and troops from Spanish-controlled Cuba arrived at Mexico's main Gulf port, Veracruz. Image File history File linksMetadata BattleofPuebla2. ... Combatants Mexico France Commanders Ignacio Zaragoza Charles de Lorencez[1] Strength 4,500 soldiers, mostly veterans of the Reform Wars 1857-1860, include Zappadores, Infantry, Cavalry and 18 guns in 3 batteries of artillery. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico_1864. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico_(1823-1864,_1867-1968). ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States of America, to the southeast by Guatemala and Belize, to... Combatants Mexico France Commanders Ignacio Zaragoza Charles de Lorencez[1] Strength 4,500 soldiers, mostly veterans of the Reform Wars 1857-1860, include Zappadores, Infantry, Cavalry and 18 guns in 3 batteries of artillery. ... Combatants Mexico France Commanders Colonel Milan Capitaine Danjou † Strength 800 cavalry, 1200 infantry 65 Casualties 300-500 62 killed, 3 captured The Battle of Camarón took place on (30 April 1863) between the French Foreign Legion and the Mexican army. ... Image File history File links Maximilian_emperor_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Maximilian_emperor_of_Mexico. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleon III of France ... File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleon III of France ... Benito Juárez, better PD picture This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Benito Juárez, better PD picture This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Benito Juárez (disambiguation). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... Treaty of London may refer to: Treaty of London, 1359 ceding western France to England, repudiated by the Estates-General in Paris, 19 May 1359 Treaty of London, 1604 between England and Spain Treaty of London, 1700, also known as the Second Partition Treaty. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Veracruz from space, July 1997 The city of Veracruz is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. ...


The presidential terms of Benito Juárez (1858–71) were interrupted by the Habsburg monarchy's rule of Mexico (1864–67). Conservatives tried to institute a monarchy when they helped to bring to Mexico an archduke from the Royal House of Austria, Maximilian of Habsburg (who married Charlotte of Belgium, also known as Carlota of Mexico), with the military support of France, which was interested in exploiting the rich mines in the north-west of the country. Many historians believe that the French established the monarchy when they did due to the fact that the United States was in the middle of its Civil War (1861–65), and thus was unable to intervene (as it would likely have done according to its Monroe Doctrine.) For other uses, see Benito Juárez (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, (July 6, 1832 - June 19, 1867) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg family. ... Charlotte of Belgium (Princess Marie Charlotte Amélie Augustine Victoire Clémentine Léopoldine of Belgium), (June 7, 1840–January 19, 1927) as Charlotte (or Carlota), Empress of Mexico was the consort of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers were to no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. ...

Contents

1862: The French arrive

The British and French fleets arrived at Veracruz, between 6 January and 8 January 1862. The city of Campeche surrendered to the French fleet on 27 February, and a French army, commanded by General Lorencez, arrived on 5 March. When the Spanish and British realized the French ambition to conquer Mexico, they withdrew their forces on 9 April, their troops leaving on 24 April. In May, the French man-of-war La Bayonnaise blockaded Mazatlán for a few days. is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... View of Campeche, showing Cathedral and part of old city fortifications Campeche is a city of Mexico located at 19°85′ N 90°53′ W, on the shore of the Gulf of Mexico. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Ferdinand Latrille comte de Lorencez (May 23, 1814 - July 16, 1892) was a French Army officer during the 19th century. ... This article is about the day. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A man of war (also man-of-war, man-o-war or simply man) is an armed naval vessel. ...


Although the French army, then considered the most efficient in the world, suffered an initial defeat in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862 (now the Cinco de Mayo commemoration day) they eventually defeated the Mexican government forces commanded by general Ignacio Zaragoza. The pursuing Mexican army was contained by the French at Orizaba, Veracruz, on 14 June. More French troops arrived on 21 September, and General Bazaine arrived with more reinforcements on 16 October. Tampico, Tamaulipas, was occupied by the army of France on 23 October, with Xalapa, Veracruz, taken peacefully on 12 December. Combatants Mexico France Commanders Ignacio Zaragoza Charles de Lorencez[1] Strength 4,500 soldiers, mostly veterans of the Reform Wars 1857-1860, include Zappadores, Infantry, Cavalry and 18 guns in 3 batteries of artillery. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Cinco de Mayo (5th of May in English) is primarily a regional and not an obligatory federal holiday in Mexico. ... Ignacio Zaragoza Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín (March 24, 1829 – September 8, 1862) was a general in the Mexican Army, best known for his 1862 victory against the French invading forces in the Battle of Puebla on May 5 (the Cinco de Mayo). ... Orizaba is a city in Veracruz, Mexico. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a city in Mexico. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Xalapa Cathedral Xalapa (or Jalapa) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Veracruz. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1863: French take the capital

