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Encyclopedia > French Republican Calendar
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A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne.
A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne.

The French Republican Calendar or French Revolutionary Calendar is a calendar proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about twelve years from late 1793. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The history of France in Modern Times I (1792-1920) extends from the fall of the Ancien Régime and the proclamation of the First French Republic on 1792 September 21 to the demission of the French wartime Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau on 1920 January 18. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Estates-General (or States-General) of 1789 (French: Les États-Généraux de 1789) was the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General, a general assembly consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry. ... During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) was a transitional body between the Estates-General and the National Constituent Assembly that existed from June 17 to July 9 of 1789. ... Combatants French government Parisian militia (predecessor of Frances National Guard) Commanders Bernard-René de Launay† Prince de Lambesc Camille Desmoulins Strength 114 soldiers, 30 artillery pieces 600 - 1,000 insurgents Casualties 1 (6 or possibly 8 killed after surrender) 98 The Storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on July 9, 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on July 9, 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... The French Revolution was a period in the history of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church perforce underwent radical restructuring. ... The French Revolution was a period in the history of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church perforce underwent radical restructuring. ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1, 1791 to September 1792. ... The French Revolution was a period in the history of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church perforce underwent radical restructuring. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period of about eleven months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions lead to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a glossary of the French Revolution. ... Timeline of the French Revolution. ... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... This is a partial list of people associated with the French Revolution, including supporters and opponents. ... The historiography of the French Revolution stretches back two hundred years to the event itself. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1445x1714, 318 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): French Republican Calendar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1445x1714, 318 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): French Republican Calendar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

Origins and overview

The calendar was designed by the politician and agronomist Charles Gilbert Romme, although it is usually attributed to Fabre d'Églantine, who invented the names of the months. It was adopted by the Jacobin-controlled National Convention on 24 October 1793. Agricultural science (also called agronomy) is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... Drawing of Gilbert Romme Gilbert Romme (March 26, 1750-June 17, 1795) was a French politician. ... Fabre dÉglantine Philippe François Nazaire Fabre dÉglantine, commonly known as Fabre dÉglantine (28 July 1750 - 15 April 1794), was a French dramatist and revolutionary. ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

French Republican Calendar of 1794, drawn by Louis-Philibert Debucourt.
French Republican Calendar of 1794, drawn by Louis-Philibert Debucourt.

Years appear in writing as Roman numerals (usually), counted from the beginning of the 'Republican Era', 22 September 1792 (the day the French First Republic was proclaimed, one day after the Convention abolished the monarchy). As a result, Roman Numeral I indicates the first year of the republic, that is, the year before the calendar actually came into use. The first day of each year included the autumnal equinox. There were twelve months, each divided into three ten-day weeks called décades. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year. Each day was divided into ten hours, each hour into 100 decimal minutes and each decimal minute had 100 decimal seconds. Thus an hour was more than twice as long as a conventional hour; a minute was slightly longer than a conventional minute; and a second was slightly shorter than a conventional second. Clocks were manufactured to display this decimal time, but it did not catch on and was officially abandoned in 1795, although some cities continued to use decimal time as late as 1801. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (951x1098, 486 KB) Calendrier républicain de 1794 Louis-Philibert Debucourt (1755-1832) File links The following pages link to this file: French Republican Calendar ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (951x1098, 486 KB) Calendrier républicain de 1794 Louis-Philibert Debucourt (1755-1832) File links The following pages link to this file: French Republican Calendar ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The autumnal equinox (or fall equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical autumn. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A wrist watch A clock (from the Latin cloca, bell) is an instrument for measuring time. ... French decimal clock from the time of the French Revolution Decimal time is the representation of the time of day using units which are decimally related. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a "Franciade".


Sunday, the Catholic Sabbath was reintroduced by the Concordat of 1801, effective Easter Sunday, 18 April 1802. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ... The Concordat of 1801 reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the major religion of France and restored some of its civil status. ... Easter, the Sunday of the Resurrection, Pascha, or Resurrection Day, is the most important religious feast of the Christian liturgical year, observed at some point between late March and late April each year (early April to early May in Eastern Christianity), following the cycle of the moon. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... --69. ...


Napoléon finally abolished the calendar effective 1 January 1806 (the day after 10 Nivôse an XIV), a little over twelve years after its introduction. However, it was used again during the Revolution of 1848 and during the brief Paris Commune in 1871 (year LXXIX). Bonaparte as general, by Antoine-Jean Gros. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Painting of a barricade on Rue Soufflot (with the Panthéon behind), Paris, June 1848. ... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Many conversion tables and programs exist, largely created by genealogists. Some enthusiasts in France still use the calendar, more out of historical re-enactment than practicality.

Clock dial.
Clock dial.
Clock dial.
Clock dial.

Some legal texts that were adopted when the Republican Calendar was official are still in force in France and have kept their original dates for citation purposes. Image File history File links Horloge-republicaine1. ... Image File history File links Horloge-republicaine1. ... Image File history File links Horloge-republicaine2. ... Image File history File links Horloge-republicaine2. ...


Criticism and shortcomings of the calendar

Leap years in the calendar are a point of great dispute, due to the contradicting statements in the establishing decree[1] stating: A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day or month in order to keep the calendar year in sync with an astronomical or seasonal year. ...

Each year starts at midnight, with the day when the true autumnal equinox falls for the observatory of Paris.

and:

The period of four years, at the end of which this addition of one day is usually necessary, is called the Franciade...The fourth year of the Franciade is called Sextile.

Thus, the years III, VII, and XI were observed as leap years, and the years XV and XX were also planned as such, even though they were five years apart.


A fixed arithmetic rule for determining leap years was proposed in the name of the Committee of Public Education by Gilbert Romme on 19 Floréal An III (8 May 1795). The proposed rule was to determine leap years by applying the rules of the Gregorian calendar to the years of the French Republic (years IV, VIII, XII, etc. were to be leap years) except that year 4000 (the last year of ten 400-year periods) should be a common year instead of a leap year. Because this proposal was never adopted, the original astronomical rule continued, which excluded any other fixed arithmetic rule. The proposal was intended to avoid uncertain future leap years caused by the inaccurate astronomical knowledge of the 1790s (even today, this statement is still valid due to the uncertainty in ΔT). In particular, the committee noted that the true equinox of year 144 was predicted to occur at "11:59:40 p.m.", which was closer to midnight than its inherent 3 to 4 minute uncertainty. May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Events and Trends French Revolution (1789 - 1799). ... Delta T and delta-T are ASCII substitutes for the formal ΔT, which is Terrestrial Time minus Universal Time. ...


The calendar was abolished because having a ten-day work week gave workers less rest (one day off every ten instead of one day off every seven); because the equinox was a mobile date to start every new year (a fantastic source of confusion for almost everybody); and because it was incompatible with the secular rhythms of trade fairs and agricultural markets. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Perhaps the most famous date in this calendar was immortalised by Karl Marx in the title of his pamphlet, The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoléon (1852). The 18 Brumaire An VIII (9 November 1799) is considered the end of the French Revolution. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon is a short book by Karl Marx. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Napoléon Bonaparte in the coup détat of 18 brumaire. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Another famous revolutionary date is 9 Thermidor An II (July 27, 1794), the date the Convention turned against Robespierre, who, along with others associated with the Mountain, was guillotined the following day. (See Glossary of the French Revolution for other significant dates under this calendar.) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with 9 Thermidor. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ... This is a glossary of the French Revolution. ...


