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Encyclopedia > French and Indian War
French and Indian War
Date 1754–1763
Location North America
Result Treaty of Paris, British Victory.
Territorial
changes
All of New France east of the Mississippi River eventually ceded to Great Britain; French territory to the west ceded to Spain; Spanish Florida ceded to Great Britain
Combatants
France

First Nations allies: The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Royalist_France. ...

Great Britain
American Colonies
Iroquois Confederacy
Strength
3,900 regulars
7,900 militia
2,200 natives (1759)
50,000 regulars and militia (1759)
Casualties
3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured

The French and Indian War was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War, spanning nine years. The name does not refer to the two battling sides, but rather to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and various American Indian forces. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the kingdoms of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of all of New France east of the Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida. The outcome was one of the most significant developments in the persistent Anglo-French Second Hundred Years' War. To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida, France ceded its control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near what is present-day Uniontown in Western Pennsylvania. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders George Washington James Mackay Louis Coulon de Villiers Strength 100 regulars 193 militia, and natives 100 natives 600 marines, and militia Casualties 31 dead 70 wounded 192 captured 3 dead 19 wounded The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor Robert Monckton Strength 162 2,000 Casualties 162 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown The Battle of Fort Beauséjour marked the opening of a British-American offensive in North America in the Seven Years War. ... Combatants France Indian Tribes Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed... Combatants Britain France Commanders William Johnson, 1st Baronet Johnson, King Hendrick † Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau Strength 1,500 militia, 200 Mohawks 3,500 regulars, militia, and natives Casualties 331 killed, wounded or missing [1] 339 killed, wounded or missing [2] Seven Years War in North America: The French and Indian... Combatants France Britain Commanders Chaussegros de Léry James Wolfe Strength 259 regulars and militia 103 natives Unknown Casualties 1 dead 2 wounded 103 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Fort Bull was a French raid on the British-held Fort Bull on March 27, 1756. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm James Mercer † Strength 3,000 2,000 Casualties 30 dead or wounded 80 dead 1,700 captured The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theater of the Seven Years War won... The Kittanning Expedition, also known as the Armstrong Expedition, was a raid during the French and Indian War that led to the destruction of the Native American village of Kittanning, which had served as a staging point for attacks by Delaware (Lenape) and Shawnee warriors against European-American colonists in... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro Strength 1,600 natives 6,000 regulars and militia 2,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 297 dead or wounded 2,308 captured The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britains loss of... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Fortress of Louisbourg: Siege of 1758. ... The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in what was then the British colony of New York, July 7-July 8, 1758 during the French and Indian War, and resulted in a victory of the French garrison... The Battle of Fort Frontenac took place from August 25 to August 27, 1758 near the end of the Seven Years War (referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States) between France and Britain. ... Combatants France Britain American Colonies Commanders François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery James Grant Strength 500 natives and militia 400 regulars, 350 militia Casualties 8 killed, 8 wounded 104 killed, 220 wounded, 19 captured [1] The Battle of Fort Duquesne was a failed attempt by elements of [General John... The battle of fort Ligoneir was fought in 1758 and was a battle of the French-Indian war. ... The Battle of Ticonderoga of 1758 was an engagement of the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years War not so much a battle as an investment. ... The Battle of Fort Niagara was one of the final battles in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War. ... The Battle of Beauport was fought on July 31, 1759 between a British fleet and French land forces. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders James Wolfe † Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm † Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War... Combatants France Britain Commanders François Gaston de Lévis James Murray Strength 2,600 regulars 2,400 militia[1] 3,800 regulars 20 guns Casualties 833 dead or wounded 1,124 dead or wounded The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec (1760), was fought on... Combatants Britain France Commanders Capt. ... The Battle of the Thousand Islands was fought between 16 August and 24 August 1760, in the upper St. ... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Guillaume de Bellecombe William Amherst Strength 295 regulars 200 regulars and provincials Casualties 20–40 dead or wounded 4–5 dead 19 wounded The Battle of Signal Hill (September 15, 1762) was the final battle of the French and Indian War and forced the French... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... The Second Hundred Years War is a phrase used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ...

Contents

Naming the war

The conflict is known by several names. In British North America, wars were often named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. Because there had already been a King George's War in the 1740s, British colonists named the second war in King George's reign after their opponents, and thus it became known as the French and Indian War.[1] This traditional name remains standard in the United States, although it obscures the fact that American Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.[2] American historians generally use the traditional name or the European title (the Seven Years' War), and have also invented other, less frequently used names for the war, including the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire.[3] British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... King Georges War is the name given to the duck operations in North America that formed part of the 1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and...


