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Encyclopedia > French colonial empires

France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. In the 19th and 20th centuries, its global colonial empire was the second largest in the world behind the British Empire. At its peak, between 1919 and 1939, the second French colonial empire extended over 12,347,000 km² (4,767,000 sq. miles) of land. Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 km² (4,980,000 sq. miles) in the 1920s and 1930s, which is 8.6% of the world's land area. French Colonies is the name used by philatelists to refer to the postage stamps issued by France for use in the parts of the French colonial empire that did not have stamps of their own. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 10 million km² and 100 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ...


Currently, the remnants of this large empire are hundreds of islands and archipelagos located in the North Atlantic, the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, and the Antarctic Ocean, as well as one mainland territory in South America, totaling altogether 123,150 km² (47,548 sq. miles), which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2,564,000 people living in them in 2007. All of these enjoy full political representation at the national level, as well as varying degrees of legislative autonomy. (See Administrative divisions of France.) This article is about the political and historical term. ... An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earths oceanic divisions. ... For other meanings of pacific, see pacific (disambiguation). ... The Southern Ocean is the body of water encircling the continent of Antarctica. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla...

Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires
Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires
Animated map showing the French colonial empires
Animated map showing the French colonial empires

Contents

Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB){{GFDL} File links The following pages link to this file: French colonial empires ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB){{GFDL} File links The following pages link to this file: French colonial empires ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This is made from the public domain image Image:Colonisation2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This is made from the public domain image Image:Colonisation2. ...

Medieval French empire

France experienced a de facto existence as an empire with overseas possessions across the Mediterranean during the 12th and 13th centuries as a result of later Crusades, although its society did not view it as such. The first incidence of France having an overseas possession was the first Kingdom of Jerusalem, with Baldwin I crowned in 1100. Indeed, the French term Outremer originated with this kingdom. The Fourth Crusade resulted in the partition of the Byzantine Empire of 1204, with Constantinople and surrounding lands in both Europe and Asia incorporated into the Latin Empire, ruled by nobles from Burgundy, Flanders, Hainaut, and Courtenay. This empire survived Greek and Bulgarian attacks until its re-conquest by the Nicaean Greeks in 1261. France also invaded Egypt during the Seventh Crusade in 1249 and occupied the Nile Delta for one year. Angevin rule resumed in the Kingdom of Sicily and Malta from 1266 to the Aragonese conquest of the early 14th century, this time as agents of France. The Lusignan noble family of western France had the throne of the Kingdom of Jerusalem until its Mamluk conquest in 1291 and of the Kingdom of Cyprus until 1489. The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Map of Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Anthem De Vlaamse Leeuw (The Flemish Lion) Location of Belgian Flanders in Europe The Flemish Region Capital Brussels Official languages Dutch1 Recognised regional languages Flemish: Dutch Brussels: French and Dutch Government  -  Minister-President Kris Peeters Area  -  Total 13,522 km²   sq mi  Population  -  2006 [1] census 6,078,600   -  Density... The virtually independent county of Hainaut emerged from chaotic conditions at the end of the 9th century as a semi-independent state, at first a vassal of the crown of Lotharingia. ... Courtenay is a commune of the Loiret département in France. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... The Lusignan family originated in Poitou in western France, and in the late 12th century came to rule the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Kingdom of Cyprus. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), Turkish: Kölemen, owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Roman Catholic Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the late Middle Ages. ...


First French colonial empire

The early voyages of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion. But Spain's jealous protection of its American monopoly, and the disruptions caused in France itself by the Wars of Religion in the later 16th century, prevented any consistent efforts by France to establish colonies. Early French attempts to found colonies in Brazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro (the so-called France Antarctique) and in 1612 at São Luís (the so-called France Équinoxiale), and in Florida (including Fort Caroline in 1562) were not successful, due to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance and prevention. Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, ca. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Government  - Mayor César Maia (Democrats) Area  - City 1,260 km²  (486. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... São Luís is the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. ... Equinoxial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before tropical had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin of equal nights, i. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Fort Caroline was the first permanent French colony in North America, located in present-day Jacksonville, Florida. ...