Based on the above event, the term "Thermidorian" entered the Marxist vocabulary as referring to revolutionaries who destroy the revolution from the inside and turn against its true aims. For example, Trotsky and his followers used this term about Stalin. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (&#1051... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


Emile Zola's novel Germinal takes its name from the calendar, as does the dish, Lobster thermidor. The frigates of the Floréal class frigate all bear names of Republican months. mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... This article is on the book by Emile Zola. ... Lobster Thermidor is a French dish consisting of a creamy, cheesy mixture of cooked lobster meat, egg yolks, and brandy or sherry, stuffed into a lobster shell, and optionally served with an oven-browned cheese crust. ... The Floréal type is a class of light sentry frigates designed for the needs of the French Navy after the end of the Cold War, ordered in 1989. ...


Months

The Republican calendar year began at the autumn equinox and had twelve months of 30 days each, which were given new names based on nature: In astronomy, the autumnal equinox signals the beginning of autumn in the northern hemisphere: the moment when the sun appears to cross the celestial equator, heading southward; the equinox occurs around September 22–September 24, varying slightly each year according to the 400-year cycle of leap years in...

Note that the English names are approximate, as most of the month names were new words coined from similar French, Latin or Greek words. The endings of the names are grouped by season. Vendémiaire was the first month in the French Republican Calendar. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... Brumaire is the name of the second month in the French Revolutionary Calendar. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... Frimaire was the third month in the French Republican Calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nivôse was the fourth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pluviôse (also Pluviose) was the fifth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ventôse was the sixth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Germinal was the seventh month in the French Republican Calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... Floréal was the eighth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... Prairial was the ninth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (141st in leap years). ... Messidor was the tenth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... Thermidor was the eleventh month in the French Revolutionary Calendar, which was used only in France and only for thirteen years. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... Fructidor was the twelfth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


In England, people against the Revolution mocked the calendar by calling the months: Wheezy, Sneezy and Freezy; Slippy, Drippy and Nippy; Showery, Flowery and Bowery; Wheaty, Heaty and Sweety [2][3].


Ten days of the week

The month is divided into three décades or 'weeks' of ten days each, named simply:

  • primidi (first day)
  • duodi (second day)
  • tridi (third day)
  • quartidi (fourth day)
  • quintidi (fifth day)
  • sextidi (sixth day)
  • septidi (seventh day)
  • octidi (eighth day)
  • nonidi (ninth day)
  • décadi (tenth day)

Décades were abandoned in Floréal an X (April 1802).[4]


Days of the year

Instead of most days having a saint as in the Traditional Catholic Calendar, each day has an animal (days ending in 5), a tool (days ending in 0) or else a plant or mineral (all other days) associated with it. In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... This article lists the feast days of the Roman Calendar prior to the reforms which followed the Second Vatican Council, and prior to the reforms of 1955-1960, which suppressed certain feast days and reduced them from six classes to three. ...


Autumn

Vendémiaire (Sep 22 ~ Oct 21) Brumaire (Oct 22 ~ Nov 20) Frimaire (Nov 21 ~ Dec 20)
  1. Raisin (Grape)
  2. Safran (Saffron)
  3. Châtaigne (Chestnut)
  4. Colchique (Crocus)
  5. Cheval (Horse)
  6. Balsamine (Impatiens)
  7. Carotte (Carrot)
  8. Amarante (Amaranth)
  9. Panais (Parsnip)
  10. Cuve (Vat)
  11. Pomme de terre (Potato)
  12. Immortelle (Strawflower)
  13. Potiron (Calabaza)
  14. Réséda (Mignonette)
  15. Âne (Donkey)
  16. Belle de nuit (The four o'clock flower)
  17. Citrouille (Pumpkin)
  18. Sarrasin (Buckwheat)
  19. Tournesol (Sunflower)
  20. Pressoir (Wine-Press)
  21. Chanvre (Hemp)
  22. Pêche (Peach)
  23. Navet (Turnip)
  24. Amaryllis (Amaryllis)
  25. Boeuf (Cow)
  26. Aubergine (Eggplant)
  27. Piment (Chili Pepper)
  28. Tomate (Tomato)
  29. Orge (Barley)
  30. Tonneau (Barrel)
  1. Pomme (Apple)
  2. Céleri (Celery)
  3. Poire (Pear)
  4. Betterave (Beet root)
  5. Oie (Goose)
  6. Héliotrope (Heliotrope)
  7. Figue (Fig)
  8. Scorsonère (Black Salsify)
  9. Alisier (Chequer Tree)
  10. Charrue (Plough)
  11. Salsifis (Salsify)
  12. Macre (Water chestnut)
  13. Topinambour (Jerusalem Artichoke)
  14. Endive (Endive)
  15. Dindon (Turkey)
  16. Chervis (Skirret)
  17. Cresson (Watercress)
  18. Dentelaire (Leadworts)
  19. Grenade (Pomegranate)
  20. Herse (Harrow)
  21. Bacchante (Asarum baccharis)
  22. Azerole (Acerola)
  23. Garance (Madder)
  24. Orange (Orange)
  25. Faisan (Pheasant)
  26. Pistache (Pistachio)
  27. Macjonc (Tuberous pea)
  28. Coing (Quince)
  29. Cormier (Service tree)
  30. Rouleau (Roller)
  1. Raiponce (Rampion)
  2. Turneps (Turnip)
  3. Chicorée (Chicory)
  4. Nèfle (Medlar)
  5. Cochon (Pig)
  6. Mâche (Corn Salad)
  7. Chou-fleur (Cauliflower)
  8. Miel (Honey)
  9. Genièvre (Juniper)
  10. Pioche (Pick)
  11. Cire (Wax)
  12. Raifort (Horseradish)
  13. Cèdre (Cedar tree)
  14. Sapin (Fir tree)
  15. Chevreuil (Roe Deer)
  16. Ajonc (Gorse)
  17. Cyprès (Cypress Tree)
  18. Lierre (Ivy)
  19. Sabine (Juniper)
  20. Hoyau (Grub-hoe)
  21. Erable sucré (Maple Tree)
  22. Bruyère (Heather)
  23. Roseau (Reed plant)
  24. Oseille (Sorrel)
  25. Grillon (Cricket)
  26. Pignon (Pinenut)
  27. Liège (cork)
  28. Truffe (Truffle)
  29. Olive (Olive)
  30. Pelle (shovel)

