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Encyclopedia > French Second Republic
Deuxième République
France

French Second Republic

1848 – 1852
Flag
Flag Great Seal
Motto: Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood)
Anthem: La Marseillaise
Map of the French Second Republic
Capital Paris
Language(s) French
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Republic
President
 - 1848 - 1852 Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte
Legislature National Assembly
History
 - Revolutions of 1848 in France 1848
 - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851
 - Disestablished 1852
Currency French Franc

The French Second Republic (or simply the Second Republic) was the republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the coup by Louis Napoleon which initiated the Second Empire. The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The national flag of France (Vexillological symbol: , known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... Grand sceau de la République française The Great seal of France is the official seal of the French Republic // Description The Great Seal features a personification of liberty as a sitted Juno wearing a sever-pike crown. ... Many countries choose to include the national motto in the coat of arms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... La Marseillaise (IPA: ; in English The Song of Marseille) is the national anthem of France. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Napoléon III Emperor of the French (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the... A legislature is a type of deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Panthéon, Paris|Panthéon]] behind), Paris, June 1848. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Coup dÉtat of 2 December 1851 was the coup détat staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic, who was successful by this means in dissolving the French National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... French Franc. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Panthéon, Paris|Panthéon]] behind), Paris, June 1848. ... ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Main article: Mid-nineteenth century France

Contents

Revolution of 1848

The industrial population of the faubourgs on its way towards the centre of Paris was welcomed by the National Guard. Barricades were raised after the shooting of protestors outside the Guizot manor by soldiers. The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ... Faubourgs is a French ancient term approximatively synonym of suburbs. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


On 23 February 1848 Guizot's cabinet resigned, abandoned by the petite bourgeoisie, on whose support they thought they could depend. The heads of the Left Centre and the dynastic Left, Molé and Thiers, declined the offered leadership. Odilon Barrot accepted it, and Bugeaud, commander-in-chief of the first military division, who had begun to attack the barricades, was recalled. But it was too late. In face of the insurrection which had now taken possession of the whole capital, Louis-Philippe decided to abdicate in favour of his grandson, the comte de Paris. But it was too late also to be content with the regency of the duchess of Orléans. February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... Petit-bourgeois or Anglicised petty bourgeois is a French term that originally referred to the members of the lower middle social-classes in the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Louis, comte Molé, French statesman Louis Mathieu, comte Molé (January 24, 1781 - November 23, 1855), French statesman, was born in Paris. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... French politician Odilon Barrot Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (September 19, 1791 - August 6, 1873), was a French politician. ... Thomas Robert Bugeaud de la Piconnerie, Duke of Isly (October 15, 1784 - June 10, 1849), was a marshal of France. ... Louis Philippe (real name: Philippe Auclair) is a London-based French singer, songwriter, arranger and producer who has been active from the mid-80s onwards. ... Comte de Paris, or Count of Paris is a title used by three claimants to the French throne: Louis-Philippe, Comte de Paris (1838-1894): French Orleanist monarchists referred to him as Louis-Philippe II, and then later when Henri, comte de Chambord died, he was recognized as the royalist...

Formation of the Republic

It was now the turn of the Republic, and it was proclaimed by Lamartine in the name of the provisional government elected by the Chamber under the pressure of the mob. Alphonse de Lamartine (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician. ...


This provisional government with Dupont de l'Eure as its president, consisted of Lamartine for foreign affairs, Crémieux for justice, Ledru-Rollin for the interior, Carnot for public instruction, Goudchaux for finance, Arago for the navy, and Burdeau for war. Garnier-Pages was mayor of Paris. A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime. ... Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure, French statesman Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure (February 27, 1767 - 1855) was a French lawyer and statesman. ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Isaac Moïse Crémieux [known as Adolphe] (1796 - February 10, 1880), French statesman, was born at Nîmes, of a rich Jewish family. ... Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin (February 2, 1807 - December 31, 1874), was a French politician. ... Marie François Sadi-Carnot, President of France Marie François Sadi Carnot (August 11, 1837 - June 24, 1894) was a French statesman, the fourth president of the third French Republic. ... François Jean Dominique Arago (February 26, 1786 – October 2, 1853) was a French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and politician. ... Auguste-Laurent Burdeau (1851-1894), French politician, was the son of a laborer at Lyons. ... Étienne Joseph Louis Garnier-Pagès (December 27, 1801 - June 23, 1841) was a French politician, born at Marseille. ...