In Great Britain and France, the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War war usually has no special name, and so the entire worldwide conflict is known as the Seven Years' War (or the Guerre de sept ans). The "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756 to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. These dates do not correspond with the actual fighting in North America, where the fighting between the two colonial powers was largely concluded in six years, from the Jumonville Glen skirmish in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760.[4] In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near what is present-day Uniontown in Western Pennsylvania. ...


In Canada, both French- and English-speaking Canadians refer to it as the Seven Years' War (Guerre de Sept Ans) or the War of the Conquest (Guerre de la Conquête), since it is the war in which New France was conquered by the British and became part of the British Empire.This war was also known as the Forgotten War. Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Causes

  • Both New France and New England wanted to expand their territories to better manage the fur trade economy.
  • Using trading posts and forts, both the British and the French claimed the vast territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, known as the Ohio Country. (English claims resulted from royal grants which had no definite western boundaries. The French claims resulted from La Salle's claiming the Mississippi River for France - its drainage area includes the Ohio River Valley.)
  • Both European countries ignored Native American claims to the land in order to pursue their beaver pelt economies.
  • The English colonists feared papal influence in North America (New France was administered by French governors and Roman Catholic hierarchy, and missionaries such as Armand de La Richardie were active during this period). For the predominantly Protestant British settlers, French control over North America could have represented a threat to their religious and other freedoms provided by English law.
  • The French feared the anti-Catholicism prevalent among English holdings. In this period, Catholicism was still enduring persecution under English law.
  • There were many differences in ideology between the French, Catholic colony, and the English, Protestant colony.
  • The French-Canadians were fighting to protect their colony's power, policies and socio-economy.
  • Newfoundland's Grand Banks were fertile fishing grounds and coveted by both sides. The conclusion of this war would see France keeping only the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, allowing them access to the Grand Banks to this day.

Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... La Salle can refer to: Lasalles invariance principle - a concept in control theory LaSalle automobile La Salle Records LaSalle Bank USS La Salle (AGF-3) USS La Salle (AP-102) Geography LaSalle, Ontario LaSalle, Quebec, borough of Montreal La Salle, Vosges, France La Salle, Italy La Salle, Colorado La... Native Americans redirects here. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... In the Roman Catholic Church, the threefold order, or hierarchy, of bishop, priest, and deacon, conferred through the sacrament of Holy Orders, is a structural feature considered to be of divine institution. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... Armand de La Richardie (7 June 1686 - 17 March 1758) was a French Roman Catholic missionary in Canada. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain is organised separately in England and Wales and in Scotland. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ...

Céloron's expedition

In June 1747, Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, the Governor-General of New France, ordered Pierre-Joseph Céloron to lead an expedition to the Ohio Country with the objective of removing British influence from the area. Céloron was also to confirm the allegiance of the Native Americans inhabiting the territory to the French crown. Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, Marquis de La Galissonière (sometimes Galissonnière) (10 November 1693 – 26 October 1756) was the French governor of New France from 1747 to 1749. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


Céloron's expedition consisted of 213 soldiers of the Troupes de la marine (French Marines), who were transported by 23 canoes. The expedition left Lachine, on June 15, 1749, and two days later reached Fort Frontenac. The expedition then continued along the shoreline of present-day Lake Erie. At Chautauqua Portage (Barcelona, New York), the expedition moved inland to the Allegheny River. The troupes de la marine (Troops of The Marine) were French part of the French Navy in the 17th century, recruited specifically for Frances military efforts in New France. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Plan of Fort Frontenac, 1685 Fort Frontenac was a French trading post and military fort built in 1673 in what is now Kingston, Ontario, Canada. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Westfield is a town in Chautauqua County, New York, USA. The population was 5,232 at the 2000 census. ... The Allegheny River (historically, especially in New York state, also spelled Allegany River) is a principal tributary of the Ohio River, which it forms with the Monongahela River at the downtown Pittsburghs Golden Triangle point. The river is approximately 325 mi (523 km) long, in the U.S. states...


The expedition headed south to the Ohio River at present-day Pittsburgh, and Céloron buried lead plates engraved with the French claim to the Ohio Country. Whenever British merchants or fur-traders were encountered by the French, they were informed of the illegality of being on French territory and told to leave the Ohio Country. View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ...


When Céloron's expedition arrived at Logstown, the Native Americans in the area informed Céloron that they owned the Ohio Country and that they would trade with the British regardless of what the French told them to do. (Fowler, 14) The village of Logstown (also Loggs Town) was a significant Native American settlement in Western Pennsylvania in the years leading to the French and Indian War. ...