Vendémiaire was the first month in the French Republican Calendar. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... Brumaire is the name of the second month in the French Revolutionary Calendar. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Frimaire was the third month in the French Republican Calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Veraison be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut (Castanea), including... Species See text. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Species See text Impatiens namchabarwensis Impatiens rosulata Impatiens parviflora Impatiens is a genus of about 900-1000 species of flowering plants in the family Balsaminaceae. ... Binomial name Daucus carota L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Amarant redirects here. ... Binomial name Pastinaca sativa L. The parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) is a root vegetable related to the carrot. ... // A tank is a container, usually for liquids, sometimes for gases. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Species Helichrysum arenarium- Dwarf Everlasting Helichrysum foetidum- Stinking Strawflower Helichrysum petiolare- Licorice Plant Helichrysum sanguineum- Red Everlasting The strawflower is a flowering plant of the genus Helichrysum in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). ... Calabaza fruit Calabaza vine Calabaza leaf Calabasas is also a city in California Calabaza (sometimes spelled calabasa, not to be confused with a calabash) is a kind of squash commonly eaten in Latin America, the Philippines, and the Caribbean. ... Species About 50-70 species, including: Reseda alba - White Mignonette Reseda complicata Glaucous Mignonette Reseda lutea - Wild Mignonette Reseda luteola - Weld Reseda odorata - Common Mignonette Reseda phyteuma - Corn Mignonette Reseda scoparia - Canaries Mignonette Mignonette (Reseda) is a genus of fragrant herbaceous plants native to the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mirabilis jalapa Mirabilis jalapa (The four oclock flower or marvel of Peru) is the most commonly grown ornamental species of Mirabilis. ... For the film, see Pumpkin (film). ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... Binomial name Helianthus annuus L. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant native to the Americas in the family Asteraceae, with a large flowering head (inflorescence). ... Yakima press. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Amaryllis belladonna L. Amaryllis is a monotypic genus of plant containing one species, the Belladonna Lily (Amaryllis belladonna), a native of South Africa. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Binomial name Solanum melongena L. The eggplant, aubergine or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a solanaceous plant bearing a fruit of the same name, commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. ... The chili pepper, or more simply just chili, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... Whiskey barrels at the Jack Daniels distillery Barrels for aging wine in Napa Valley An aging barrel is a barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum. ... This article is about the satellite APPLE. For the fruit apple, see Apple. ... Binomial name Apium graveolens L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Beta vulgaris L. Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ... Look up goose in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species 250-300, see text The Heliotropes (Heliotropium) is a genus of plants in the family Boraginaceae with 250 to 300 species. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Binomial name Scorzonera hispanica L. The Black Salsify or Spanish Salsify (Scorzonera hispanica), also known as black oyster plant, serpent root, and vipers grass, is a perennial member of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). ... Binomial name Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Categories: Plant stubs | Maloideae ... The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with a horse and plough. ... Species about 45, including: Tragopogon coloratus Tragopogon crocifolius Tragopogon cupani Tragopogon dubius Tragopogon floccosus Tragopogon gracilis Tragopogon mirabilis Tragopogon mirus Tragopogon miscellus Tragopogon porrifolius Tragopogon pratensis Tragopogon X crantzii Tragopogon X neohybridus The Goatsbeards or Salsifies are the genus Tragopogon of flowering plants within the family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Trapa natans L. The water caltrop or water chestnut refers to two species of the genus Trapa - T. natans and T. bicornis. ... Binomial name Helianthus tuberosus L. The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also called the sunroot or sunchoke or topinambur, is a flowering plant native to North America grown throughout the temperate world for its tuber, which is used as a root vegetable. ... Belgian endive Endive (Chichorium intibus) is a leaf vegetable used especially in salads. ... Species M. gallopavo M. ocellata A turkey is either one of two species of large birds in the genus Meleagris native to North America. ... The Skirret (Sium sisarum Apiaceae), is a root vegetable. ... Species Nasturtium nasturtium-aquaticum L. Nasturtium microphyllum Boenn ex Rchb. ... Genera (examples) Armeria Ceratostigma Limonium Plumbago The Plumbaginaceae are a family of flowering plants that includes a number of popular garden species, which are grown world wide for their attractive flowers. ... Binomial name Punica granatum L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... Crumbler roller, commonly used to compact soil after it has been loosened by a harrow In agriculture, a harrow is an implement for cultivating the surface of the soil, in this way it is distinct in its effect from the plough, which is used for deeper cultivation. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Malpighia glabra Acerola (Malpighia glabra), also known as Barbados Cherry or West Indian Cherry, is a tropical fruit tree of the Malpighiaceae family. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... Binomial name Pistacia vera L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera, Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of central and southwestern Asia such as the Kopet Dag mountains of Turkmenistan southwest to northeastern Iran and western Afghanistan. ... Binomial name Lathyrus tuberosus L. Lathyrus tuberosus, also known as the aardaker, tuberous pea, or earthnut pea, is a small, climbing perennial plant grown as a root vegetable for its edible tuber. ... Binomial name Cydonia oblonga Mill. ... Binomial name Sorbus domestica L. The Service Tree (Sorbus domestica) is sometimes known as the True Service Tree to distinguish it from the Wild Service Tree. ... The roller is an agricultural tool used for flattening land or breaking up large clumps of dirt, especially after plowing. ... Species See text Campanula is one of two genera of bell-flowers in the family Campanulaceae, the other being Campanulastrum. ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Species C. endivia - cultivated endive - wild endive - common chicory Chicory is the common name given to the flowering plants in genus Cichorium of the family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Mespilus germanica L. The Medlar is a large shrub or small tree, and the name of the fruit of this tree. ... This article is about the pig genus. ... Binomial name Valerianella locusta L. Corn salad (Valerianella locusta) is a small plant of the family Valerianaceae which grows in a low rosette and in mild climates is used as a winter green, especially in salads. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones/biscuits. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... A pick is a tool used for manual labour which consists of a hard spike attached perpendicular to a handle. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Binomial name Armoracia rusticana P.G. Gaertn. ... Species Cedrus deodara Cedrus libani    var. ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... Binomial name Capreolus capreolus, Capreolus pygargus (Linnaeus, 1758) There are two species of Roe Deer. ... Species Ulex argenteus Ulex boivinii Ulex borgiae Ulex cantabricus Ulex densus Ulex europaeus - Common Gorse Ulex gallii - Dwarf Furze or Furse Ulex genistoides Ulex micranthus Ulex minor - Dwarf Gorse Ulex parviflorus Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ... Binomial name Cupressus sempervirens L. Cupressus sempervirens, the Mediterranean Cypress, is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southeast Greece (Crete, Rhodes), southern Turkey, Cyprus, western Syria, Lebanon and western Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran. ... Species Hedera algeriensis – Algerian Ivy Hedera azorica – Azores Ivy Hedera canariensis – Canaries Ivy Hedera caucasigena Hedera colchica – Caucasian Ivy Hedera cypria Hedera helix – Common Ivy Hedera hibernica – Irish Ivy Hedera maderensis – Madeiran Ivy Hedera maroccana Hedera nepalensis – Himalayan Ivy Hedera pastuchowii – Pastuchovs Ivy Hedera rhombea – Japanese Ivy Hedera sinensis... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Agricultural square bladed hoe. ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ... Heather may be: In botany, the plant Calluna vulgaris, or, more loosely, various species of the closely related genera Erica and Cassiope, low evergreen shrubs (also called heaths). The term is also used to describe land which is vegetated with these plants; In apparel or textiles, interwoven yarns with a... species Pragmites australis Reed is a generic term used to describe numerous plants including: Common Reed (Phragmites australis Cav. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa L. The common sorrel, or spinach dock, Ambada bhaji is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Subfamilies See Taxonomy section Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as true crickets), are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets (order Orthoptera). ... Pine nuts are the edible seeds of pine trees (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus). ... A cork stopper for a wine bottle Champagne corks Varnished cork tiles can be used for flooring, as a substitute for linoleum or tiles. ... Species Tuber melanosporum Tuber brumale Tuber aestivum Tuber uncinatum Tuber mesentericum Tuber magnatum Truffle describes a group of edible mycorrhizal (symbiotic relationship between fungus and plant) fungi (genus Tuber, class Ascomycetes, division Ascomycota). ... Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian... Shovel with wide blade - especially appropriate for lifting snow or coal A shovel is a tool for lifting and moving loose material such as coal, gravel, snow, soil, or sand. ...