The French bombarded Veracruz on 15 January 1863. Then, on 16 March, General Forey and the French army began the siege of Puebla. Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 212 Largest City Veracruz Government  - Governor Fidel Herrera Beltrán (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 6 PAN: 11 PRD: 2 Convergencia: 2  - Federal Senators PRD: 1 PAN: 1 Convergencia: 1 Area Ranked 11th  - Total 71,699 km² (27,683. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Puebla in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Puebla Founded 1531 Government  - Mayor Enrique Doger (PRI) Area  - City 546 km²  (211 sq mi) Elevation 2,175 m (7,136 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,485,941  - Density 5,741/km² (14,869. ...


On 30 April, the French Foreign Legion earned its legendary status in the Battle of Camarón when the small infantry patrol unit led by Capitaine Danjou numbering 62 soldiers and three officers was attacked and besieged by Mexican infantry and cavalry units numbering three battalions, and was forced to make a defense in Hacienda Camarón. Danjou was mortally wounded in the defense of the hacienda, and the last of his men mounted a desperate bayonet attack. They fought to nearly the last man, with three survivors. To this day, 'Camerone Day' is still the most important day of celebration for Legionnaires. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... Combatants Mexico France Commanders Colonel Milan Capitaine Danjou † Strength 800 cavalry, 1200 infantry 65 Casualties 300-500 62 killed, 3 captured The Battle of Camarón took place on (30 April 1863) between the French Foreign Legion and the Mexican army. ... Capitaine Jean Danjou (15 April 1828 - 30 April 1863 was a highly decorated captain in the French Foreign Legion. ...


The French army of General Bazaine defeated the Mexican army led by General Comonfort in their attempt to relieve the siege of Puebla, at San Lorenzo, to the south of Puebla. Puebla surrendered to the French shortly afterward, on 17 May. On 31 May, President Juárez with his cabinet fled the city, retreating northwards to El Paso del Norte and later to Chihuahua, where the government-in-exile remained until 1897, taking the treasure of the state with them. San Lorenzo is Italian and Spanish for Saint Lawrence. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Misión de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe Ciudad Juárez (also known simply as Juárez) (2000 population 1,142,354) is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. ... Nickname: Motto: Bravery, Loyalty, Hospitality Coordinates: , Country State Foundation October 12, 1709 Government  - Mayor Carlos Borruel Baquera ( PAN) Elevation 1,415 m (4,642 ft) Population (2006)  - City 748,551  - Metro 1,000,124  - Demonym Chihuahuense Time zone Mountain Standard Time (UTC-7)  - Summer (DST) Mountain Daylight Time (UTC-6...

History of Mexico

Pre-Columbian Civilizations
Spanish Conquest of Mexico
New Spain
Mexican War of Independence
Independent Mexico
La Reforma
French intervention in Mexico
Restored Republic
Porfiriato
Mexican Revolution
Modern Mexico

French troops under Bazaine entered Mexico City on 7 June 1863. The main army entered the city three days later led by General Forey. General Almonte was appointed the provisional President of Mexico on 16 June, by the Superior Junta (which had been appointed by Forey) The Superior Junta with its 35 members met on 21 June, and proclaimed a Catholic Empire on 10 July. The crown was offered to Maximilian, due to Napoleon's efforts. Maximilian accepted the crown on 3 October, at his castle Miramar near Trieste, having being offered it by the Comisión Mexicana, sent by the Superior Junta. Mexico is a country in North America and the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... The so-called War of Reform in Mexico took place from December of 1857 to January of 1861. ... Term of office: 29 November 1876 to 30 November 1880 (first term) – 1 December 1884 to 1910 (second term) Preceded by: Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (1876), Manuel González (1884) Succeeded by: Manuel González (1880), Francisco León de la Barra interim (1911) Date of birth: 15 September... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ...


