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Encyclopedia > French Wars of Religion
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The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. In addition to the religious elements, they involved a struggle of influence over the ruling of the country between the powerful House of Guise (Lorraine) and the Catholic League, on the one hand, and the House of Bourbon on the other hand. Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... Ancient history is the study of significant cultural and political events from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. ... Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic La Tène culture. // The Palaeolithic Lower Palaeolithic France includes Olduwan (Abbevillian) and Acheulean sites from... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The direct Capetian Dynasty followed the Carolingian rulers of France from 987 to 1328. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion - Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814-1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The First French Empire, commonly known as the French Empire or the Napoleonic Empire, covers the period of the domination of France and much of continental Europe by Napoleon I of France. ... Following the ouster of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Between 1944 and 1946 France was ruled by the Provisional Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement provisoire de la République française). ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... This is a history of the economy of France. ... Disclaimer: It must be noted that reference to French people as an ethnic group is not present in French official terminology. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... This is a timeline of French history. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Calvinists (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... This term is normally used in political parties and sometimes in religious organizations to describe dissenters from a hegemony. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The House of Guise was a French ducal family, primarily responsible for the French Wars of Religion. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ...

Contents

Protestants in France

Protestantism had been unknown in France until about 1520 to 1523. John Calvin (1509-64), a Frenchman, exerted a powerful influence on the reform movement. Protestantism is one of three main groups currently within Christianity. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


In 1559, delegates from 66 Protestant churches in France met at Paris in a national synod which drew up a confession of faith and a book of discipline. Thus was organized the first national Protestant church of France. Its members were thereafter commonly known as Huguenots, probably a corruption of Eidgenossen, the name of the Confederates of Switzerland and Geneva from whom the French drew so much of their religious thought and organization. Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Eidgenossenschaft is a German term that literally translated means confederacy of the oath. In a strict sense an Eidgenossenschaft is a confederacy of equal partners, which can be individuals or groups such as states, formed by a pact sealed by an oath on God. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


The early conflicts

In 1560, Catherine de Medici became regent for her young son Charles IX. Her inexperience and lack of financial support created a "political vacuum" and Catherine felt that she had to steer the throne carefully between the powerful and conflicting interests that surrounded it. Although she was a sincere Roman Catholic, she was prepared to deal favourably with the Huguenot House of Bourbon in order to have a counterweight against the overmighty House of Guise. She nominated a moderate chancellor, Michel de l'Hôpital, who urged a number of measures providing for toleration of the Huguenots. Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519–January 5, 1589), born in Italy as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici, and later queen of France under the French name Catherine de M dicis, was the wife of King Henry II of France, of the Valois branch of the kings... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) was born Charles-Maximilien, the son of King Henri II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... The House of Guise was a French ducal family, primarily responsible for the French Wars of Religion. ... Michel lHospital Michel de lHôpital (or lHospital) (c. ...


She therefore was led to support religious toleration in the shape of the Edict of Saint-Germain (1562), which allowed the Huguenots to worship publicly outside of towns and privately in towns. On March 1, however, the Guise faction attacked a Huguenot service at Wassy-sur-Blaise in Champagne and committed a general massacre. The Edict was revoked, under pressure from the Guise faction. The Edict of Saint-Germain was an Edict of Toleration promulgated in 16th century France. ... Events Earliest English slave-trading expedition under John Hawkins. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... Wassy or Wassy-sur-Blaise is a commune of the Haute-Marne département, in France. ... Champagne is one of the traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ...


This provoked a response from the Bourbons, who, led by Condé, organised a kind of protectorate over the Protestant churches and began to garrison strategic towns along the Loire. Here, at Dreux and at Orléans, there were the first major engagements; at Dreux, Condé was captured by the Guises and Montmorency, the governent general, by the Bourbons. At Orléans, Francis, Duke of Guise was assassinated, and Catherine's fears that the war might drag on led her to negotiate a truce and the Edict of Amboise (1563). Louis I was the first Prince of Condé. Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (May 7, 1530 – March 13, 1569) was a Huguenot leader and general. ... Loire is a département in the east-central part of France occupying the Loire Rivers upper reaches. ... Dreux is a town and commune in northwest France, in the Eure-et-Loir département. ... Orléans Cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Cross, built from 1278 to 1329; after being pillaged by Huguenots in the 1560s, the Bourbon kings restored it in the 17th century. ... Anne, First Duke of Montmorency (March 15, 1493 – November 12, 1567), was a soldier and constable of France. ... Francis, Duke of Guise Francis, 2nd Duke of Guise (February 17, 1519, Château Bar-le-Duc – February 24, 1563, Château Corney), called Balafré the scarred, was a French soldier and politician. ... The Edict of Amboise was signed on March 19, 1563 by Catherine de Medici. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ...


