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Encyclopedia > French and Indian Wars

The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. In Quebec, the wars are generally referred to as the Intercolonial Wars. While some conflicts involved Spanish and Dutch forces, all pitted Great Britain, its colonies and Indian allies on one side and France, its colonies and Indian allies on the other. As such, the American conflicts were also part of the persistent Anglo-French Second Hundred Years' War, which was fought intermittently between 1688 and 1815. The expanding French and British colonies were contending for control of the western, or interior, territories. Whenever the European countries went to war, there were actions within and by these colonies although the dates of the conflict did not necessarily exactly coincide with those of the larger conflicts. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... The Second Hundred Years War is a phrase used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. ...


The North American wars, and their associated European wars, in sequence, are: For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Years of War North American War European War Treaty
16891697

King William's War
1st Intercolonial War (in Quebec) Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ...

War of the Grand Alliance
War of the League of Augsburg
Treaty of Ryswick
17021713

Queen Anne's War
2nd Intercolonial War Combatants  Denmark Dutch Republic, England,[3]  Holy Roman Empire,  Portugal Duchy of Savoy, Spain,  Sweden France, Jacobites Commanders William III, Prince Waldeck, Duke of Savoy, Duke of Lorraine , Elector of Bavaria, Prince of Baden Louis XIV, Duc de Luxembourg â€ , Duc de Villeroi, Duc de Lorge, Duc de Boufflers, Nicolas Catinat... The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ...

War of the Spanish Succession Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
17441748

King George's War
3rd Intercolonial War Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Georges War is the name given to the duck operations in North America that formed part of the 1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. ...

War of Jenkins' Ear
War of the Austrian Succession
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
17541763

The French and Indian War
4th Intercolonial War Combatants British Empire Spain Commanders Edward Vernon James E. Oglethorpe George Anson Charles Knowles Blas de Lezo Manuel de Montiano Andrés Reggio The War of Jenkins Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748. ... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... The second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...

Seven Years' War Treaty of Paris (1763)

The naming of conflicts after the British monarch of the day is not used by Canadians, who merely employ the name of the larger European conflict (e.g. the War of the Grand Alliance rather than King William's War) or refer to them as the Intercolonial Wars. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ...


As the wars proceeded the military advantage moved inexorably towards the British side. This was largely a reflection of the greater population and productive capacity of the British colonies compared with those of France. The French were able to largely offset this in the first three conflicts by more effective mobilization of Native American allies, but were finally overwhelmed in the fourth war. Ironically, the overwhelming victory of the British played a role in eventual loss of their American colonies. Without the threat of French invasion, the American colonies saw little need for British military protection and resented British limits on the colonization of the new French territories as stated in the Proclamation of 1763. These pressures contributed to the American Revolutionary War. This article describes military mobilization. ... The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by the British government in the name of King George III to prohibit settlement by British colonists beyond the Appalachian Mountains in the lands captured by Britain from France in the French and Indian War/Seven Years War and to... This article is about military actions only. ...


The first three of the French and Indian Wars follow the same basic pattern. That is they all start in Europe and then move to America. Once the fighting begins in America it is mostly fought by militia men. In all three wars the English are victorious. The gains or assests made by the English during the wars in America are always returned to the French at the end of the war. The final conflict broke this pattern by beginning in North America. Larger numbers of British regular troops were used alongside the militia and almost all French territory seized by the British was not returned. The British victory in the French and Indian Wars ended France's American empire, leaving France with only an island fishing colony off Canada and a few Caribbean islands.

See also: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2426x750, 38 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): French and Indian Wars ...

Further Reading: British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • A Few Acres of Snow: The Saga of the French and Indian Wars by Robert Leckie; Wiley & Son; Hardcover: ISBN 0-471-24690-5; Paperback: ISBN 0-471-39020-8

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
French and Indian Wars. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1165 words)
The first of the wars, King William’s War (1689–97), approximately corresponds to the European War of the Grand Alliance (1688–97).
War had thus broken out before fighting began in Europe in the Seven Years War.
The French Louis Joseph de Montcalm, one of the great commanders of his time, distinguished himself (1758) by repulsing the attack of James Abercromby on Ticonderoga.
French and Indian War - MSN Encarta (1245 words)
French and Indian War (1754-1763), the last of four North American wars waged from 1689 to 1763 between the British and the French.
The French and Indian War was part of a 'great war for empire,' a determined and eventually successful attempt by the British to attain a dominant position in North America, the West Indies, and the subcontinent of India.
The French and Indian War not only stripped France of its North American empire, it also caused Britain to change its relationship to its colonies, a change that eventually led to the American Revolution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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