The story of France's colonial empire truly began on July 27, 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. A few years later, in 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec, which was to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France (also called Canada). is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... A much-reproduced fictional portrait of Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) (no authentic portrait has survived)[1]) Samuel de Champlain , the father of New France, was born around 1580 in the town of Brouage, a seaport on Frances west coast. ... Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government  - Mayor... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...


Although, through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent, areas of French settlement were generally limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies. It is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. But there was relatively little interest in colonialism in France, which concentrated rather on dominance within Europe, and for most of the history of New France, even Canada was far behind the British North American colonies in both population and economic development. Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Sovereign Council of New France was a political body appointed by the King of France and consisting of a Governor General, an intendant and a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Jean Talon. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ... The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1699, French territorial claims in North America expanded still further, with the foundation of Louisiana in the basin of the Mississippi River. The extensive trading network throughout the region connected to Canada through the Great Lakes, was maintained through a vast system of fortifications, many of them centered in the Illinois Country and in present-day Arkansas. Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... French settlements and forts in the Illinois Country in 1763, showing U.S. current state boundaries. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ...


As the French empire in North America expanded, the French also began to build a smaller but more profitable empire in the West Indies. Settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began in 1624, and a colony was founded on Saint Kitts in 1625 (the island had to be shared with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was ceded outright). The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, and a colony was later founded on Saint Lucia by (1650). The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... Country Saint Kitts and Nevis Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 65 sq. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The Compagnie des ÃŽles de lAmérique, French for Company of the American Islands, was a French chartered company which exploited the following Antillian islands: Guadeloupe (28 June 1635 to 1649) Martinique (15 September 1635 to 1650) Saint-Christophe island (1635 - 1651) in present Saint Kitts and Nevis Source... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Carte de L'Indoustan. Bellin, 1770.
Carte de L'Indoustan. Bellin, 1770.

The food-producing plantations of these colonies were built and sustained through slavery, with the supply of slaves dependent on the African slave trade. Local resistance by the indigenous peoples resulted in the Carib Expulsion of 1660. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Slave redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Impact of Slave Trade on Africa be merged into this article or section. ... An independent origin and development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. ... The Carib Expulsion took place in 1660. ...


The most important Caribbean colonial possession did not come until 1664, when the colony of Saint-Domingue (today's Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean. The eastern half of Hispaniola (today's Dominican Republic) also came under French rule for a short period, after being given to France by Spain in 1795. Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


French colonial expansion was not limited to the New World, however. In Senegal in West Africa, the French began to establish trading posts along the coast in 1624. In 1664, the French East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east. Colonies were established in India in Chandernagore in Bengal (1673) and Pondicherry in the Southeast (1674), and later at Yanam (1723), Mahe (1725), and Karikal (1739) (see French India). Colonies were also founded in the Indian Ocean, on the Île de Bourbon (Réunion, 1664), Île de France (Mauritius, 1718), and the Seychelles (1756). Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... French and other European settlements in India. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry | Cities and towns in India ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Colonial conflict with Britain

In the mid-18th century, a series of colonial conflicts began between France and the Britain, which would ultimately result in the demise of most of the first French colonial empire. These wars were the War of the Austrian Succession (17441748), the Seven Years' War (17561763), the War of the American Revolution (17781783), and the French Revolution (17931802) and Napoleonic (1803-1815) Wars. It may even be seen further back in time to the first of the French and Indian Wars. This recurrent conflict has been collectivized as the so-called Second Hundred Years' War. Combatants Prussia Spain France Electorate of Bavaria Kingdom of Naples Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic Electorate of Saxony Sardinia Russian Empire Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles Emmanuel III Empress Maria... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... --69. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick â€  Prince of Hohenlohe... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... The Second Hundred Years War is a phrase used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. ...


Although the War of the Austrian Succession was indecisive — despite French successes in India under the French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix — the Seven Years' War, after early French successes in Minorca and North America, saw a French defeat, with the numerically superior British (over one million to about 50 thousand French settlers) conquering not only New France (excluding the small islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon), but also most of France's West Indian (Caribbean) colonies, and all of the French Indian outposts. While the peace treaty saw France's Indian outposts, and the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe restored to France, the competition for influence in India had been won by the British, and North America was entirely lost — most of New France was taken by Britain (also refer to as British North America, except Louisiana, which France ceded to Spain as payment for Spain's late entrance into the war (and as compensation for Britain's annexation of Spanish Florida). Also ceded to the British were Grenada and Saint Lucia in the West Indies. Although the loss of Canada would cause much regret in future generations, it excited little unhappiness at the time; colonialism was widely regarded as both unimportant to France, and immoral. Joseph François Dupleix // Joseph François Dupleix (January 1, 1697 — November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India, and was the great rival of Robert Clive. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ...