This was generally regarded as unsatisfactory by all concerned, the Catholics in particular being uneasy about what they regarded as unwise concessions to the heretics. The political temperature of the surrounding lands was rising, as unrest grew in the Netherlands. The Huguenots became suspicious of Spanish intentions when the latter reinforced their strategic corridor from Italy north along the Rhine and made an unsuccessful attempt at taking control of the king. This provoked a further outburst of hostilities which ended in another unsatisfactory truce, the Peace of Longjumeau (March 1568). Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ...


In September of that year, war again broke out and Catherine and Charles decided to throw in their lot with the Guises. Religious toleration was once more at an end, and the Huguenots, along with a contingent of some fellow Protestant militias from Germany and Switzerland, fought the Catholics to another standstill — signalled by the Regent's Peace of Saint-Germain (5th August 1570), which once more allowed some religious toleration of the Huguenots. In the third of the French Wars of Religion between Catholics and Protestants (1568 to 1570), the Protestant Huguenots had suffered a setback at the Battle of Jarnac (1569), where their general, the prince de Condé, was slain; and following the appointment of Henry of Navarre (later Henri IV) as... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ...


Despite this shaky truce, massacres of Huguenots at the hands of enraged Catholic mobs continued in 1571, in cities such as Rouen, Orange and Paris. Matters became complicated thereafter as Charles IX warmed to the Huguenot leaders — especially the Admiral of France, Gaspard de Coligny — while Charles' mother became suspicious and eventually alarmed. When it became clear that the king was bent on a full-scale alliance with England and the Dutch rebels, Catherine plotted the assassination of de Coligny. Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and presently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... Roman theatre at Orange, France Orange (Arenjo in Provençal) is a city in the département of Vaucluse, in the south of France. ... The title Admiral of France is one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France, the naval equivalent of Marshal of France. ... Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon, Admiral of France and Protestant leader, came of a noble family of Burgundy. ...


The first attempt was made on August 22, 1572. It failed, and Charles was persuaded that the Huguenots would take revenge against the crown. In fact, many Huguenots were in Paris for the marriage of Marguerite de Valois to Henry of Navarre on August 28. Told that it was a necessary pre-emptive strike, Charles approved the massacre of the Protestants, beginning with the Admiral. This event became known to history as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Throughout August 23 Huguenots were slaughtered in the thousands (conservative estimate - 23,000) in Paris and, in the days that followed, many more in the provinces. August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Marguerite de Valois For other women of the same name, see Marguerite de Valois (disambiguation) Margaret of Valois (May 14, 1553 – May 27, 1615), Queen Margot (La reine Margot) was Queen of France and Navarre. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... 19th century painting by François Dubois The St. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ...


Both Philip II of Spain and Pope Gregory XIII declared themselves pleased with the outcome, which was naturally viewed with horror by their religious opponents throughout Europe. In France, it solidified Huguenot opposition to the crown. Philip II of Spain. ... Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope from 1572 to 1585. ...


Henry III takes over

Charles IX died in May of 1574 and Henry III succeeded him. Henry soon found himself with the same problem of trying to maintain royal authority in the face of the competing factions. The Guises, who had formed the Catholic League, had the unwavering support of the Spanish superpower and were therefore in a very strong position throughout the 1580s. The Huguenots, however, had the advantage of a regional power base in the southwest — they were supported in principle by outside Protestant forces, but in practice the other Protestant powers, such as England or the German states, could bring no useful forces to bear. Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... Henry III (French: Henri III) (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from May 30, 1574 until his death. ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... Events and Trends The beginnings of the Golden Age of Literature in England Sir Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland as Englands first overseas colony in 1583 Francis Drake had come back from going around the world, bringing back with him many treasures. ...


Things came to a head again in 1584, with the death of Henry's younger brother, François, duke of Anjou and Alençon, who was the heir to the throne, because Henry III had no children. Now, according to the Salic law, the succession would have to pass on to Henry King of Navarre, a Protestant prince. As the head of the Guise family was also a Henry, the ensuing period of the wars, 1585 — 1589, is called the "War of the Three Henries". The king at first tried to put himself at the head of the Catholic League, while remaining in favour of a moderated settlement. This was anathema to the Catholic extremists, who wanted the Huguenots completely suppressed. In May 1588, Paris rose against the king and in favour of the Guises; the king left the city. The Guises then proposed a settlement with a cipher as heir and demanded a meeting of the States General, which took place at Blois in December of that year. 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... In France under the Ancien Régime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: États généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ... Blois is a city in France, the préfecture (capital) city of the Loir-et-Cher département, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours. ...