The French continued their expedition. At its farthest point south, Céloron's expedition reached the junction between the Ohio River and the Miami River. The junction lay just south of the village of Pickawillany, where the Miami Chief, "Old Britain" (as styled by Céloron), lived. Pickawillany was a Miami Indian village located on the current site of the city of Piqua, Ohio in the United States. ... The Miami are a Native American tribe originally found in Indiana and Ohio, and now living also in Oklahoma. ...


When Céloron arrived at Pickawillany, he informed "Old Britain" of the "dire consequences" of the elderly chief continuing to trade with the British. "Old Britain" ignored the warning. After his meeting with Old Britain, Céloron and his expedition began the trip home. They did not reach Montreal until November 10, 1749. is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ...


The best summary of the expedition's findings came from none other than Céloron himself. In his report, Céloron wrote: "All I can say is that the Natives of these localities are very badly disposed towards the French, and are entirely devoted to the English. I don't know in what way they could be brought back." (Fowler, 14)


Langlade's expedition

On March 17, 1752, the Governor-General of New France, Marquis de la Jonquière died. His temporary replacement was Charles le Moyne de Longueuil. It was not until July 1, 1752 that Ange Duquense de Menneville arrived in New France to take over the post. is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de la Jonquière, Marquis de la Jonquière (b April 18, 1685 – d March 17, 1752) was appointed governor general of New France on March 1, 1746, a position he held until his death. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Other topics that could fall under Marquis Duquesne can be found at Marquis Duquesne (disambiguation) Marquis DuQuesne was a French Governor of Canada. ...


In the spring of 1752, Longueuil dispatched an expedition to the Ohio River area. The expedition was led by Charles Michel de Langlade, an officer in the Troupes de la marine. Langlade was given 300 men comprised of members of the Ottawa and French-Canadians. His objective was to punish the Miami people of Pickawillany for not following Céloron's orders to cease trading with the British. Charles Michel de Langlade (1729–c. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


At dawn on June 21, 1752, the French war party attacked Pickawillany, killing fourteen people of the Miami nation, including "Old Britain". The expedition then returned home. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Marin's expedition

In the spring of 1753, Paul Marin de la Malgue was given command of a 2,000 man force of Troupes de la Marine and Aboriginals. His orders were to protect the King's land in the Ohio Valley from the British. Paul Marin de la Malgue (b March 1692 – d October 29, 1753) was the eldest son of Charles-Paul Marin de la Malgue and Catherine Niquet. ...


Marin followed the route that Céloron had mapped out four years previously. The main difference in the two expeditions were that, whereas Céloron had buried lead plates, Marin was constructing and garrisoning forts.


The first fort that was constructed by Paul Marin was at Presque Isle (Erie, Pennsylvania) on Lake Erie's south shore. He then had a road built to the headwaters of Rivière aux Boeuf. Marin then constructed a second fort at Le Boeuf (Waterford, Pennsylvania). This fort was designed to guard the headwaters of the Rivière aux Boeuf. “Erie” redirects here. ... This was the second French fort in Pennsylvania and was located at present day Waterford. ... Waterford is a borough located in Erie County, Pennsylvania. ...


Tanaghrisson's proclamation

On September 3, 1753, Tanaghrisson, Chief of the Mingo, arrived at Fort Le Boeuf. Tanaghrisson hated the French because, as legend had it, the French had killed and eaten his father. Tanaghrisson told Marin, "I shall strike at whoever..." (Fowler, 31), threatening the French. is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Tanacharisson (Half King) (1700? - 1754) A leader of the Mingo (Seneca tribe) of Native American Indians who took part in the French and Indian War as an ally of the British. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ...


The show of force by the French had alarmed the Iroquois in the area. They sent Mohawk runners to William Johnson's manor in Upper New York. Johnson, known to the Iroquois as "Warraghiggey", meaning "He who does big business", had become a respected member of the Iroquois Confederacy in the area. In 1746, Johnson was made a colonel of the Iroquois, and later a colonel of the Western New York Militia. For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


At Albany, New York, there was a meeting between Governor Clinton of New York and Chief Hendrick, as well as other officials from a handful of American colonies. Chief Hendrick insisted that the British abide by their obligations and block French expansion. When an unsatisfactory response was offered by Clinton, Chief Hendrick proclaimed that the "Covenant Chain", a long-standing friendly relationship between the Iroquois Confederacy and the British Crown, was broken.


Dinwiddie's reaction

Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia found himself in a predicament. Many merchants had invested heavily in fur trading in Ohio. If the French made good on their claim to the Ohio Country and drove out the British, then the Virginian merchants would lose a lot of money. Image File history File links WashingtonFIwar. ... Image File history File links WashingtonFIwar. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Robert Dinwiddie, lieutenant governor of Virginia Michael Dinwiddie (1693 – July 27, 1770) was a British colonial administrator who served as lieutenant governor of colonial Virginia from 1751 to 1758, first under Governor Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle, and then, from July 1756 to January 1758, as deputy...