But, as in 1830, the republican-socialist party had set up a rival government at the Hotel de Ville (city hall), including Louis Blanc, Armand Marrast, Ferdinand Flocon, and the workman Albert, which bid fair to involve discord and civil war. But this time the Palais Bourbon was not victorious over the Hotel de Ville. It had to consent to a fusion of the two bodies, in which, however, the predominating elements were the moderate republicans. It was doubtful what would eventually be the policy of the new government. One party, seeing that in spite of the changes in the last sixty years of all political institutions, the position of the people had not been improved, demanded a reform of society itself, the abolition of the privileged position of property, the only obstacle to equality, and as an emblem hoisted the red flag. The other party wished to maintain society on the basis of its ancient institutions, and rallied round the tricolore. Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Hôtel de Ville houses the office of the Mayor of Paris. ... Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc (October 29, 1811 - December 6, 1882), was a French politician and historian. ... Albert lOuvrier (Albert the Worker), born Alexandre Martin (27 April 1815 – 28 May 1895), was a French socialist statesman of the French Second Republic. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The Palais Bourbon, a palace located in Paris, France, is the seat of the French National Assembly, the lower legislative chamber of the French government. ... Historically, and most generally, the red flag is an international symbol for the blood of angry workers. ... The term tricolore can refer to: the Flag of France (in French, le drapeau tricolore or, rarely, le tricolore) the Flag of Italy (in Italian: il tricolore) the Flag of Romania (in Romanian: tricolorul) the Flag of Russia (in Russian: триколор) a tricolour banner or flag which has three colours, usually...


The first collision took place as to the form which the 1848 Revolution was to take. Were they to remain faithful to their original principles, as Lamartine wished, and accept the decision of the country as supreme, or were they, as the revolutionaries under Ledru-Rollin claimed, to declare the republic of Paris superior to the universal suffrage of an insufficiently educated people? On March 5 the government, under the pressure of the Parisian clubs, decided in favour of an immediate reference to the people, and direct universal suffrage, and adjourned it till April 26. In this fateful and unexpected decision, which instead of adding to the electorate the educated classes, refused by Guizot, admitted to it the unqualified masses, originated the Constituent Assembly of May 4, 1848. The provisional government having resigned, the republican and anti-socialist majority on the 9th of May entrusted the supreme power to an executive. The commission consisting of five members: Arago, Executive Marie, Garnier-Pages, Lamartine and Ledru-Rollin. Conimis. But the spell was already broken. This revolution which had been peacefully effected with the most generous aspirations, in the hope of abolishing poverty by organizing industry on other bases than those of competition and capitalism, and which had at once aroused the fraternal sympathy of the nations, was doomed to be abortive. Up to 1848 in France As 1848 began, liberals awaited the death of King Louis Philippe, expecting revolution after his death. ... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or economic or social status. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (65th in leap years). ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (117th in leap years). ... A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

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The result of the general election, the return of a constituent assembly predominantly moderate if not monarchical, dashed the hopes of those who had looked for the establishment, by a peaceful revolution, of their ideal socialist state; but they were not prepared to yield without a struggle, and in Paris itself they commanded a formidable force. In spite of the preponderance of the "tricolour" party in the provisional government, so long as the voice of France had not spoken, the socialists, supported by the Parisian proletariat, had exercised an influence on policy out of all proportion to their relative numbers or personal weight. By the decree of February 24, the provisional government had solemnly accepted the principle of the "right to work," and decided to establish "national workshops" for the unemployed; at the same time a sort of industrial parliament was established at the Luxembourg Palace, under the presidency of Louis Blanc, with the object of preparing a scheme for the organization of labour; and, lastly, by the decree of March 8, the property qualification for enrolment in the National Guard had been abolished and the workmen were supplied with arms. The socialists thus formed, in some sort, a state within the state, with a government, an organization and an armed force. Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... Ancient history is the study of the written past from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. ... Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic La Tène culture. // France includes Olduwan (Abbevillian) and Acheulean sites from early or non-modern... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Motto: Travail, famille, patrie (Work, family, country) unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic President of the Council  - 1940 - 1944 Philippe Pétain Legislature National Assembly Historical era World War II  - Battle of France June 16, 1940  - Battle of... // Main article: Provisional Government of the French Republic Between 1944 and 1946 France was ruled by the Provisional Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement provisoire de la République française, GPRF). ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... This is a history of the economy of France. ... Disclaimer: It must be noted that reference to French people as an ethnic group is not present in French official terminology. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... This is a timeline of French history. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Luxembourg Palace The Luxembourg Palace in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, north of the Luxembourg Garden, is where the French Senate meets. ... Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc (October 29, 1811 - December 6, 1882), was a French politician and historian. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in leap years). ...