1864: Arrival of Maximilian

On March, 28 and 31, 1864 crew men of Cordeliere, a French man-of-war, tried to take Mazatlan, but were repelled by Mexicans commanded by Colonel Gaspar Sánchez Ochoa.


The French under Bazaine occupied Guadalajara on 7 January 1864, and troops under Douay occupied Zacatecas on 6 February. Further French victories continued with the fall of Acapulco on 3 June, occupation of Durango on 3 July, and the defeat of republicans in the states of Sinaloa and Jalisco in November. Coordinates: , Country State Foundation 1542 Government  - Mayor Alfonso Petersen Farah ( PAN) Area  - City 187. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Zacatecas is a city in Mexico, the capital of the state of Zacatecas. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The city of Durango (formally: Victoria de Durango) is the capital of the state of Durango, Mexico, located at . ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Sinaloa Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 18 Government  - Governor Jesús Alberto Aguilar Padilla  - Federal Deputies PRI: 6 PAN: 2  - Federal Senators PRI: 2 PAN: 1 Area Ranked 18th  - Total 58,238 km² (22,485. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Guadalajara Government  - Governor Emilio González Márquez (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 18 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Eva Contreras (PAN) Héctor Pérez (PAN) Ramiro Hernández (PRI) Area Ranked 6th  - State 30,534. ...


Maximilian landed at Veracruz on 28 May (or possibly 29 May) 1864 in the SMS Novara and accepted the crown formally on 10 April, signing the Treaty of Miramar. He was enthroned as Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico. Maximilian of Habsburg was very much the product of progressive ideas in vogue in the West at the time. He favored the establishment of a limited monarchy sharing powers with a democratically elected congress and inspired laws that abolished child labor, limited working hours, and abolished a system of land tenancy that virtually amounted to serfdom among the Indians. This was too liberal to please Mexico's conservatives, while the liberals refused to accept a monarch, leaving Maximilian with few enthusiastic allies within Mexico. is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On Sunday, November 13, 1864, three French men-of-war (Victoire, D'Assas and Diamante) shelled Mazatlan 13 times, and Imperial Mexican forces under Manuel Lozada entered and captured the city.


1865: Beginning of republican victories

The French continued with victories in 1865, with Bazaine capturing Oaxaca on 9 February (defeating the city's defenders under General Porfirio Díaz). The French fleet landed soldiers who captured Guaymas on 29 March. However on 11 April, republicans defeated Imperial forces at Tacámbaro in Michoacán. In April and May the republicans had many forces in the states of Sinaloa and Chihuahua. Most towns along the Rio Grande were also occupied by republicans. The Belgian volunteers defeated the republicans at the Second Battle of Tacámbaro on 11 July. The city of Oaxaca (formally: Oaxaca de Juárez, in honor of 19th-century president and national hero Benito Juárez, who was born nearby) is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of the same name. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mory (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915), Mexican war volunteer and French intervention hero; later President. ... Guaymas is a port city in Sonora, Mexico. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 113 Government  - Governor Lazaro Cardenas Batel (PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRD: 8 PAN: 4  - Federal Senators Jesús Garibay García (PRD) Silvano Aureoles Conejo (PRD) Marko A. Cortés (PAN) Area Ranked 16th  - Total 59,928 km² (23,138. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Sinaloa Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 18 Government  - Governor Jesús Alberto Aguilar Padilla  - Federal Deputies PRI: 6 PAN: 2  - Federal Senators PRI: 2 PAN: 1 Area Ranked 18th  - Total 58,238 km² (22,485. ... THEY SUC |native_name = |nickname = Lady of the Desert |settlement_type = |motto = |image_skyline = |imagesize = |image_caption = |image_flag = Mexico stateflags Chihuahua. ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The decree known as the "Black Decree" was issued by Maximilian on 3 October, which threatened any Mexican captured in the war with immediate execution. This was the later basis of his own execution. Several of the high ranking officials of the republicans were executed under this order on 21 October. is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