Some recovery of the French colonial empire was made during the French intervention in the American Revolution, with Saint Lucia being returned to France by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, but not nearly as much as had been hoped for at the time of French intervention. True disaster came to what remained of France's colonial empire in 1791 when Saint Domingue (comprised of the Western third of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola ), France's richest and most important colony, was riven by a massive slave revolt, caused partly by the divisions among the island's elite, which had resulted from the French Revolution of 1789. The slaves, led eventually by Toussaint Louverture and then, following his capture by the French in 1801, by Jean-Jacques Dessalines, held their own against French, Spanish, and British opponents, and ultimately achieved independence as Haiti in 1804 (Haiti became the first black republic in the world, much earlier than any of the future African nations). In the meanwhile, the newly resumed war with Britain by the French, resulted in the British capture of practically all remaining French colonies. These were restored at the Peace of Amiens in 1802, but when war resumed in 1803, the British soon recaptured them. France's repurchase of Louisiana in 1800 came to nothing, as the final success of the Haitian revolt convinced Bonaparte that holding Louisiana would not be worth the cost, leading to its sale to the United States in 1803 (the Louisiana Purchase). Nor was the French attempt to establish a colony in Egypt in 17981801 successful. Engraving based on the painting Action Between the Serapis and Bonhomme Richard by Richard Paton, published 1780. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture  , also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (c. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines (September 20, 1758–October 17, 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and an Emperor of Haiti (1804–1806 under the name of Jacques I). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and Britain. ... --69. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


Second French colonial empire

"Three colours, one flag, one empire."

At the close of the Napoleonic Wars, most of France's colonies were restored to it by Britain, notably Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies, French Guiana on the coast of South America, various trading posts in Senegal, the Île Bourbon (Réunion) in the Indian Ocean, and France's tiny Indian possessions. Britain finally annexed Saint Lucia, Tobago, the Seychelles, and the Île de France (Mauritius), however. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick â€  Prince of Hohenlohe... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ...


The true beginnings of the second French colonial empire, however, were laid in 1830 with the French invasion of Algeria, which was conquered over the next 17 years. During the Second Empire, headed by Napoleon III, an attempt was made to establish a colonial-type protectorate in Mexico, but this came to little, and the French were forced to abandon the experiment after the end of the American Civil War, when the American president invoked the Monroe Doctrine. This French intervention in Mexico lasted from 1861 to 1867. Napoleon III also established French control over Cochin-China (the southernmost part of modern Vietnam including Saigon), as well as a protectorate over Cambodia. Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers would no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. ... Combatants Second Mexican Empire Second French Empire United Kingdom Spain Austria-Hungary Belgium Republic of Mexico Strength 38,493 French soldiers, 7000 Austro-Hungarian volunteers, 2000 Belgian volunteers ~80,000 Casualties 6,654 French killed and wounded 12,000 Mexican killed and wounded Emperor Maximilian Napoleon III of France Ju... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina Chu Nom 交趾支那 or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ...


It was only after the Franco-Prussian War of 18701871 and the founding of the Third Republic (1871-1940) that most of France's later colonial possessions were acquired. From their base in Cochin-China, the French took over Tonkin and Annam (in modern Vietnam) in 1884-1885. These, together with Cambodia and Cochin-China, formed French Indochina (to which Laos was added in 1887[citation needed], and Kwang-Chou-Wan in 1900). In 1849, the French "concession" in Shanghai was established, lasting until 1946. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... Kwang-Chou-Wan (廣州灣), or Kwangchowan, was a small enclave on the south coast of China conceded by China to France as a leased territory. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...