In the circumstances a conflict was inevitable; and on May 15, an armed mob, headed by Raspail, Blanqui and Barbès, and assisted by the proletariat Guard, attempted to overwhelm the Assembly. They were defeated by the bourgeois battalions of the National Guard; but the situation none the less remained highly critical. The national workshops were producing the results that might have been foreseen. It was impossible to provide remunerative work even for the genuine unemployed, and of the thousands who applied the greater number were employed in perfectly useless digging and refilling; soon even this expedient failed, and those for whom work could not be invented were given a half wage of 1 franc a day. Even this pitiful dole, with no obligation to work, proved attractive, and all over France workmen threw up their jobs and streamed to Paris, where they swelled the ranks of the army under the red flag. It was soon clear that the continuance of this experiment would mean financial ruin; it had been proved by the émeute of May 15, that it constituted a perpetual menace to the state; and the government decided to end it. The method chosen was scarcely a happy one. François-Vincent Raspail (January 25, 1794 - January 7, 1878) was a French chemist, physiologist, and socialist. ... Louis Auguste Blanqui Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 - January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ... Armand Barbès (1809-1870) was a French politician, surnamed the Bayard of Democracy; imprisoned in 1848, liberated in 1854; expatriated himself voluntarily; died at the Hague. ...


On June 21, M. de Falloux decided in the name of the parliamentary commission on labour that the workmen should be discharged within three days and such as were able-bodied should be forced to enlist. June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Frédéric Alfred Pierre, comte de Falloux (May 11, 1811 - January 16, 1886), was a French politician and author. ...


A furious insurrection at once broke out, the June Days Uprising. Throughout the whole of the 24th, 25th and 26th of June, the eastern industrial quarter of Paris, led by Pujol, carried on a furious struggle against the western quarter, led by Louis Eugène Cavaignac, who had been appointed dictator. Vanquished and decimated, first by fighting and afterwards by deportation, the socialist party was crushed. But they dragged down the Republic in their ruin. This had already become unpopular with the peasants, exasperated by the newland tax of 45 centimes imposed in order to fill the empty treasury, and with the bourgeois, in terror of the power of the revolutionary clubs and hard hit by the stagnation of business. By the "massacres" of the June Days the working classes were also alienated from it; and abiding fear of the "Reds" did the rest. "France," wrote the duke of Wellington at this time, "needs a Napoleon! I cannot yet see him . . . Where is he?" France indeed needed, or thought she needed, a Napoleon; and the demand was soon to be supplied. The granting of universal suffrage to a society with Imperialist sympathies, and unfitted to reconcile the principles of order with the consequences of liberty, was indeed bound, now that the political balance in France was so radically changed, to prove a formidable instrument of reaction; and this was proved by the election of the president of the Republic. The June Days Uprising (French: les journées de Juin) refers to the workers revolt on June 21, 1848, after the closure of the National Workshops created by the Second Republic to give work to the unemployed. ... Juan Pujol may refer to: Juan Pujol - a 17th century composer Juan Pujol (alias Garbo) - a double-agent working for the British in World War II This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... French general and statesman Louis Eugène Cavaignac Louis Eugène Cavaignac (October 15, 1802 - October 28, 1857), French general, second son of Jean Baptiste Cavaignac and brother of Eleonore Louis Godefroi Cavaignac, was born at Paris. ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

Constitution

On the November 4, 1848 was promulgated the new constitution, obviously the work of inexperienced hands, proclaiming a democratic republic, direct universal suffrage and the separation of powers; there was to be a single permanent assembly of 750 members elected for a term of three years by the scrutin de liste, which was to vote on the laws prepared by a council of state elected by the Assembly for six years; the executive power was delegated to a president elected for four years by direct universal suffrage, i.e. on a broader basis than that of the chamber, and not eligible for re-election; he was to choose his ministers, who, like him, would be responsible. Finally, all revision was made impossible since it involved obtaining three times in succession a majority of three-quarters of the deputies in a special assembly. It was in vain that M. Grévy, in the name of those who perceived the obvious and inevitable risk of creating, under the name of a president, a monarch and more than a king, proposed that the head of the state should be no more than a removable president of the ministerial council. Lamartine, thinking that he was sure to be the choice of the electors under universal suffrage, won over the support of the Chamber, which did not even take the precaution of rendering ineligible the members of families which had reigned over France. It made the presidency an office dependent upon popular acclamation. November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jules Grévy, painted by Léon Bonnat François Paul Jules Grévy (August 15, 1813 - September 9, 1891) was a President of the French Third Republic. ...