Winter

Nivôse (Dec 21 ~ Jan 19) Pluviôse (Jan 20 ~ Feb 18) Ventôse (Feb 19 ~ Mar 20)
  1. Tourbe (Peat)
  2. Houille (Coal)
  3. Bitume (Bitumen)
  4. Soufre (Sulphur)
  5. Chien (Dog)
  6. Lave (Lava)
  7. Terre végétale (Topsoil)
  8. Fumier (Manure)
  9. Salpêtre (Saltpeter)
  10. Fléau (Flail)
  11. Granit (Granite stone)
  12. Argile (Clay)
  13. Ardoise (Slate)
  14. Grès (Sandstone)
  15. Lapin (Rabbit)
  16. Silex (Flint)
  17. Marne (Marl)
  18. Pierre à chaux (Limestone)
  19. Marbre (Marble)
  20. Van (Winnowing basket)
  21. Pierre à plâtre (Gypsum)
  22. Sel (Salt)
  23. Fer (Iron)
  24. Cuivre (Copper)
  25. Chat (Cat)
  26. Étain (Tin)
  27. Plomb (Lead)
  28. Zinc (Zinc)
  29. Mercure (Mercury (metal))
  30. Crible (Sieve)
  1. Lauréole (Spurge-laurel)
  2. Mousse (Moss)
  3. Fragon (Butcher's Broom)
  4. Perce-neige (Snowdrop)
  5. Taureau (Bull)
  6. Laurier-thym (Laurustinus)
  7. Amadouvier (Tinder polypore)
  8. Mézéréon (Daphne mezereum)
  9. Peuplier (Poplar Tree)
  10. Coignée (Axe)
  11. Ellébore (Hellebore)
  12. Brocoli (Broccoli)
  13. Laurier (Laurel)
  14. Avelinier (Cob or filbert)
  15. Vache (Cow)
  16. Buis (Box Tree)
  17. Lichen (Lichen)
  18. If (Yew tree)
  19. Pulmonaire (Lungwort)
  20. Serpette (Billhook)
  21. Thlaspi (Pennycress)
  22. Thimelé (Rose Daphne)
  23. Chiendent (Couch Grass)
  24. Trainasse (Knotweed)
  25. Lièvre (Hare)
  26. Guède (Woad)
  27. Noisetier (Hazel)
  28. Cyclamen (Cyclamen)
  29. Chélidoine (Celandine)
  30. Traîneau (Sleigh)
  1. Tussilage (Coltsfoot)
  2. Cornouiller (Dogwood)
  3. Violier (Matthiola)
  4. Troène (Privet)
  5. Bouc (Billygoat)
  6. Asaret (Wild Ginger)
  7. Alaterne (Buckthorn)
  8. Violette (Violet (flower))
  9. Marceau (Goat Willow)
  10. Bêche (Spade)
  11. Narcisse (Narcissus)
  12. Orme (Elm Tree)
  13. Fumeterre (Common fumitory)
  14. Vélar (Hedge Mustard)
  15. Chèvre (Goat)
  16. Épinard (Spinach)
  17. Doronic (Large-flowered Leopard's Bane)
  18. Mouron (Pimpernel)
  19. Cerfeuil (Chervil)
  20. Cordeau (Twine)
  21. Mandragore (Mandrake)
  22. Persil (Parsley)
  23. Cochléaria (Scurvy-grass)
  24. Pâquerette (Daisy)
  25. Thon (Tuna)
  26. Pissenlit (Dandelion)
  27. Sylve (Forest)
  28. Capillaire (Maidenhair fern)
  29. Frêne (Ash Tree)
  30. Plantoir (Dibber: a hand gardening tool)

Nivôse was the fourth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pluviôse (also Pluviose) was the fifth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ventôse was the sixth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Bitumen is a mixture of organic liquids that are highly viscous, black, sticky, entirely soluble in carbon disulfide, and composed primarily of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil, usually the top six to eight inches. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... An example of a grain flail A flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing, to separate grains from their husks. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Slate Thick slate fragment Slate roof Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... A flint nodule from the Onondaga limestone layer, Buffalo, New York. ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Wind winnowing is a method developed by ancient cultures for agricultural purposes. ... Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) Salt covering the floor of Bad Water in Death Valley, CA, the lowest point in the US. A salt, in chemistry, is defined as the product formed from the neutralisation reaction of acids and bases. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... In general, a sieve separates wanted/desired elements from unwanted material using a tool such as a mesh, net or other filtration or distillation methods. ... Daphne is a genus of about 50 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs in the plant family Thymelaeaceae, noted for their scented flowers and poisonous berries. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1–10 cm tall, though some species are much larger. ... Genera Aspidistra Beaucarnea Comosperma Convallaria Danae Dasylirion Dracaena Eriospermum Liriope Maianthemum Nolina Ophiopogon Polygonatum Ruscus Sansevieria Xeronema Ruscaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Asparagales. ... Species Galanthus x allenii G. nivalis The Common Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) is the best-known representative of a small genus of about 20 species in the family Amaryllidaceae that are among the first bulbs to bloom in spring. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Binomial name Viburnum tinus L. Viburnum tinus (Laurustinus or Laurustinus Viburnum) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Viburnum, native to the Mediterranean region. ... Amadou is a natural fungus of brown colour used by fly fishermen for drying out fly lures. ... Binomial name Daphne mezereum L. Daphne mezereum is a species of Daphne in the flowering plant family Thymelaeaceae, native to most of Europe and western Asia, north to northern England and central Scandinavia. ... This article is about woody plants of the genus Populus. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... Species See text(#Species) Hellebores (the Genus Helleborus in the Family Ranunculaceae) are perennial flowering plants that are often grown in gardens for decorative purposes, as well as for their purported medicinal abilities and uses in witchcraft. ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... Binomial name Laurus nobilis L. The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, or just Laurel, is an evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region. ... This article is about the tree; for other meanings of hazel, see Hazel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Corylus maxima Mill. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... This article is about the box tree. ... Lichenes from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont also known as the phycobiont) that can produce food for the lichen from sunlight. ... Binomial name Taxus baccata L. Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. ... Species P. longifolia The lungworts are the genus Pulmonaria of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae. ... An example of a Newtown pattern billhook. ... Binomial name Thlaspi arvense L. Thlaspi arvense (common name Field Penny-cress) is a foetid Eurasian plant having round flat pods; naturalized throughout North America. ... Daphne is a genus of about 50 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs in the plant family Thymelaeaceae, noted for their scented flowers and poisonous berries. ... Binomial name Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. ... Species see text Polygonum cuspidatum fall foliage Polygonum, or knotweed, is a genus in the buckwheat family Polygonaceae. ... Jack rabbit and Jackrabbit redirect here. ... Binomial name Isatis tinctoria L. Woad (or glastum) is the common name of the flowering plant Isatis tinctoria in the family Brassicaceae. ... This article is about the tree; for other meanings of hazel, see Hazel (disambiguation). ... Species Cyclamen africanum Cyclamen balearicum Cyclamen cilicium Cyclamen colchicum Cyclamen coum Cyclamen creticum Cyclamen cyprium Cyclamen graecum Cyclamen hederifolium Cyclamen intaminatum Cyclamen libanoticum Cyclamen mirabile Cyclamen parviflorum Cyclamen persicum Cyclamen pseudibericum Cyclamen purpurascens Cyclamen repandum Cyclamen rohlfsianum Cyclamen somalense Cyclamen trochopteranthum Cyclamen is a genus of 20 species of flowering... Binomial name Chelidonium majus L. The greater celandine (Chelidonium majus) is a yellow-flowering poppy, native to Europe and the Mediterranean basin. ... For the cricket meaning, see Sledging (cricket) A sled, sledge or sleigh is a vehicle with runners for sliding instead of wheels for rolling. ... Binomial name Tussilago farfara L. Coltsfoot or Tussilago farfara is a plant in the family Asteraceae. ... Subgenera Cornus Benthamidia Swida The Dogwoods comprise a group of 30-50 species of deciduous woody plants (shrubs and trees) in the family Cornaceae, divided into one to nine genera or subgenera (depending on botanical interpretation). ... Matthiola or stock is a flowering plant. ... Species See text Privet was originally the name for the European semi-evergreen shrub Ligustrum vulgare, and later also for the more reliably evergreen Ligustrum ovalifolium (Japanese privet), used extensively for privacy hedging (hence privet, private). ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Species See text. ... Species See text The Buckthorns Rhamnus are a genus (or two genera, if Frangula is treated as distinct) of about 100 species of shrubs or small trees from 1-10 m tall (rarely to 15 m), in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. ... Species List of Viola species Violets (Viola) are a genus of flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species throughout the world, mainly in the temperate Northern Hemisphere but also in Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes in South America. ... Binomial name Salix caprea L. The Goat Willow (Salix caprea), also known as the Pussy Willow or Great Sallow, is a common species of willow native to Europe and northwestern Africa. ... Rusty spade small spade for clay soil; the other one for sandy soil and loamy soil A spade is a tool fit for digging, or something resembling that. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... genera see text Fumariaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... Hedge mustard is a plant, Sisymbrium officinale of the family Cruciferae. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Species many, see text Anagallis is a genus of the Primrose family Primulaceae, commonly called pimpernels and perhaps best known for the scarlet pimpernel referred to in literature. ... Binomial name Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ... Twine is modern electronic music composed by Chad Mossholder and Greg Malcolm. ... Species Mandragora autumnalis Mandragora officinarum Mandragora turcomanica Mandragora caulescens Mandrake root redirects here. ... Species Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Species About 25 species, see text Scurvy-grass (Cochlearia species; a. ... Binomial name Bellis perennis L. Bellis perennis is a common European species of Daisy, often considered the archetypal species of that name, though many other related plants share the name; to distinguish it from other daisies, it is sometimes qualified as Common Daisy, or occasionally English daisy. ... A shoal of skipjack tuna Tuna are several species of ocean-dwelling fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. ... Species See text A dandelion is a short plant, usually with a yellow flower head and notched leaves. ... Temperate rainforest on Northern Slopes of the Alborz mountain ranges, Iran A dense growth of softwoods (a conifer forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California A deciduous broadleaf (Beech) forest in Slovenia. ... Species See text Maidenhair ferns are ferns of the genus Adiantum, which contains about 200 species. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... This is a noun which describes a Television Remote Control, as in Pass me the dibber, I want to change channel. ...