Dinwiddie could not possibly allow the loss of the Ohio Country to France. To counter the French military presence in Ohio, in October 1753 Dinwiddie ordered Major George Washington of the Virginia militia to deliver a message to the commander of the French forces in the Ohio Country, Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre. Washington, along with his interpreter Jacob Van Braam and several other men, left for Fort Le Boeuf on the 31st of October. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre (October 24, 1701 – September 8, 1755) traced his lineage to a number of New Frances prominent families. ... In perhaps the Earliest and best sourced biography of George Washington by perhaps the new nations premier writer, Washington Irving it gives details to the effect that in 1751 or shortly after when he was but 19 years old and appointed a militia leader for his district with the nominal... Fort Le Boeuf was a fort established by the French in 1753 on a fork of French Creek, which is a tributary of the Allegheny River in northwestern Pennsylvania. ...


A few days later, Washington and his party arrived at Wills Creek (Cumberland, Maryland). Here Washington enlisted the help of Christopher Gist, a surveyor who was familiar with the area.


Washington and his party arrived at Logstown on November 24, 1753. At Logstown, Washington met with Tanaghrisson, Chief of the Mingo. Tanaghrisson was angry over the encroachment by the French military of his land. Washington convinced Tanaghrisson to accompany his small group to Fort Le Boeuf. is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Tanacharisson (Half King) (1700? - 1754) A leader of the Mingo (Seneca tribe) of Native American Indians who took part in the French and Indian War as an ally of the British. ...


On December 12, 1753, Washington and his men reached Fort Le Boeuf. Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre invited Washington to dine with him that evening. Over dinner, Washington presented Saint-Pierre with the letter from Dinwiddie that demanded an immediate French withdrawal from the Ohio Country. Saint-Pierre was quite civil in his response, saying, "As to the Summons you send me to retire, I do not think myself obliged to obey it." (Fowler, 35) is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Washington's party left Fort Le Boeuf early on December 16, 1753. By January 16, 1754, they had arrived in Williamsburg, Virginia. In his report, Washington stated, "The French had swept south." (Fowler, 36) They had constructed and garrisoned forts at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf and Venango. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


War

The French and Indian War was the last of four major colonial wars between the British, the French, and their Native American allies. Unlike the previous three wars, the French and Indian War began on North American soil and then spread to Europe, where Britain and France continued fighting. Britain officially declared war on France on May 15, 1756, marking the beginnings of the Seven Years' War in Europe.Queen cheyenne was the lemon of queens. while the war was happening, she realized how special she was and hid while giving orders to keep fighting. She loved dogs, so the French killed all of her labradores to make her surrender. Native Americans fought for both sides, but primarily alongside the French (with one exception being the Iroquois Confederacy, which sided with the American colonies and Britain). The first major event of the war was in 1754. Major George Washington, then twenty-one years of age, was sent to negotiate boundaries with the French, who did not give up their forts. Washington led a group of Virginian (colonial) troops to confront the French at Fort Duquesne (present day Pittsburgh). Washington stumbled upon the French at the Battle of Jumonville Glen (about six miles NW of soon-to-be-established Fort Necessity [see below]), and in the ensuing skirmish, a French Officer (Joseph Coulon de Jumonville) was killed, news of which would have certainly provoked a strong French response. Washington pulled back a few miles and established Fort Necessity. The French forced Washington and his men to retreat. Meanwhile, the Albany Congress was taking place as means to discuss further action. Meanwhile, Queen Cheyanne was got marryd to the top lab breeder and they had many kids that all had pats. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2128x2274, 857 KB)Map of the scene of operations of the French and Indian War. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... 19th century illustration of Fort Duquesne, by Alfred Waud. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near what is present-day Uniontown in Western Pennsylvania. ... Fort Necessity was a British fortress west of the Pennsylvania colony. ... Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de Jumonville (8 September 1718 – May 28, 1754) was a French Canadian military officer. ... Main article: Battle of the Great Meadows Fort Necessity National Battlefield, located near Farmington, Pennsylvania, commemorates the first military engagement of the French and Indian War (known as the Seven Years War outside of the United States). ... The Albany Congress was a meeting of representatives of seven of the British North American colonies in 1754 (specifically, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, & Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island). ...