French colonies in 1891 (from Le Monde Illustré). 1. Panorama of Lac-Kaï, French outpost in China. 2. Yun-nan, in the quay of Hanoi. 3. Flooded street of Hanoi. 4. Landing stage of Hanoi
French colonies in 1891 (from Le Monde Illustré).
1. Panorama of Lac-Kaï, French outpost in China.
2. Yun-nan, in the quay of Hanoi.
3. Flooded street of Hanoi.
4. Landing stage of Hanoi

Influence was also expanded in North Africa, establishing a protectorate on Tunisia in 1881 (Bardo Treaty). Gradually, French control was established over much of Northern, Western, and Central Africa by the turn of the century (including the modern nations of Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Niger, Chad, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo), as well as the east African coastal enclave of Djibouti (French Somaliland). The Voulet-Chanoine Mission, a military expedition, was sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa. This expedition operated jointly with two other expeditions, the Foureau-Lamy and Gentil missions, which advanced from Algeria and Middle Congo respectively. With the death of the Muslim warlord Rabih az-Zubayr, the greatest ruler in the region, and the creation of the Military Territory of Chad in 1900, the Voulet-Chanoine Mission had accomplished all its goals. The ruthlessness of the mission provoked a scandal in Paris. In 1911, after the Agadir Crisis, Morocco became a French protectorate. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 389 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1464 × 2258 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 389 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1464 × 2258 pixel, file size: 5. ... Saigo Takamori (seated, in Western uniform), surrounded by his officers, in samurai attire. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... The Voulet-Chanoine Mission or Central African Mission (in French mission Afrique Centrale) was a French military expedition sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa. ... Rabih az-Zubayr was a Sudanese warlord who established a powerful kingdom west of Lake Chad, in todays Chad. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... SMS Panther, a famous gunboat diplomat. ...


At this time, the French also established colonies in the South Pacific, including New Caledonia, the various island groups which make up French Polynesia (including the Society Islands, the Marquesas, the Tuamotus), and established joint control of the New Hebrides with Britain. The Society Islands (French: Îles de la Société or offically Archipel de la Société) are a group of islands in the south Pacific, administratively part of French Polynesia. ... The Marquesas Islands is a group of islands in French Polynesia. ... A Satellite photo of the Acteon Group, 4 atolls in the southeastern Tuamotus. ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ...


The French made their last major colonial gains after the First World War, when they gained mandates over the former Turkish territories of the Ottoman Empire that make up what is now Syria and Lebanon, as well as most of the former German colonies of Togo and Cameroon. A hallmark of the French colonial project in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the civilizing mission (mission civilisatrice), the principle that it was Europe's duty to bring civilization to benighted peoples. As such, colonial officials undertook a policy of Franco-Europeanization in French colonies, most notably French West Africa. Africans who adopted French culture, including fluent use of the French language and conversion to Christianity, were granted equal French citizenship, including suffrage. Later, residents of the "Four Communes" in Senegal were granted citizenship in a program led by the Afro-French politician Blaise Diagne. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... The civilization mission (mission civilisatrice in French) was the underlying principle of French colonial rule in the late 19th and early 20th centuryies. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... The Four Communes (French: quatre vieilles) of Senegal were the four oldest colonial towns in French controlled west Africa. ... Blaise Diagne ( 1872 - 1934) was a Senegalise politician who advocated for African participation in politics and fair treatment of ethnic minorities in the French army. ...


Collapse of the empire

Main article: Decolonisation

The French colonial empire began to fall apart during the Second World War, when various parts of their empire were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria, Lebanon, and Madagascar, the US and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany in Tunisia). However, control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle. The French Union, included in the 1946 Constitution, replaced the former colonial Empire. Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ...


However, France was immediately confronted with the beginnings of the decolonization movement. Paul Ramadier (SFIO)'s cabinet repressed the Malagasy insurrection in 1947. In Asia, Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh declared Vietnam's independence, starting the Franco-Vietnamese War. In Cameroun, the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon's insurrection, started in 1955 and headed by Ruben Um Nyobé, was violently repressed. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... French prime minister Paul Ramadier Paul Ramadier (March 17, 1888 - October 14, 1961) was a prominent French Socialist politician of the Third and Fourth Republics. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... The written history of Madagascar began in the seventh century A.D., when Arabs established trading posts along the northwest coast. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Cameroon over time  German Kamerun  British Cameroons  French Cameroun  Republic of Cameroon This article is about the historical French colony. ... The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (French: Union des Populations du Cameroun) is a political party in Cameroon. ... Ruben Um Nyobé (1913-September 13, 1958) was an anti-imperialist Cameroonian leader, slain by the French army on September 13, 1958, near his natal village of Boumnyebel, in the department of Nyong-et-Kellé in the maquis Bassa. ...