Spring

Germinal (Mar 21 ~ Apr 19) Floréal (Apr 20 ~ May 19) Prairial (May 20 ~ Jun 18)
  1. Primevère (Primrose)
  2. Platane (Plane Tree)
  3. Asperge (Asparagus)
  4. Tulipe (Tulip)
  5. Poule (Hen)
  6. Bette (Chard Plant)
  7. Bouleau (Birch Tree)
  8. Jonquille (Daffodil)
  9. Aulne (Alder)
  10. Couvoir (Hatchery)
  11. Pervenche (Periwinkle)
  12. Charme (Ironwood)
  13. Morille (Morel)
  14. Hêtre (Beech Tree)
  15. Abeille (Bee)
  16. Laitue (Lettuce)
  17. Mélèze (Larch)
  18. Ciguë (Hemlock)
  19. Radis (Radish)
  20. Ruche (Hive)
  21. Gainier (Judas tree)
  22. Romaine (Lettuce)
  23. Marronnier (Chestnut Oak)
  24. Roquette (Arugula or Rocket)
  25. Pigeon (Pigeon)
  26. Lilas (Lilac)
  27. Anémone (Anemone)
  28. Pensée (Pansy)
  29. Myrtille (Blueberry)
  30. Greffoir (Knife)
  1. Rose (Rose)
  2. Chêne (Oak Tree)
  3. Fougère (Fern)
  4. Aubépine (Hawthorn)
  5. Rossignol (Nightingale)
  6. Ancolie (Columbine)
  7. Muguet (Lily of the Valley)
  8. Champignon (Button mushroom)
  9. Hyacinthe (Hyacinth)
  10. Râteau (Rake)
  11. Rhubarbe (Rhubarb)
  12. Sainfoin (Sainfoin)
  13. Bâton-d'or (Wallflower)
  14. Chamérops (Palm tree)
  15. Ver à soie (Silkworm)
  16. Consoude (Comfrey)
  17. Pimprenelle (Salad Burnet)
  18. Corbeille d'or (Basket of Gold)
  19. Arroche (Orache)
  20. Sarcloir (Garden hoe)
  21. Statice (Sea Lavender)
  22. Fritillaire (Fritillary)
  23. Bourrache (Borage)
  24. Valériane (Valerian)
  25. Carpe (Carp)
  26. Fusain (Spindle (shrub))
  27. Civette (Chive)
  28. Buglosse (Bugloss)
  29. Sénevé (Wild mustard)
  30. Houlette (Shepherd's crook)
  1. Luzerne (Alfalfa)
  2. Hémérocalle (Daylily)
  3. Trèfle (Clover)
  4. Angélique (Angelica)
  5. Canard (Duck)
  6. Mélisse (Lemon Balm)
  7. Fromental (Oat grass)
  8. Martagon (Martagon lily)
  9. Serpolet (Thyme plant)
  10. Faux (Scythe)
  11. Fraise (Strawberry)
  12. Bétoine (Woundwort)
  13. Pois (Pea)
  14. Acacia (Acacia)
  15. Caille (Quail)
  16. Oeillet (Carnation)
  17. Sureau (Elderberry)
  18. Pavot (Poppy plant)
  19. Tilleul (Linden or Lime tree)
  20. Fourche (Pitchfork)
  21. Barbeau (Cornflower)
  22. Camomille (Camomile)
  23. Chèvrefeuille (Honeysuckle)
  24. caille-lait (Bedstraw)
  25. Tanche (Tench)
  26. Jasmin (Jasmine Plant)
  27. Verveine (Verbena)
  28. Thym (Thyme Plant)
  29. Pivoine (Peony Plant)
  30. Chariot (Hand Cart)