Edward Braddock led a campaign against the French at Fort Duquesne in 1755; Washington was again among the British and colonial troops. Braddock employed European tactics: bold, linear marches and firing formations. This led to disaster at the Monongahela, where the French and natives, though heavily outmanned and outgunned (the British had a heavy cannon), used superior tactics (using the trees and bushes as cover) to gun down and rout the British. Braddock was killed; Washington, despite four close calls, escaped unharmed and led the survivors in retreat. This stunning British defeat heralded a string of major French victories over the next few years, at Fort Oswego, Fort William Henry, Fort Duquesne, and Carillon, where veteran Montcalm famously defeated five times his number. The sole British successes in the early years of the war came in 1755, at the Battle of Lake George, which secured the Hudson Valley; and in the taking of Fort Beauséjour by Colonel Robert Monckton, which protected the Nova Scotia frontier. An unfortunate consequence of the latter was the subsequent forced deportation of the Acadian population of Nova Scotia and the Beaubassin region of Acadia. After Queen Cheyanne died by being killed by a rampaging donkey and left her 33 kids and 54 labs to her great aunt Mistress Elevator. General Edward Braddock General Edward Braddock (1695? – July 13, 1755) was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for North America during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War. ... Combatants France Indian Tribes Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm James Mercer † Strength 3,000 2,000 Casualties 30 dead or wounded 80 dead 1,700 captured The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theater of the Seven Years War won... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro Strength 1,600 natives 6,000 regulars and militia 2,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 297 dead or wounded 2,308 captured The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britains loss of... Combatants France Britain American Colonies Commanders François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery James Grant Strength 500 natives and militia 400 regulars, 350 militia Casualties 8 killed, 8 wounded 104 killed, 220 wounded, 19 captured [1] The Battle of Fort Duquesne was a failed attempt by elements of [General John... The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in what was then the British colony of New York, July 7-July 8, 1758 during the French and Indian War, and resulted in a victory of the French garrison... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders William Johnson, 1st Baronet Johnson, King Hendrick † Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau Strength 1,500 militia, 200 Mohawks 3,500 regulars, militia, and natives Casualties 331 killed, wounded or missing [1] 339 killed, wounded or missing [2] Seven Years War in North America: The French and Indian... For the magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine). ... Fort Beauséjour is a National Historic Site located in Aulac, New Brunswick, Canada. ... Robert Monckton (24 June 1726 – 21 May 1782) was an officer of the British army and a colonial administrator in British North America. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Le Grand Dérangement is the French name for the Great Expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia by the British in 1755. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... The Tantramar Marshes are on the southern part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, which joins Nova_Scotia to New_Brunswick and the Canadian mainland. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ...


The year 1756 brought with it William Pitt, Secretary of State of Great Britain. His leadership, and France's continued neglect of the North-American theater, eventually turned the tide in favor of the British. The French were driven from many frontier posts such as Fort Niagara, and the key Fortress Louisbourg fell to the British in 1758. In 1759, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham gave Quebec City to the British, who had to withstand a siege there after the Battle of Sainte-Foy a year later. In September of 1760, Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, the King's Governor of New France, negotiated a surrender with British General Jeffrey Amherst. General Amherst granted Vaudreuil's request that any French residents who chose to remain in the colony would be given freedom to continue worshiping in their Roman Catholic tradition, continued ownership of their property, and the right to remain undisturbed in their homes. The British provided medical treatment for the sick and wounded French soldiers and French regular troops were returned to France aboard British ships with an agreement that they were not to serve again in the present war.Every one will remember Queen Cheyanne and love her for ever..... !?!?!?!@#$^&*()(&% William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years War (aka French and Indian War) and who was later Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... The Secretary of State for the Southern Department was a position in the cabinet of the government of United Kingdom up to 1782. ... The Battle of Fort Niagara was one of the final battles in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War. ... Fortress Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction of an 18th century French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders James Wolfe † Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm † Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Combatants France Britain Commanders François Gaston de Lévis James Murray Strength 2,600 regulars 2,400 militia[1] 3,800 regulars 20 guns Casualties 833 dead or wounded 1,124 dead or wounded The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec (1760), was fought on... Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal (22 November 1698 – 4 August 1778) was a Canadian-born French colonial governor in the Americas. ... The Governor of New France was the head of state representing the King of France in North America. ... Jeffrey Amherst, painted by Joshua Reynolds in 1765 Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, or Jeffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 – August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British Army. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ...