When this ended with French defeat and withdrawal from Vietnam in 1954, the French almost immediately became involved in a new, and even harsher conflict in their oldest major colony, Algeria. Ferhat Abbas and Messali Hadj's movements had marked the period between the two wars, but both sides radicalized after the Second World War. In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried on by the French army. The Algerian War started in 1954. Algeria was particularly problematic for the French, due to the large number of European settlers (or pieds-noirs) who had settled there in the century and a quarter of French rule. Charles de Gaulle's accession to power in 1958 in the middle of the crisis ultimately led to independence for Algeria with the 1962 Evian Accords. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ferhat Abbas was born in Douar Chemala near Jijel, Algeria on 24 October 1899 and died on 23 December 1985. ... Messali Hadj (مصالي الحاج) was the founder of the Mouvement National Algérien, an early Algerian nationalist group and rival of the Front de Libération Nationale. ... Map of Algeria showing Sétif province The Sétif massacre refers to widespread disturbances in and around the Algerian market town of Setif located to the west of Constantine in 1945. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... Pied-noir (plural: pieds-noirs) is a term for the former population of European descent of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1...


The French Union was replaced in the new 1958 Constitution by the French Community. Only Guinea refused by referendum to take part to the new colonial organization. However, the French Community dissolved itself in the midsts of the Algerian War; all of the other African colonies were granted independence in 1960, following local referendums. Some few colonies chose instead to remain part of France, under the statuses of overseas départements (territories). Critics of neocolonialism claimed that the Françafrique had replaced formal direct rule. They argued that while de Gaulle was granting independence on one hand, he was creating new ties through Jacques Foccart's help, his counsellor for African matters. Foccart supported in particular the Biafra secession (or Nigerian civil war) during the late 1960s. The French Community was the political entity which replaced the French Union, which in turn was the descendant of the French Empire following the Second World War. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The French Overseas Departments and Territories (often abbreviated DOM-TOM for départements doutre-mer, territoires doutre-mer) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... Neocolonialism is a term used by some intellectuals to describe international economic arrangements by which former colonial powers maintained control of their former colonies and new dependencies following World War II. The term itself can obfuscate current colonialism, as some governments continue to administer foreign territories and populations in violation... Françafrique is a term first used by president of the Côte dIvoire Félix Houphouët-Boigny, and borrowed to him by François-Xavier Verschave in a critic of Frances neocolonialism in Africa. ... Jacques Foccart (1914–1997) was French President Charles de Gaulles and then Georges Pompidous spindoctor for African policy, who founded in 1959 the Gaullist organization Service dAction Civique (SAC) with Charles Pasqua, which specialized in shady operations. ... Combatants Nigerian federal government Republic of Biafra Commanders Yakubu Gowon Odumegwu Ojukwu Casualties Estimated 2,000,000 civilians The Nigerian Civil War, July 6, 1967 – January 13, 1970, was a political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the southeastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. ...


Extent of the French colonial empires

Here is a list of all the countries that were part of the French colonial empires in the last 500 years, either entirely or in part, either under French sovereignty or as mandate or protectorate. When only a part of the country was under French rule, that part is listed in parentheses after the country. When there are no parentheses, it means the whole country was formerly part of any one of the French colonial empires. Countries listed are those where French sovereignty applied effectively. Areas that were only claimed, but not effectively controlled (such as Manhattan or Western Australia) are not listed. For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person...


"1st" means the country/territory was part of the first French colonial empire. "2nd" means the country/territory was part of the second French colonial empire. "Now" means this is a territory still part of the French Republic today.


The Americas

North America

The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ...

Caribbean

St. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... Map showing location of Sint Eustatius relative to Saba and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin. ... Saint Kitts and Nevis is an island nation in the Caribbean. ... Official language English Political status State in the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis Premier Joseph Parry Deputy Governor-General[1] Eustace John President, Nevis Island Assembly Marjorie Morton Capital Charlestown, Nevis Area  - Total (Not ranked) 35. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Saint Croix from space, January 1993 Saint Croix is one of the United States Virgin Islands, a United States territory, in the Caribbean. ...