Germinal was the seventh month in the French Republican Calendar. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Floréal was the eighth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (140th in leap years). ... Prairial was the ninth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (141st in leap years). ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Binomial name Primula vulgaris L. Primula vulgaris is a species of Primula native to western and southern Europe, including the British Isles. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus officinalis is a plant species in the family Asparagaceae from which the popular vegetable known as asparagus is obtained. ... Species See text Tulip (Tulipa) is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in the family Liliaceae. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Chard (disambiguation). ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Species ????? Daffodils are a group of large flowered members of the genus Narcissus. ... Species About 20-30 species, see text. ... A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. ... Vinca is Vinca, a botanical genus; see Periwinkle (plant). ... Ironwood, Michigan is a city in the upper peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Species Morchella angusticeps Morchella conica Morchella costata Morchella crassipes Morchella elata Morchella esculenta Morchella gigas Morchella semilibera Morchella spongiola Morchella spongiola var. ... Species Fagus crenata - Japanese Beech Fagus engleriana - Chinese Beech Fagus grandifolia - American Beech Fagus hayatae - Taiwan Beech Fagus japonica - Japanese Blue Beech Fagus longipetiolata - South Chinese Beech Fagus lucida - Shining Beech Fagus mexicana - Mexican Beech or Haya Fagus orientalis - Oriental Beech Fagus sylvatica - European Beech Beech (Fagus) is a genus... For information on the subject of disappearing domesticated honey bee colonies in the United States and some European countries, which phenomenon only affects this one particular species of bee, see Colony Collapse Disorder. ... Binomial name Lactuca sativa L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species About 12; see text Siberian larch Male (above) and female (below right) cones of Japanese Larch emerging in spring Larches are conifers in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae. ... Species Conium chaerophylloides (Thunb. ... Binomial name Raphanus sativus L. The radish (Raphanus sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that is domesticated and consumed throughout the world. ... Domesticated honeybees are kept in beehives. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Lactuca sativa L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Quercus prinus The Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus, or Quercus montana in some references) is one of the chestnut oak subgroup of the white oak group, genus Quercus section Quercus. ... Leafy arugula Arugula, also known as rocket, garden rocket, rocket salad, rugola, rucola and roquette[1], is a type of leaf vegetable, which looks like a longer leaved and open lettuce. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... Look up lilac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species see text Anemone (Anemone) (from the Gr. ... Pansy, see Isabella Macdonald Alden. ... Species See text. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Species Between 100 and 150, see list Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosa A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Species See text Crataegus (Hawthorn) is a large genus of in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. ... Binomial name Luscinia megarhynchos (Brehm, 1831) This article is about the bird. ... For other things of this name, see Columbine (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Convallaria majalis Lily of the valley is a flowering plant of the Convallaria genus. ... Binomial name Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange) Imbach Always follow strict safety guidelines before consuming wild mushrooms. ... Genera Hyacinthus litwinowii Hyacinthus orientalis Hyacinthus transcaspicus A Hyacinth is any plant of genus Hyacinthus, which are bulbous herbs formerly placed in the lily family Liliaceae but now regarded as the type genus of the separate family Hyacinthaceae. ... A heavy-duty rake for soil and rocks A light-duty rake for grass and leaves A double-sided rake A Rake better known as Kiran Buckman in various parts of Australia (Old English raca, cognate with Dutch raak, German Rechen, from a root meaning to scrape together, heap up... Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ... Binomial name Onobrychis vicifolia Sainfoin (Onobrychis vicifolia) is a Eurasian perennial herb that has pale pink flowers, curved pods and is naturalized in Britain and North America grasslands on calcareous soils. ... Species Erysimum ammophilum Erysimum angustatum Erysimum arenicola Erysimum capitatum Erysimum cheiranthoides Erysimum cheiri Erysimum durum Erysimum franciscanum Erysimum hieracilifolium Erysimum inconspicuum Erysimum insulare Erysimum menziesii Erysimum occidentale Erysimum odoratum Erysimum pallasii Erysimum perofskianum Erysimum repandum Erysimum scoparium Erysimum teretifolium The genus Erysimum includes the wallflowers, which include both popular garden... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (sometimes known by the names Palmae or Palmaceae, although the latter name is taxonomically invalid. ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For other senses of this word, see silkworm (disambiguation). ... Species Symphytum asperum Lepechin Symphytum officinale L. Symphytum tuberosum L. Symphytum x uplandicum Nyman For the place, see Comfrey, Minnesota Comfrey (also comphrey) is an important herb in organic gardening, having many medicinal and fertiliser uses. ... Binomial name Sanguisorba minor Scop. ... Binomial name Lobularia maritima Alyssum (Lobularia maritima), also commonly referred to as Sweet Alyssum, is a flower native to southern Europe that has also naturalized throughout the United States. ... Species (Alaska orach) (Crownscale saltbush) (Garden or Red orach) (Prostrate orach) (Redscale orach) (Siberian saltbush) many more Atriplex is a plant genus whose hundred or so members go by the common names of saltbush and orach (or orache). ... Agricultural square bladed hoe. ... Species About 120-150 species; see text Sea-lavender (also Sea Lavender, Sealavender) or Statice is a genus Limonium of flowering plants with about 120 species. ... Species see text Fritillaria is a genus of bulbous plants of the north temperate regions. ... Binomial name Borago officinalis L. Borage (Borago officinalis), also known as starflower, is an annual herb native to central and eastern Europe. ... Binomial name Valeriana officinalis L. & Maillefer Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Valerianaceae) is a hardy perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Species Euonymus alatus - Winged Spindle Euonymus americanus - Strawberry-bush Spindle Euonymus atropurpureus - Eastern Burning-bush Euonymus europaeus - European Spindle Euonymus fortunei - Fortunes Spindle Euonymus japonicus - Japanese Spindle Euonymus obovatus - Euonymus occidentalis - Western Burning-bush The spindles, genus Euonymus, comprise about 170-180 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs and... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) are a member of the onion family (Alliaceae) grown for their leaves, which are used as an herb. ... Species See text The genus Anchusa L belongs to the tribe Boragineae of the borage family (Boraginaceae). ... Species See text The mustards are several plant species in the genus Brassica whose proverbially tiny mustard seeds are used as a spice and, by grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar or other liquids, are turned into a condiment also known as mustard. ... In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ... Binomial name Medicago sativa L. Subspecies subsp. ... Species See text. ... Species See text Clover is my sisters name! Clover (Trifolium) is a genus of about 300 species of plants in the pea family Fabaceae. ... Binomial name Angelica archangelica L. Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial plant from the umbelliferous family Apiaceae. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Lilium martagon L. Lilium martagon or the Martagon lily is one of the true lilies. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus herba-barona Thymus hirsutus Thymus hyemalis Thymus integer Thymus lanuginosus... Using a scythe A scythe (IPA: , most likely from Old English siðe, sigði) is an agricultural hand tool for mowing and reaping grass or crops. ... Species 20+ species; see text The strawberry (Fragaria) is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae, and the fruit of these plants. ... Species About 300 species, including: Stachys affinis Stachys alopecuros Stachys alpina Stachys annua Stachys bullata Stachys byzantina Stachys candida Stachys chrysantha Stachys ciliata Stachys citrina Stachys coccinea Stachys corsica Stachys cretica Stachys discolor Stachys ehrenbergii Stachys germanica Stachys hyssopifolia Stachys iva Stachys lavandulifolia Stachys libanotica Stachys macrantha Stachys macrostachya Stachys... Binomial name Pisum sativum L. A pea is the small, edible round green bean which grows in a pod on the leguminous vine Pisum sativum, or in some cases to the immature pods. ... Species About 1,300; see List of Acacia species Acacia tree in the Serengeti, Tanzania Acacia is a genus of shrubs and trees of Gondwanian origin belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first described from Africa by Linnaeus in 1773. ... Genera Coturnix Anurophasis Perdicula Ophrysia † See also Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds in the pheasant family Phasianidae, or in the family Odontophoridae. ... Binomial name Dianthus caryophyllus L. The Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is a flowering plant native to the Near East and has been cultivated for the last 2,000 years. ... Species See text Elder or Elderberry (Sambucus) is a genus of between 5-30 species of fast-growing shrubs or small trees (two species herbaceous), formerly treated in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae, but now shown by genetic evidence to be correctly classified in the moschatel family Adoxaceae. ... A wild field of poppies, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran A poppy is any of a number of showy flowers, born one per stem, belonging to the poppy family. ... Species About 30; see text A lime-lined avenue in Alexandra Park, London Tilia leaf Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest species diversity is found), Europe and eastern North America; it is absent... A pitchfork next to a compost bin Pitching hay A pitchfork is a tool with a long handle and long, thin, widely separated pointed tines (also called prongs) used to lift and throw loose material, such as hay, leaves, grapes, or other agricultural products. ... Binomial name Centaurea cyanus L. Centaurea cyanus (Cornflower) is a small annual flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe. ... The name Chamomile or Camomile is ambiguous and can refer to several distinct species. ... Species See text - Selected Species Honeysuckles (genus Lonicera; syn. ... Species About 400 species; see text Galium L., is a large genus of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the family Rubiaceae, with about 400 species occurring in the temperate zones of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ... The tench (Tinca tinca) is a small fish of the Cyprinid family, and is one of the commonest and most widely spread freshwater fishes of Europe. ... Jasminum. ... For other uses, see Verbena (disambiguation). ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus herba-barona Thymus hirsutus Thymus hyemalis Thymus integer Thymus lanuginosus... Species See text The peony or paeony (Paeonia) is the sole genus in the flowering plant family Paeoniaceae. ... A simple wooden cart in Australia A cart transporting watermelons in Harbin, China. ...