At Blois, Henry of Guise was lured into a trap and assassinated, on the orders of the King. The Catholic League went into a frenzy and the Sorbonne declared it a pious act to assassinate the king, a declaration reminiscent of the Papal bull Regnans in Excelsis against Elizabeth I. In July 1589, Henry was assassinated by a fanatic monk named Jacques Clément, but lived long enough to name Henry of Navarre as heir to the throne. Henry, 3rd Duke of Guise (January 31, 1550 - December 23, 1588) was the son of Francis, Duke of Guise. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The Sorbonne today, from the same point of view The Sorbonne is frequently used in ordinary parlance as synonymous with the faculty of theology of Paris or the University of Paris in its entirety. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... The Pope and the Queen Regnans in Excelsis was a papal bull issued on February 25, 1570 by Pope Pius V declaring Elizabeth I to be a heretic and releasing all her subjects from any allegiance. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... Jacques Clément (1567 - August 1, 1589) was the murderer of the French king Henry III. He was born at Serbonnes, in todays Yonne département, in Burgundy, and became a Dominican friar. ...


The situation on the ground in 1590 was that King Henry IV of France, as Navarre had become, held the south and west, and the Catholic League the north and east. The new king knew that he had to take Paris if he stood any chance of reuniting the kingdom. Paris was besieged, but the siege was lifted with Spanish support. Realising that there was no prospect of a Protestant king succeeding in fanatically Catholic Paris, Henry, with the famous phrase Paris vaut bien une messe (Paris is worth the mess), announced his conversion to the old faith and was crowned at Chartres in 1594. Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... Chartres is a town and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Eure-et-Loir département. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ...


War theater in Brittany

In 1582 Henry III of France, the last living male-line grandson of Claude, Duchess of Brittany, had made Philippe Emmanuel, Duke of Mercoeur, a leader of Catholic League, governor of Brittany. Mercoeur put himself at the head of the Catholic League in Brittany, and had himself proclaimed protector of the Roman Catholic Church in the province in 1588. Invoking the hereditary rights of his wife, Marie de Luxembourg, who was a descendant of the dukes of Brittany and heiress of the Blois-Brosse claim to the duchy as well as Duchess of Penthievre in Brittany, he endeavoured to make himself independent in that province, and organized a government at Nantes, proclaiming his son "prince and duke of Brittany". He allied with Philip II of Spain, who however sought to put his own daughter, infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia, to the throne of Brittany. With the aid of the Spaniards Mercoeur defeated the duc de Montpensier, whom Henry IV of France had sent against him, at Craon in 1592, but the royal troops, reinforced by English contingents, soon recovered the advantage. The king marched against Mercoeur in person, and received his submission at Angers on March 20, 1598. Mercoeur subsequently went to exile in Hungary. Mercoeur's daughter and heiress was married to Cesar de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome, an illegitimate son of king Henry. Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... Henry III (French: Henri III) (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from May 30, 1574 until his death. ... Philippe Emmanuel of Lorraine-Mercoeur, Duke of Mercoeur (September 9, 1558, Nancy – February 19, 1602, Nürnberg), the eldest surviving son of Nicholas, Duke of Mercoeur and Joanna of Savoy-Nemours, was a French soldier and prominent member of the Catholic League. ... Throughout history there have been many alliances and organizations known as the Catholic League, including: Catholic League (USA) - Civil rights group in the United States. ... Traditional coat of arms Modern flag (Gwenn-ha-du) Historical province of Brittany région of Bretagne, see Bretagne. ... Throughout history there have been many alliances and organizations known as the Catholic League, including: Catholic League (USA) - Civil rights group in the United States. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Marie de Luxembourg (1305 – April 1, 1546) was a French noblewoman. ... The Duchy of Brittany was an independent state from 841 to 1532. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Département Loire-Atlantique (44) Région Pays-de-la-Loire Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault (PS) (since 1989) Intercommunality Urban Community of Nantes City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 65. ... Philip II of Spain. ... Isabella and her husband Albert Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (12 August 1566 - 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... The French lordship of Montpensier (départment of Puy-de-Dôme), which became a countship in the 14th century, was sold in 1384 by Bernard and Robert de Ventadour to John, duke of Berry, whose daughter Marie brought the countship to her husband, John I, Duke of Bourbon, in... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Location within France Angers is a city in France in the département of Maine-et-Loire, 191 miles south-west of Paris. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...