South America

(see France Antarctique and France Équinoxiale) Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Government  - Mayor César Maia (Democrats) Area  - City 1,260 km²  (486. ... São Luís is the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Equinoxial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before tropical had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin of equal nights, i. ...

Africa

North Africa

West Africa

Equatorial Africa

Indian Ocean

Location of the Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean: • 1 : Bassas da India • 2 : Europa Island • 3 : Glorioso Islands • 4 : Juan de Nova Island • 5 : Tromelin Island (KM : Comoros, MG : Madagascar, MU : Mauritius, MZ : Mozambique, RE : Réunion, YT : Mayotte) The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean (French: ÃŽles Éparses... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...

Red Sea

  • Djibouti (as French Somaliland) -- 2nd
  • Yemen (Cheikh Saïd peninsula) -- 2nd

Cheikh Saïd is a rocky peninsula in Yemen, near the island of Perim on the Bab-el-Mandeb at the entrance to the Red Sea. ...

Asia

Middle East

Hatay is a province of southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast, with Syria to the south and east. ...

South Asia

French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry | Cities and towns in India ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... , Mahé, a small town (9 km²) in the south of India on the Arabian Sea, has the official name of Mayyazhi in the local Malayalam language. ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ...

East Asia

Kwang-Chou-Wan (廣州灣), or Kwangchowan, was a small enclave on the south coast of China conceded by China to France as a leased territory. ... Location of Zhanjiang Zhanjiang (湛江) is a city in Guangdong province, in southeast China. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by another entity than the state which holds sovereignty over it. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ... Hankou (漢口; pinyin: Hànkǒu; Wade-Giles: Hankow) is one of the three towns, together with Wuchang and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ... Yunan redirects here. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

South East Asia

Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bộ, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ...

Oceania

Clipperton Island (locally known as Île Clipperton and sometimes Île de la Passion) is an uninhabited seven-square-kilometer coral atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,300 km southwest of France administered from French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic; its defense is the responsibility of France. ... In international law, a condominium is a territory in which two sovereign powers have equal rights. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

Antarctic Ocean

Unsuccessful colonisations

  • Florida — Huguenots settled near present-day Jacksonville in 1562 and were massacred by the Spanish in 1565.
  • New Zealand — A colony was established at Akaroa on Banks Peninsula in the South Island in April 1840, but Britain had gained sovereignty over New Zealand through the treaty of Waitangi in February.
  • Siam — The king of Siam had to surrender its hegemony over Laos and Cambodia and to grant commercial concessions to France, but managed to retain independence as a buffer state between French Indochina and the British Raj.
  • Suez — Though built by a French company, Britain considered the Suez canal vital for communication with its possessions in the Orient, and manoeuvred successfully to establish control over Egypt.
  • Tangiers — Was an international protectorate, but the administration of the Tangier International Zone was attached to French Morocco.
  • Africa — France and the British Empire competed for possession of continuous territories from along the west to east and south to north axis of the continent respectively. This rivalry provoked the Fashoda incident in 1898; its peaceful resolution led to the Entente Cordiale.

France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Equinoxial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before tropical had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin of equal nights, i. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The Jacksonville skyline and the Acosta Bridge. ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Combatants French Republic Mamluks Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Murad Bey Strength 20,000[1] 60,000[1] Casualties 300 5,000-6,000 Battle of the Pyramids, Francois-Louis-Joseph Watteau, 1798-1799. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders Horatio Nelson François-Paul Brueys DAigalliers† Strength 14 ships of the line: * 13 x 74-gun, * 1 x 50-gun, 1 sloop 13 ships of the line: * 1 x 120-gun, * 3 x 80-gun, * 9 x 74gun, 4 frigates, some smaller Casualties 218... A view of the Akaroa harbour. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty signed on February 6, 1840 by representatives of the British Crown, and Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand. ... The previous theory often been proposed, the history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast asia around the 10th century AD. Prior to this Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms ruled the region. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... The reign of Muhammad Ali and his successors over Egypt was a period of rapid reform and modernization that led to Egypt becoming one of the most developed states outside of Europe. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Earl Kitchener Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was an Irish-born British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman popularly referred to as Lord Kitchener. ... Tangier (in Berber and Arabic Tanja, in Spanish Tánger and in French Tanger) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 350,000, or 550,000 including suburbs. ... The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between the United Kingdom and France in Eastern Africa. ... The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ...