French and Indian War timeline
Year Dates Event Location
1754 May 28th
July 3rd
Battle of Jumonville Glen
Battle of the Great Meadows (Fort Necessity)
Uniontown, Pennsylvania
Uniontown, Pennsylvania
1755 May 29th – July 9th
June 3rd – 16th
July 9th
September 8th
Braddock expedition
Battle of Fort Beauséjour
Battle of the Monongahela
Battle of Lake George
Western Pennsylvania
Sackville, New Brunswick
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Lake George, New York
1756 August 10th – 14th
September 8th
Battle of Fort Oswego
Kittanning Expedition
Oswego, New York
Western Pennsylvania
1757 August 2nd – 6th Battle of Fort William Henry Lake George, New York
1758 June 8th - July 26th
July 7th – 8th
September 14th
October 12th
Second Battle of Louisbourg
Battle of Carillon (Fort Ticonderoga)
Battle of Fort Duquesne
Battle of Fort Ligonier
Louisbourg, Nova Scotia
Ticonderoga, New York
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Western Pennsylvania
1759
July 6th – 26th
July 31st
September 13th
Battle of Ticonderoga (1759)
Battle of Fort Niagara
Battle of Beauport
Battle of the Plains of Abraham
Ticonderoga, New York
Fort Niagara, New York
Quebec City
Quebec City
1760 April 28th
July 3-8th
August 16th – 24th
Battle of Sainte-Foy
Battle of Restigouche
Battle of the Thousand Islands
Quebec City
Pointe-a-la-Croix, Quebec
Ogdensburg, New York
1762 September 15th Battle of Signal Hill St. John's, Newfoundland
1763 February 10th Treaty of Paris Paris, France

The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near what is present-day Uniontown in Western Pennsylvania. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders George Washington James Mackay Louis Coulon de Villiers Strength 100 regulars 193 militia, and natives 100 natives 600 marines, and militia Casualties 31 dead 70 wounded 192 captured 3 dead 19 wounded The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity... Fort Necessity was a British fortress west of the Pennsylvania colony. ... Uniontown is a city in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 50 miles (80 km) south by east of Pittsburgh. ... Uniontown is a city in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 50 miles (80 km) south by east of Pittsburgh. ... Combatants France Indian Tribes Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor Robert Monckton Strength 162 2,000 Casualties 162 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown The Battle of Fort Beauséjour marked the opening of a British-American offensive in North America in the Seven Years War. ... Route of the Braddock Expedition. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders William Johnson, 1st Baronet Johnson, King Hendrick † Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau Strength 1,500 militia, 200 Mohawks 3,500 regulars, militia, and natives Casualties 331 killed, wounded or missing [1] 339 killed, wounded or missing [2] Seven Years War in North America: The French and Indian... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Sackville Waterfowl Park Sackville (, AST) is a town in Westmorland County, located in South-Eastern New Brunswick, Canada, only eight km from the Nova Scotia border and 45 km from the regional city of Moncton. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York, USA. The lake extends about 32. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm James Mercer † Strength 3,000 2,000 Casualties 30 dead or wounded 80 dead 1,700 captured The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theater of the Seven Years War won... The Kittanning Expedition, also known as the Armstrong Expedition, was a raid during the French and Indian War that led to the destruction of the Native American village of Kittanning, which had served as a staging point for attacks by Delaware (Lenape) and Shawnee warriors against European-American colonists in... Look up Oswego in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro Strength 1,600 natives 6,000 regulars and militia 2,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 297 dead or wounded 2,308 captured The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britains loss of... Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York, USA. The lake extends about 32. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Fortress of Louisbourg: Siege of 1758. ... The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in what was then the British colony of New York, July 7-July 8, 1758 during the French and Indian War, and resulted in a victory of the French garrison... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson... Combatants France Britain American Colonies Commanders François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery James Grant Strength 500 natives and militia 400 regulars, 350 militia Casualties 8 killed, 8 wounded 104 killed, 220 wounded, 19 captured [1] The Battle of Fort Duquesne was a failed attempt by elements of [General John... The battle of fort Ligoneir was fought in 1758 and was a battle of the French-Indian war. ... Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island. ... Ticonderoga is a town located in Essex County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 5,167. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... The Battle of Ticonderoga of 1758 was an engagement of the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years War not so much a battle as an investment. ... The Battle of Fort Niagara was one of the final battles in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War. ... The Battle of Beauport was fought on July 31, 1759 between a British fleet and French land forces. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders James Wolfe † Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm † Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War... Ticonderoga is a town located in Essex County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 5,167. ... Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ... This article is about the state. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Combatants France Britain Commanders François Gaston de Lévis James Murray Strength 2,600 regulars 2,400 militia[1] 3,800 regulars 20 guns Casualties 833 dead or wounded 1,124 dead or wounded The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec (1760), was fought on... Combatants Britain France Commanders Capt. ... The Battle of the Thousand Islands was fought between 16 August and 24 August 1760, in the upper St. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Pointe-à-la-Croix (Cross Point in English) is a town located on the Restigouche River in the Gaspésie region of eastern Quebec, Canada. ... Ogdensburg is a city in St. ... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Guillaume de Bellecombe William Amherst Strength 295 regulars 200 regulars and provincials Casualties 20–40 dead or wounded 4–5 dead 19 wounded The Battle of Signal Hill (September 15, 1762) was the final battle of the French and Indian War and forced the French... Nickname: Motto: Avancez (Go forward) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Newfoundland and Labrador Established August 5, 1583 by Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I Government  - City Mayor Andy Wells  - Governing body St. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...