Towards peace

The League fought on, but enough moderate Catholics were won over by the King's conversion to make their party ultimately one of extremists only. The Spanish withdrew from France under the terms of the Peace of Vervins. Henry was faced with the task of reuniting France under a single authority. The essential first step in this was the negotiation of the Edict of Nantes, which, rather than being a kind of genuine toleration, was in fact a kind of permanent truce between the religions, with guarantees for both sides. The Edict can be said to mark the end of these civil wars. The Peace of Vervins was signed between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on May 2 1598. ... The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Calvinists (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. ...


Henry IV and his advisor Sully then led France into a golden age of prosperity. Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... Maximilien de Béthune, duke of Sully (December 13, 1560 – December 22, 1641) was the doughty soldier, French minister, staunch Protestant and faithful right-hand man who enabled Henry IV of France to accomplish so much. ...


Chronology

The Edict of Saint-Germain was an Edict of Toleration promulgated in 16th century France. ... Wassy or Wassy-sur-Blaise is a commune of the Haute-Marne département, in France. ... The Edict of Amboise was signed on March 19, 1563 by Catherine de Medici. ... Combatants Catholics Huguenots Commanders Anne de Montmorency, Guise Louis I, Prince of Condé, Coligny Strength Casualties de Montmorency captured Louis I captured The Battle of Dreux was fought on December 19, 1562 between Catholics and Huguenots. ... The Peace of Longjumeau (also known as the Treaty of Longjumeau or the Edict of Longjumeau) was signed on March 23, 1568 by King Charles IX of France and Catherine de Medici. ... The Battle of Saint-Denis was fought on November 10, 1567 between Catholics and Protestants during the French Wars of Religion in Saint-Denis near Paris, France . ... The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed August 5, 1570 at the royal Château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, ending the third of the French Wars of Religion. ... The Battle of Jarnac was an encounter during the French Wars of Religion that occurred on March 13, 1569 between the Catholic forces of Marshal Gaspard de Tavannes and the Huguenots led by the Prince of Condé. The forces met at Jarnac on the right bank of the river Charente... The Battle of Moncontour occurred on October 30, 1569 between the Catholic forces of King Charles IX of France and the Huguenots. ... 19th century painting by François Dubois The St. ... The Edict of Boulogne was signed on June 25, 1573 by King Charles IX of France. ... The Edict of Beaulieu, made in 1576 by Henry III of France, gave Huguenots the right of public worship for the religion, thenceforth officially called the prétendue reformée, throughout France, except at Paris and the Court. ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... The Catholics, who had formed the Holy League, thought that this treaty was too favourable to Protestants. ... The Treaty of Fleix (also known as the Edict of Fleix and the Peace of Fleix) was signed on November 26, 1580 by Henry III of France in Le Fleix. ... The Treaty of Joinville was signed in secret in December 1584 by the French Catholic League, led by Frances first family of Catholic nobles, the Guise, and Hapsburg Spain. ... The Peace of Vervins was signed between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on May 2 1598. ... The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Calvinists (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. ...

External links

References

  • R.J. Knecht, The French Wars of Religion 1559–1598 (Seminar Studies in History) ISBN 0-582-28533-X
  • H.M. Baird, History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France, (new edition, two volumes, New York, 1907)
  • J.W. Thompson, The Wars of Religion in France, 1559-1576, (Chicago, 1909)
  • E.M. Hulme, The Renaissance, the Protestant Revolution, and the Catholic Reaction in Continental Europe, (New York) 1914
  • T.M. Lindsay, A History of the Reformation, (New York) 1906

  Results from FactBites:
 
French Wars of Religion - ninemsn Encarta (784 words)
The French Wars of Religion, (1562 to 1598) were a series of conflicts in France fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to...
French Wars of Religion (1562-1598), series of political and social upheavals in France caused by the weakness of the Valois monarchy in the face of religious conflict and aristocratic rivalry.
The wars saw Roman Catholics, led by the House of Guise, in conflict with Protestant Calvinists, led by the House of Bourbon, and fell into a context of a wider religious quarrel that took place throughout Europe.
French Wars of Religion – Dictionary Definition of French Wars of Religion | Encyclopedia.com: FREE Online ... (1008 words)
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