"Messrs. Victor Hugo and Emile de Girardin try to raise Prince Louis upon a shield [in the heroic Roman fashion]: not too steady!" Honoré Daumier's: satirical lithograph published in Charivari, December 11, 1848
"Messrs. Victor Hugo and Emile de Girardin try to raise Prince Louis upon a shield [in the heroic Roman fashion]: not too steady!" Honoré Daumier's: satirical lithograph published in Charivari, December 11, 1848

The election was keenly contested; the socialists adopted as their candidate Ledru-Rollin, the republicans Cavaignac, and the recently reorganized Imperialist party Prince Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon, unknown in 1835, and forgotten or despised since 1840, had in the last eight years advanced sufficiently in the public estimation to be elected to the Constituent Assembly in 1848 by five departments. He owed this rapid increase of popularity partly to blunders of the government of July, which had unwisely aroused the memory of the country, filled as it was with recollections of the Empire, and partly to Louis Napoleon’s campaign carried on from his prison at Ham by means of pamphlets of socialistic tendencies. Moreover, the monarchists, led by Thiers and the committee of the Rue de Poitiers, were no longer content even with the safe dictatorship of the upright Cavaignac, and joined forces with the Bonapartists. On December 10, the peasants gave over 5,000,000 votes to a name: Napoleon, which stood for order at all costs, against 1,400,000 for Cavaignac. Image File history File links Honore Daumier, satirical lithograph. ... Image File history File links Honore Daumier, satirical lithograph. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... ...


For three years there went on an indecisive struggle between the heterogeneous Assembly and the prince who was silently awaiting his opportunity. He chose as his ministers men but little inclined towards republicanism, for preference Orléanists, the chief of whom was Odilon Barrot. In order to strengthen his position, he endeavoured to conciliate the reactionary parties, without committing himself to any of them. The chief instance of this was the expedition to Rome, voted by the Catholics with the object of restoring the papacy, which had been driven out by Garibaldi and Mazzini. The prince-president was also in favour of it, as beginning the work of European renovation and reconstruction which he already looked upon as his mission. General Oudinot's entry into Rome provoked in Paris a foolish insurrection in favour of the Roman Republic, that of the Château d'Eau, which was crushed on June 13, 1849. On the other hand, when Pius IX, though only just restored, began to yield to the general movement of reaction, the president demanded that he should set up a Liberal government. The pope's dilatory reply having been accepted by his ministry, the president replaced it on November 1, by the Fould-Rouher cabinet. Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... French politician Odilon Barrot Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (September 19, 1791 - August 6, 1873), was a French politician. ... Garibaldi in 1866. ... Giuseppe Mazzini. ... Military flag of the Roman Republic. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878, making him the longest-reigning Pope since the Apostle St. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Achille Fould (November 17, 1800 - October 5, 1867) was a French financier and politician. ...


This looked like a declaration of war against the Catholic and monarchist majority in the Legislative Assembly which had been elected on May 28, in a moment of panic. But the prince-president again pretended to be playing the game of the Orléanists, as he had done in the case of the Constituent-Assembly. The complementary elections of March and April 1850 resulted in an unexpected victory for the republicans which alarmed the conservative leaders, Thiers, Berryer and Montalembert. The president and the Assembly co-operated in the passage of the "Loi Falloux" of March 1x, 1850, which again placed the teaching of the university under the direction of the Roman Catholic Church. Antoine Pierre Berryer (1790 - November 29, 1868), French advocate and parliamentary orator, was the son of an eminent advocate and counsellor to the parlement. ... Charles Forbes René de Montalembert Charles Forbes René de Montalembert (March 18, 1810 - March 13, 1870), was a French publicist and historian. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ...