Outcome

The descent of the French on St. John's, Newfoundland, 1762
The descent of the French on St. John's, Newfoundland, 1762

Though most of the North American fighting ended on September 8, 1760, when the Marquis de Vaudreuil surrendered Montreal — and effectively all of Canada — to Britain (one notable late battle allowed the capture of Spanish Havana by British and colonial forces in 1762), the war officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763. The treaty resulted in France's loss of all its North American possessions east of the Mississippi (all of Canada was ceded to Britain) except Saint Pierre and Miquelon, two small islands off Newfoundland. France regained the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, which had been occupied by the British. The economic value of these islands was greater than that of Canada at the time, because of their rich sugar crops, and the islands were easier to defend. Spain gained Louisiana, including New Orleans, in compensation for its loss of Florida to the British. Image File history File links French_attack_St. ... Image File history File links French_attack_St. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...


One result of the war was that Britain gained control of French Canada, a colony containing approximately 65,000 French-speaking, Roman Catholic residents. Early in the war, in 1755, the British had expelled French settlers from Acadia (some of whom eventually fled to Louisiana, creating the Cajun population). Now at peace, and eager to secure control of its hard-won colony, Great Britain found itself obliged to make concessions to its newly conquered subjects; this was achieved with the Quebec Act of 1774. The history of the Seven Years' War, particularly the siege of Québec and the death of Wolfe, generated a vast number of ballads, broadsides, images, maps and other printed materials, which testify to how this event continued to capture the imagination of the British public long after Wolfe's death in 1759.[5] Canada was the name of the French colony along the St. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... // The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. ...


The European theatre of the war was settled by the Treaty of Hubertusburg on February 15, 1763. The war changed economic, political, and social relations between Britain and its colonies. It plunged Britain into debt, which the Crown chose to pay off with tax money from its colonies. These taxes contributed to the beginning the American Revolutionary War.[citation needed] The Treaty of Hubertusburg, signed on 15 February 1763, together with the Treaty of Paris signed on 10 February 1763, marked the end of the French and Indian War and of the Seven Years War. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about military actions only. ...


Battles and expeditions

United States
Canada

The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near what is present-day Uniontown in Western Pennsylvania. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on July 3, 1754 in present-day Fayette County, Pennsylvania. ... The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on July 3, 1754 in present-day Fayette County, Pennsylvania. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France Indian Tribes Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Kittanning Expedition, also known as the Armstrong Expedition, was a raid during the French and Indian War that led to the destruction of the Native American village of Kittanning, which had served as a staging point for attacks by Delaware (Lenape) and Shawnee warriors against European-American colonists in... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France Britain American Colonies Commanders François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery James Grant Strength 500 natives and militia 400 regulars, 350 militia Casualties 8 killed, 8 wounded 104 killed, 220 wounded, 19 captured [1] The Battle of Fort Duquesne was a failed attempt by elements of [General John... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The battle of fort Ligoneir was fought in 1758 and was a battle of the French-Indian war. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Forbes (5 September 1707 – March 11, 1759) was a British general in the French and Indian War. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders William Johnson, 1st Baronet Johnson, King Hendrick † Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau Strength 1,500 militia, 200 Mohawks 3,500 regulars, militia, and natives Casualties 331 killed, wounded or missing [1] 339 killed, wounded or missing [2] Seven Years War in North America: The French and Indian... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm James Mercer † Strength 3,000 2,000 Casualties 30 dead or wounded 80 dead 1,700 captured The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theater of the Seven Years War won... Rogers Rangers was an independent company of rangers attached to the British Army during the French and Indian War. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Chaussegros de Léry James Wolfe Strength 259 regulars and militia 103 natives Unknown Casualties 1 dead 2 wounded 103 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Fort Bull was a French raid on the British-held Fort Bull on March 27, 1756. ... Hague is a town located in Warren County, New York. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro Strength 1,600 natives 6,000 regulars and militia 2,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 297 dead or wounded 2,308 captured The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britains loss of... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in what was then the British colony of New York, July 7-July 8, 1758 during the French and Indian War, and resulted in a victory of the French garrison... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Ticonderoga of 1758 was an engagement of the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years War not so much a battle as an investment. ... The Battle of Fort Niagara was one of the final battles in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War. ... The Battle of the Thousand Islands was fought between 16 August and 24 August 1760, in the upper St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... On April 18, 1756 was the Battle of Great Cacapon River or Mercers Massacre in Morgan County, West Virginia. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor Robert Monckton Strength 162 2,000 Casualties 162 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown The Battle of Fort Beauséjour marked the opening of a British-American offensive in North America in the Seven Years War. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Fortress Louisbourg (fr. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Battle of the Thousand Islands was fought between 16 August and 24 August 1760, in the upper St. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... The Battle of Beauport was fought on July 31, 1759 between a British fleet and French land forces. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Britain France Commanders James Wolfe † Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm † Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France Britain Commanders François Gaston de Lévis James Murray Strength 2,600 regulars 2,400 militia[1] 3,800 regulars 20 guns Casualties 833 dead or wounded 1,124 dead or wounded The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec (1760), was fought on... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Britain France Commanders Capt. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Guillaume de Bellecombe William Amherst Strength 295 regulars 200 regulars and provincials Casualties 20–40 dead or wounded 4–5 dead 19 wounded The Battle of Signal Hill (September 15, 1762) was the final battle of the French and Indian War and forced the French... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Anderson, Crucible of War, 747.
  2. ^ Jennings, Empire of Fortune, xv.
  3. ^ Anderson, Crucible of War, 747.
  4. ^ Anderson, Crucible of War, 747.
  5. ^ Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada

Further reading

  • Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766. New York: Knopf, 2000. ISBN 0-375-40642-5.
  • Anderson, Fred. The War that Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War. New York: Viking 2005. ISBN 0-670-03454-1. Released in conjunction with the 2006 PBS miniseries The War that Made America.
  • Eckert, Allan W. Wilderness Empire. Bantam Books, 1994, originally published 1969. ISBN 0-553-26488-5. Second volume in a series of historical narratives, with emphasis on Sir William Johnson. Academic historians often regard Eckert's books, which are written in the style of novels, to be fiction.
  • Fowler, W.M. Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle for North America, 1754-1763. New York: Walker, 2005. ISBN 0-8027-1411-0
  • Jennings, Francis. Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America. New York: Norton, 1988. ISBN 0-393-30640-2.
  • Parkman, Francis. Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War. Originally published 1884. New York: Da Capo, 1984. ISBN 0-306-81077-8.
  • Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada

Fred Anderson- The Lone Prophet on the Prairie © Jim Jones Fred Anderson was born in Monroe, Louisiana on March 22, 1929. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The War that Made America is a PBS miniseries about the French and Indian War, which was first aired in January 2006. ... Allan W. Eckert (born January 30, American historian, naturalist and author Allan W. Eckert was born on January 30, 1931 in Buffalo, New York, and raised in the Chicago, Illinois area but has been a long-time resident of Ohio where he attended university. ... Francis Parkman Francis Parkman (September 16, 1823 – November 8, 1893) was born in Boston, Massachusetts and died in Jamaica Plain, Boston, Massachusetts. ... France and England in North America is an eight-volume history written by Francis Parkman. ...

See also

The Fort at Number 4 was the northern most English settelment along the Connecticut River in New Hampshire untill after the French and Indian War more than 30 miles (50 km) from the nearest English settlement at Fort Dummer. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... King Georges War is the name given to the duck operations in North America that formed part of the 1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. ... The Great Upheaval (le Grand Dérangement), also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation or the Acadian Expulsion, was the forced population transfer of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755 and 1763, ordered by British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... The New Hampshire Provincial Regiment was a composit regiment made up of units of the New Hampshire Militia during the French and Indian War for service with the British Army in North America. ... The cartoon, taken from USFlag. ... Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a... Rogers Rangers was an independent company of rangers attached to the British Army during the French and Indian War. ... The Mitchell Map Mitchell Map is the common name used to refer to a map made by John Mitchell and all the various reprints made during the late 18th century. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
French and Indian Wars. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1165 words)
The first of the wars, King William’s War (1689–97), approximately corresponds to the European War of the Grand Alliance (1688–97).
War had thus broken out before fighting began in Europe in the Seven Years War.
The French Louis Joseph de Montcalm, one of the great commanders of his time, distinguished himself (1758) by repulsing the attack of James Abercromby on Ticonderoga.
French and Indian War - MSN Encarta (1245 words)
French and Indian War (1754-1763), the last of four North American wars waged from 1689 to 1763 between the British and the French.
The French and Indian War was part of a 'great war for empire,' a determined and eventually successful attempt by the British to attain a dominant position in North America, the West Indies, and the subcontinent of India.
The French and Indian War not only stripped France of its North American empire, it also caused Britain to change its relationship to its colonies, a change that eventually led to the American Revolution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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