U.S. intervention

American President Abraham Lincoln had supported the republicans under Juárez, but was unable to intervene due to the American Civil War. Immediately after the end of the war, in 1865, United States Army General Philip Sheridan, under the supervision of President Andrew Johnson and General Ulysses S. Grant, assembled 50,000 troops, and dispatched them to the border between Mexico and the United States. There, his corps ran patrols to visibly threaten intervention against the French, and also supplied weapons to Juárez's forces.[1] The US Congress had unanimously passed a resolution which opposed the establishment of the Mexican monarchy on 4 April 1864. On 12 February 1866, the US demanded the French withdraw their forces from Mexico, moved soldiers to positions along the Rio Grande, and set up a naval blockade to prevent French reinforcements from landing. The US officially protested to Austria about the Austrian volunteers in Mexico on the 6th of May. For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Juárez - slang referral to Warez ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


1866: French withdrawal and republican victories

In 1866, Napoleon III announced the withdrawal of French forces beginning 31 May. The Republicans won a series of victories, occupying Chihuahua on 25 March, taking Guadalajara on 8 July, further capturing Matamoros, Tampico and Acapulco in July. Napoleon III urged Maximilian to abandon Mexico. The French evacuated Monterrey on 26 July, Saltillo on 5 August, and the whole state of Sonora in September. Maximilian's French cabinet members resigned on 18 September. The Republicans defeated imperial troops at Miahuatlán in Oaxaca in October, occupying the whole of Oaxaca in November, as well as parts of Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí and Guanajuato. On 6 December the Austrian and Belgian volunteers disbanded and were supposed to join the Mexican Army; however, 3500 of the 4648 volunteers did not enlist, and tried to leave the country. is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Bravery, Loyalty, Hospitality Coordinates: , Country State Foundation October 12, 1709 Government  - Mayor Carlos Borruel Baquera ( PAN) Elevation 1,415 m (4,642 ft) Population (2006)  - City 748,551  - Metro 1,000,124  - Demonym Chihuahuense Time zone Mountain Standard Time (UTC-7)  - Summer (DST) Mountain Daylight Time (UTC-6... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: , Country State Foundation 1542 Government  - Mayor Alfonso Petersen Farah ( PAN) Area  - City 187. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: , Country State Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero ( PAN) Area  - City 860 km² (332 sq mi) Elevation 537 m (1,762 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,133,814  - Density 1,989/km² (5... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saltillo is a city in northeast Mexico, located at 25°42′ N 101°00′ W. It is the current capital of the state of Coahuila. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 13, Ramón Corona and the French agreed to terms for the liberation of Mazatlan. At noon the invaders boarded three men-of-war, Rhin, Marie and Talisman and departed.


1867: Republicans take the capital

Drawing of the execution of Maximilian published shortly after the event in 1867
Drawing of the execution of Maximilian published shortly after the event in 1867

The Republicans occupied the rest of the states of Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí and Guanajuato in January. The French evacuated the capital on 5 February. Drawing of the Execution of Maximillian This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Drawing of the Execution of Maximillian This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico (Emperador Maximiliano I de México) (July 6, 1832 – June 19, 1867) (born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg-Lorraine family. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 13 February 1867, Maximilian withdrew to Querétaro. The Republicans began a siege of the city on 9 March, and Mexico City on 12 April. An imperial sortie from Querétaro failed on 27 April. is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Latitude 20. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 11 May Maximilian resolved to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. He was, however, intercepted before he could carry out this plan on 15 May and, following a court-martial, was sentenced to death. Many of the crowned heads of Europe and other prominent figures (including Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi) sent telegrams and letters to Mexico pleading for Maximilian's life to be spared, but Juárez refused to commute the sentence, believing that it was necessary to send a message that Mexico would not tolerate any government imposed by foreign powers. is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and General of the Risorgimento. ...

Édouard Manet's Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (1867) is one of five versions of his representation of the execution of the Austrian monarch.
Édouard Manet's Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (1867) is one of five versions of his representation of the execution of the Austrian monarch.