Summer

Messidor (Jun 19 ~ Jul 18) Thermidor (Jul 19 ~ Aug 17) Fructidor (Aug 18 ~ Sep 16)
  1. Seigle (Rye)
  2. Avoine (Oats)
  3. Oignon (Onion)
  4. Véronique (Speedwell)
  5. Mulet (Mule)
  6. Romarin (Rosemary)
  7. Concombre (Cucumber)
  8. Echalote (Shallot)
  9. Absinthe (Wormwood)
  10. Faucille (Sickle)
  11. Coriandre (Coriander)
  12. Artichaut (Artichoke)
  13. Girofle (Clove)
  14. Lavande (Lavender)
  15. Chamois (Chamois)
  16. Tabac (Tobacco)
  17. Groseille (Currant)
  18. Gesse (Hairy Vetchling)
  19. Cerise (Cherry)
  20. Parc (Park)
  21. Menthe (Mint)
  22. Cumin (Cumin)
  23. Haricot (Bean)
  24. Orcanète (Alkanet)
  25. Pintade (Guinea fowl)
  26. Sauge (Sage Plant)
  27. Ail (Garlic)
  28. Vesce (Tare)
  29. Blé (Wheat)
  30. Chalémie (Shawm)
  1. Epeautre (Einkorn Wheat)
  2. Bouillon blanc (Common Mullein)
  3. Melon (Honeydew Melon)
  4. Ivraie (Ryegrass)
  5. Bélier (Ram)
  6. Prêle (Horsetail)
  7. Armoise (Mugwort)
  8. Carthame (Safflower)
  9. Mûre (Blackberry)
  10. Arrosoir (Watering Can)
  11. Panis (Panic grass)
  12. Salicorne (Common Glasswort)
  13. Abricot (Apricot)
  14. Basilic (Basil)
  15. Brebis (Ewe)
  16. Guimauve (Marshmallow root)
  17. Lin (Flax)
  18. Amande (Almond)
  19. Gentiane (Gentian)
  20. Ecluse (Lock)
  21. Carline (Carline thistle)
  22. Câprier (Caper)
  23. Lentille (Lentil)
  24. Aunée (Yellow starwort)
  25. Loutre (Otter)
  26. Myrte (Myrtle)
  27. Colza (Rapeseed)
  28. Lupin (Lupin)
  29. Coton (Cotton)
  30. Moulin (Mill)
  1. Prune (Plum)
  2. Millet (Millet)
  3. Lycoperdon (Puffball)
  4. Escourgeon (Six-row Barley)
  5. Saumon (Salmon)
  6. Tubéreuse (Tuberose)
  7. Sucrion (Sugar melon)
  8. Apocyn (Apocynum)
  9. Réglisse (Liquorice)
  10. Echelle (Ladder)
  11. Pastèque (Watermelon)
  12. Fenouil (Fennel)
  13. Epine vinette (Barberry)
  14. Noix (Walnut)
  15. Truite (Trout)
  16. Citron (Lemon)
  17. Cardère (Teasel)
  18. Nerprun (Buckthorn)
  19. Tagette (Mexican Marigold)
  20. Hotte (Sack)
  21. Eglantine (Wild Rose)
  22. Noisette (Hazelnut)
  23. Houblon (Hops)
  24. Sorgho (Sorghum)
  25. Ecrevisse (Crayfish)
  26. Bigarade (Bitter Orange)
  27. Verge d'or (Goldenrod)
  28. Maïs (Maize or Corn)
  29. Marron (Chestnut)
  30. Panier (Basket)