Organization of the French Empire in 1931

At the height of the second French colonial empire in 1931, the Empire was organized into the following colonies: Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Africa and the Indian Ocean

The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... Oran is a former French département in Algeria existing from 1848 until 1962. ... French Morocco (Fr. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... French Guinea (in West Africa) became independent from France in 1958 (see Guinea). ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... Map showing the Volta river in Upper Volta Upper Volta (French: ) was the name of the African country now called Burkina Faso. ... French Sudan (Fr. ... Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... French Togoland was a France Mandate territory in West Africa, which later became the Togolese Republic. ... Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... The Republic of the Congo, also known as Middle Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, and Congo (but not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which was also at one time known as the Republic of the Congo), is a former French colony of west-central Africa. ... Cameroon over time  German Kamerun  British Cameroons  French Cameroun  Republic of Cameroon This article is about the historical French colony. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central Africa. ... Anthem Djibouti Capital (and largest city) Djibouti Official languages Arabic and French Government Parliamentary democracy  -  President Ismail Omar Guelleh  -  Prime Minister Dileita Mohamed Dileita Independence from France   -  Date June 27, 1977  Area  -  Total 23,200 km² (149th) 8,958 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0. ... Basic data Administrative status: district Country: French Southern and Antarctic Lands Capital: Port-aux-Français Population: ca. ... ÃŽle Amsterdam IPA: (meaning Amsterdam island, after the Dutch capital) is a French island in the Indian Ocean located at . ... Map of St. ... Orthographic projection centred over the Iles Crozet The Crozet Islands (French: ÃŽles Crozet or officially Archipel Crozet) are a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean, part of the French Southern Territories. ... Location of the Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean: • 1 : Bassas da India • 2 : Europa Island • 3 : Glorioso Islands • 4 : Juan de Nova Island • 5 : Tromelin Island (KM : Comoros, MG : Madagascar, MU : Mauritius, MZ : Mozambique, RE : Réunion, YT : Mayotte) The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean (French: ÃŽles Éparses...

The Americas

Guadeloupe, in the Caribbean Sea, is an archipelago with a total area of 1,704 km² located in the Eastern Caribbean. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... St. ...

Asia

In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by another entity than the state which holds sovereignty over it. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ... Hankou (漢口; pinyin: Hànkǒu; Wade-Giles: Hankow) is one of the three towns, together with Wuchang and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... Karaikal, also Karikal, is one of the four regions of the Union Territory of Pondicherry. ... , Mahé, a small town (9 km²) in the south of India on the Arabian Sea, has the official name of Mayyazhi in the local Malayalam language. ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... Kwang-Chou-Wan (廣州灣), or Kwangchowan, was a small enclave on the south coast of China conceded by China to France as a leased territory. ... Hatay is a province of southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast, with Syria to the south and east. ...

The Pacific

The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ...

See also

French overseas departments and territories The French Overseas Departments and Territories (French: départements doutre-mer and territoires doutre-mer or DOM-TOM) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The February 23, 2005 French law on colonialism was an act passed by the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) conservative majority, which imposed to high-school teachers to teach the positive values of colonialism to their students (article 4). ... The Franco-Trarzan War of 1825 was a conflict between the forces of the new amir of Trarza, Muhammad al Habib, and France. ... The French Colonial Forces or Troupes Coloniales is a general designation for the military forces that garrisoned and were largely recruited from the French colonial empire from the late 17th century until 1960. ... // North America The French established colonies across the New World in the 17th century. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... Franco-Mauritians are people of French origin who reside in Mauritius. ... Franco-Réunionnaise are people of French origin living in Réunion. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French territory of New Caledonia. ...

References

  • Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa (1991)
  • Maria Petringa, Brazza, A Life for Africa (2006)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Laos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2391 words)
The French, who made the country part of French Indochina in 1893, spelled it with the s which is usually retained in the spelling and pronunciation of the English name (pronounced as one syllable).
French, once common in government and commerce, has declined in usage, while knowledge of English, the language of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), has increased in recent years.
French West Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Dahomey, French Sudan (Mali), Guinea, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Upper Volta) and French Togoland and James Island (The Gambia)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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