Maximilian was executed on 19 June (along with his generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía) on the Cerro de las Campanas, a hill on the outskirts of Querétaro, by the forces loyal to President Benito Juárez, who had kept the federal government functioning during the French intervention. Juárez's position was further strengthened when the United States deployed troops to the Rio Grande, and threatened an invasion. Mexico City surrendered the day after Maximilian was executed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1714, 400 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung Kaiser Maximilians von Mexiko en: Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico es: Ejecución del Emperador Maximiliano de México Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas es: Óleo sobre tela... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1714, 400 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung Kaiser Maximilians von Mexiko en: Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico es: Ejecución del Emperador Maximiliano de México Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas es: Óleo sobre tela... Manet redirects here. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo (November 17, 1831 – June 19, 1867) was a Mexican conservative general and Mexicos youngest president ever. ... Tomás Mejía (September 17, 1820) - June 19, 1867) was a Mexican soldier. ... Latitude 20. ...


The republic was restored, President Juárez was returned to power in the national capital, and the 1857 Constitution of Mexico once again was unchallenged supreme charter of the country. Among other things, the constitution confiscated the vast landholdings of the Catholic church (which had been acting as landlord over half the country), established civil marriages, and forbade the participation of priests in politics (the separation of Church and State). The 1857 Constitution was a liberal constitution drafted in Mexico during the presidency of Ignacio Comonfort and vice-presidency of Benito Juárez. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


After the victory, the Conservative party was so thoroughly discredited by its alliance with the invading French troops that it effectively ceased to exist, and the Liberal party was almost unchallenged as a political force during the first years of the "restored republic." In 1871, however, Juárez was re-elected to yet another term as president in spite of a constitutional prohibition of re-elections, provoking one of the losing candidates, Porfirio Díaz (a Liberal general and a hero of the French war, but increasingly conservative in outlook) to launch a rebellion against the president. Supported by conservative factions within the Liberal party, the attempted revolt (the so-called Plan de la Noria) was already at the point of defeat when Juárez died in office on 19 July 1872, making it a moot point. Díaz ran against interim president Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, lost the election, and retired to his hacienda in Oaxaca. Four years later, in 1876, when Lerdo himself ran for re-election, Díaz launched a second, successful revolt (the Plan de Tuxtepec) and captured the presidency, which he effectively held through eight terms until 1911. José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mory (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915), Mexican war volunteer and French intervention hero; later President. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Term of office: – July 19, 1872 to 30 November 1872 (interim) – 1 December 1872 to November 20, 1876 Preceded by: Benito Juárez Succeeded by: Porfirio Díaz Date of birth: April 24, 1823 Place of birth: Xalapa, Veracruz Date of death: April 21, 1889 Place of death: New York... Hacienda is a Spanish word describing a vast ranch, common in the Pampa. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... The Plan de Tuxtepec is a document drafted by Porfirio Díaz in 1876 and proclaimed on January 10 of 1876 in the Villa de Ojitlán municipality of San Lucas Ojitlán, Tuxtepec district , Oaxaca. ...


See also

Combatants France Mexico Strength 30,000 3,000 The Pastry War (Spanish: Guerra de los pasteles) was an invasion of Mexico by French forces in 1838. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mexico is a country in North America and the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. ...

References

  • Chronology of the Mexican Adventure 1861–1867
  • Bibliography for the French intervention in Mexico
  • Sheridan, Philip H., Personal Memoirs of P.H. Sheridan, Charles L. Webster & Co., 1888, ISBN 1-58218-185-3 (vol. 1).
  • Lerma Garay, Antonio. Mazatlán Decimonónico, Autoedición. 2005. ISBN 1-59872-220-4.

Notes

  1. ^ Sheridan, p. 405.

  Results from FactBites:
 
French intervention in Mexico - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1567 words)
The French intervention in Mexico was an invasion of Mexico by the army of the Second French Empire, and supported in the beginning by the British and Spanish.
The French army of General Bazaine defeated the Mexican army led by General Comonfort in their attempt to relieve the siege of Puebla, at San Lorenzo, to the south of Puebla.
Further French victories continued with the fall of Acapulco on 3 June, occupation of Durango on 3 July, and the defeat of republicans in the states of Sinaloa and Jalisco in November.
Ciudad Juarez (274 words)
Ciudad Juárez (1990 population 789,522) is a city in Chihuahua, Mexico, across the Rio Grande from El Paso, Texas.
The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe established the Rio Grande as the border between Mexico and the United States, separating settlements on the north bank of the river from the rest of the town.
During the French Intervention in Mexico (1862-1867), El Paso del Norte served as a temporary capital of Benito Juarez's republican forces.
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