A conservative electoral law was passed on May 31st. It required as a proof of Electors three years' domicile the entries in the record of direct taxes, thus cutting down universal suffrage by taking away the vote from the industrial population, which was not as a rule stationary. The law of July 16, aggravated the severity of the press restrictions by re-establishing the "caution money" (cautionnement) deposited by proprietors and editors of papers with the government as a guarantee of good behaviour. Finally, a skilful interpretation of the law on clubs and political societies suppressed about this time all the Republican societies. It was now their turn to be crushed like the socialists. July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ...

Coup

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But the president had only joined in Montalembert's cry of "Down with the Republicans!" in the hope of effecting a revision of the constitution without having recourse to a coup d'état. His concessions only increased the boldness of the monarchists; while they had only accepted Louis Napoleon as president in opposition to the Republic and as a step in the direction of the monarchy. A conflict was now inevitable between his personal policy and the majority of the Chamber, who were moreover, divided into legitimists and Orléanists, in spite of the death of Louis Philippe in August 1856. Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Motto: Travail, famille, patrie (Work, family, country) unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic President of the Council  - 1940 - 1944 Philippe Pétain Legislature National Assembly Historical era World War II  - Battle of France June 16, 1940  - Battle of... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ...


Louis Napoleon exploited their projects for a restoration of the monarchy, which he knew to be unpopular in the country, and which gave him the opportunity of, furthering his own personal ambitions. From August 8, to November 12, 1850 he went about France stating the case for a revision of the constitution in speeches which he varied according to each place; he held reviews, at which cries of "Vive Napoleon" showed that the army was with him; he superseded General Changarnier, on whose arms the parliament relied for the projected monarchical coup d'etat; he replaced his Orléanist ministry by obscure men devoted to his own cause, such as Morny, Fleury and Persigny, and gathered round him officers of the African army, broken men like General Saint-Arnaud; in fact he practically declared open war. August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... Nicolas Anne Theodule Changarnier (April 26, 1793 - February 14, 1877), French general, was born at Autun. ... Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny (October 21, 1811 - March 10, 1865), French statesman, was the natural son of Hortense de Beauharnais (wife of Louis Bonaparte, and queen of Holland) and Charles Joseph, comte de Flahaut, and therefore halfbrother of Napoleon III. He was born in Paris, and his... Fleury can refer to: Abbo of Fleury (c. ... Jean Gilbert Victor Fialin, duc de Persigny (February 11, 1808 - January 11, 1872), French statesman, was born at Saint-German Lespinasse (Loire), the son of a receiver of taxes. ... Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud (August 20, 1801-September 29, 1854), French soldier, served as a Marshal of France. ...


His reply to the votes of censure passed by the Assembly, and their refusal to increase his civil list was to hint at a vast communistic plot in order to scare the bourgeoisie, and to denounce the electoral law of May 31, in order to gain the support of the mass of the people. The Assembly retaliated by throwing out the proposal for a partial reform of that article of the constitution which prohibited the re-election of the president and the re-establishment of universal suffrage (July). All hope of a peaceful issue was at an end. When the questors called upon the Chamber to have posted up in all barracks the decree of May 6, 1848 concerning the right of the Assembly to demand the support of the troops if attacked, the Mountain, dreading a restoration of the monarchy, voted with the Bonapartists against the measure, thus disarming the legislative power. May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Louis Napoleon saw his opportunity, he organised the French coup of 1851. On the night between December 1 and 2, 1851, the anniversary of the coronation of his illustrious uncle Napoléon I, he dissolved the Chamber, re-established universal suffrage, had all the party leaders arrested, and summoned a new assembly to prolong his term of office for ten years. The deputies who had met under Berryer at the Mairie of the 10th arrondissement to defend the constitution and proclaim the deposition of Louis Napoleon were scattered by the troops at Mazas and Mont Valérian. The resistance organized by the republicans within Paris under Victor Hugo was soon subdued by the intoxicated soldiers. The more serious resistance in the départements was crushed by declaring a state of siege and by the "mixed commissions." The plebiscite of the December 20, ratified by a huge majority the coup d'état in favour of the prince-president, who alone reaped the benefit of the excesses of the Republicans and the reactionary passions of the monarchists. The Coup dÉtat of 2 December 1851 was the coup détat staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic, who was successful by this means in dissolving the French National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties and are now grouped into 22 metropolitan and four overseas régions. ...

Notes

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

 
 

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