Messidor was the tenth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Thermidor was the eleventh month in the French Revolutionary Calendar, which was used only in France and only for thirteen years. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fructidor was the twelfth month in the French Republican Calendar. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species See text. ... A barren of mules. ... Binomial name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosmarinus officinalis Wikispecies has information related to: Rosmarinus officinalis Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Rosemary Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant evergreen needle-like leaves. ... Binomial name Cucumis sativus L. The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon. ... Binomial name Allium oschaninii O. Fedtsch For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). ... Look up Wormwood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Using a sickle A Adam is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ... Binomial name Coriandrum sativum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Cynara scolymus L. The Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a perennial, thistle-like plant, originating in southern Europe around the Mediterranean. ... Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean region... Binomial name Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a large, goat-like animal that lives in the European Alps and Carpathians. ... This article is about the product manufactured from Tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp. ... Species Ribes rubrum The Redcurrant (Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family Grossulariaceae. ... Species See text. ... “Cherry tree” redirects here. ... An Australian park A park is any of a number of geographic features. ... “Mint” redirects here. ... Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) (sometimes written cummin) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to East India. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Binomial name Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch The name alkanet generally refers to Alkanna tinctoria or Dyers Bugloss (though it may be used for Anchusa officinalis or Common Bugloss). ... Genera  Agelastes  Numida  Guttera  Acryllium The guineafowl are a family of birds in the same order as the pheasants, turkeys and other game birds. ... Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Sage leaves Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name Allium sativum L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Binomial name Vicia sativa L. Common Vetch Vicia sativa (also called Tare) is a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... The shawm was a Renaissance musical instrument of the woodwind family, made in Europe from the late 13th century until the 17th century. ... Binomial name Triticum boeoticum Boss. ... Binomial name Verbascum thapsus L. The Common Mullein or Great Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.) is a dicotyledonous biennial native to Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Cucumis melo L. The melon is the fruit and plant of a typically vine-like (climber and trailer) herb that was first cultivated more than 4000 years ago (~ 2000 BC) in Persia and Africa. ... Species See text Ryegrass (Lolium) is a genus of nine species of tufted grasses, family Poaceae. ... Species See text. ... Species The horsetails are vascular plants, comprising 15 species of plants in the genus Equisetum. ... Binomial name Artemisia vulgaris L. Artemisia vulgaris (Mugwort or Common Mugwort) is one of several species in the genus Artemisia with names containing mugwort. ... Binomial name Carthamus tinctorius (Mohler, Roth, Schmidt & Boudreaux, 1967) Safflower is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual, usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves. ... The BlackBerry is a wireless handheld device introduced in 1999 which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing, web browsing and other wireless information services. ... A watering can is a portable container, usually with a handle and a spout, used to hand water plants. ... Binomial name Panicum virgatum L. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm season grass and is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ocimum basilicum L. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) of the Family Lamiaceae is also known as Sweet Basil. ... Species See text. ... For the confection, see marshmallow. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ... Binomial name Prunus dulcis (Mill. ... Species See text. ... The word lock came from Anglo-Saxon loca = a secure enclosure. Currently lock has several meanings: A lock (device) is a mechanical fastening device which may be used on a door, vehicle, safe, or other container. ... Carline thistle Categories: Plant stubs | Asteraceae ... Binomial name Capparis spinosa Linnaeus, 1753 For Australian native Capparis spinosa ssp nummularia, see Caperbush. ... Lens culinaris. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Genera Amblonyx Aonyx Enhydra Lontra Lutra Lutrogale Pteronura The otter (lutrinae) is a carnivorous aquatic or marine mammal part of the family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, polecats, badgers, as well as others. ... Species The Myrtle (Myrtus) is a genus of one or two species of flowering plants in the family Myrtaceae, native to southern Europe and north Africa. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Species 150-200 species, including: Lupinus albus Lupinus angustifolius Lupinus luteus Lupinus albifrons Lupinus arboreus Lupinus arizonicus Lupinus bicolor Lupinus chamissonis Lupinus diffusus Lupinus excubitus Lupinus formosus Lupinus longifolius Lupinus microcarpus Lupinus mutabilis Lupinus nanus Lupinus nootkatensis Lupinus perennis Lupinus polyphyllus Lupinus sparsiflorus Lupinus sulphureus Lupinus texensis Lupinus tidestromii Lupinus... Cotton ready for harvest. ... An ancient Chinese tomb model of a foot-powered mill, Eastern Han Dynasty (25 - 220 AD), Freer Gallery of Art. ... It has been suggested that Prune (fruit) be merged into this article or section. ... Pearl millet in the field The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. ... An agaricoid puffball, Podaxis pistillaris, the False Shaggy Mane Puffball emitting spores A puffball is a member of any of a number of groups of fungus in the division Basidiomycota. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Binomial name Polianthes tuberosa The tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) is a plant of the agave family Agavaceae. ... Binomial name Cucumis melo L. The melon is the fruit and plant of a typically vine-like (climber and trailer) herb that was first cultivated more than 4000 years ago (~ 2000 BC) in Persia and Africa. ... Genera See Taxonomy and Genera. ... Binomial name Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (pronounced IPA: licorish) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... For other uses, see Ladder (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Species About 450-500; see text Berberis thunbergii shoot with fruit Berberis is a genus of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1-5 m tall with thorny shoots, native to the temperate and subtropical regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and South America. ... “Walnut Tree” redirects here. ... Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou subsp Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ... Binomial name Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. ... Species See text Dipsacus is a genus of flowering plant in the family Dipsacaceae. ... Species See text The Buckthorns Rhamnus are a genus (or two genera, if Frangula is treated as distinct) of about 100 species of shrubs or small trees from 1-10 m tall (rarely to 15 m), in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. ... Species About 50, including: Tagetes erecta Tagetes filifolia Tagetes lacera Tagetes lucida Tagetes minuta Tagetes patula Tagetes tenuifolia as well as numerous hybrids Tagetes lucida Tagetes is a genus of about 50 species of annual or perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family (Asteraceae). ... The word sack can refer to: Look up sack in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species About 100, see text References:   U. of Illinois 2002-05-29 A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa and the flower of this shrub. ... Binomial name Corylus avellana L. The Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) is a shrub native to Europe and Asia. ... Species Humulus lupulus L. Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of about 30 species of grasses raised for grain, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eastern Africa, with one species native to Mexico. ... Families Astacoidea   Astacidae   Cambaridae Parastacoidea   Parastacidae Crayfish, often referred to as crawfish or crawdad, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are closely related. ... Binomial name Citrus aurantium L. The bitter orange, refers to a citrus tree (Citrus aurantium) and its fruit. ... Species See text. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut (Castanea), including... Four styles of household basket. ...

Complementary days

Main article: Sansculottides

Five extra days (six in leap years) were national holidays at the end of every year. These were originally known as les sans-culottides (after sans-culottes), but after year III (1795) as les jours complémentaires: The Sansculottides (also Epagomenes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complementaires, jours épagomènes) are the end of the French Republican Calendar of the French Revolution. ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day (or, in case of lunisolar calendars, an extra month) in order to keep the calendar year synchronised with the astronomical or seasonal year. ... Painted rendition of a sans-culottes. ...

  • La Fête de la Vertu "Virtue Day" on Sept 17 or 18
  • La Fête du Génie "Talent Day" on Sept 18 or 19
  • La Fête du Travail "Labour Day" on Sept 19 or 20
  • La Fête de l'Opinion "Opinion Day" on Sept 20 or 21
  • La Fête des Récompenses "Rewards Day" on Sept 21 or 22
  • La Fête de la Révolution "Revolution Day" on Sept 22 or 23 (Leap years)

The Sansculottides (also Epagomenes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complementaires, jours épagomènes) are the end of the French Republican Calendar of the French Revolution. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... La Fête du Génie was the Talent Day in the French Republican Calendar, celebrated on 18 or 19 September. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... The Sansculottides (also Epagomenes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complementaires, jours épagomènes) are the end of the French Republican Calendar of the French Revolution. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... The Sansculottides (also Epagomenes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complementaires, jours épagomènes) are the end of the French Republican Calendar of the French Revolution. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... The Sansculottides (also Epagomenes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complementaires, jours épagomènes) are the end of the French Republican Calendar of the French Revolution. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... The Sansculottides (also Epagomenes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complementaires, jours épagomènes) are the end of the French Republican Calendar of the French Revolution. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

Converting to Gregorian Calendar

Quartidi
24
Floréal
CCXV

The calendar was abolished in the year XIV (1805). After this date, opinions seem to differ on the method by which the leap years would have been determined if the calendar were still in force. There are at least hypotheses used to convert dates to the Gregorian calendar:

  • The leap years would continue to vary in order to ensure that each year the autumnal equinox falls on 1 Vendémiaire, as was the case from year I to year XIV. This is the only method that was ever in legal effect, although it means that sometimes five years pass between leap years.[5]
  • The leap year would have jumped after year 15 to year 20, after which a leap year would have fallen on each year divisible by four (thus in 20, 24, 28…), except most century years, according to Romme's proposed fixed rules. This would have simplified conversions between the Republican and Gregorian calendars since the Republican leap day would usually follow a few months after 29 February, at the end of each year divisible by four, so that the date of the Republican New Year remains the same (September 22) in the Gregorian calendar for the entire third century of the Republican Era (1993-2092 CE).[6]
  • The leap years would have continued in a fixed rule every four years from the last one (thus years 15, 19, 23, 27…) with the leap day added before, rather than after, each year divisible by four, except most century years. This rule has the advantage that it is both simple to calculate and is continuous with every year in which the calendar was in official use during the First Republic. Concordances were printed in France, after the Republican Calendar was abandoned, using this rule to determine dates for long-term contracts.[7][8]
  • Beginning with year 20, years divisible by four would be leap years, except for years divisible by 128. The date of the Republican New Year remains the same (September 23) in the Gregorian calendar every year from 129 to 256 (1920-2047 CE).[9][10][11]

The following table shows when several years of the Republican Era begin on the Gregorian calendar, according to each of the four above methods: February 29th, or bissextile day, is the 60th day of a leap year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 306 days remaining. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... Around the world there have been a number of First Republics: French First Republic - 1792 First Spanish Republic First Philippine Republic In Italy the term First Republic is used informally to refer to the period up to 1991, when a series of scandals (mainly bribery) hit many politicians. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

RE CE Equinox Romme Continuous 128-Year

CCXIV (214)

2005 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

September 22* September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 22 September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 22 September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 23 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

CCXV (215)

2006 For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

September 23 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

September 22 September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 22* September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 23 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

CCXVI (216)

2007 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ...

September 23 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

September 22* September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 23 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

September 23* September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

CCXVII (217)

2008 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

September 22 September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 22 September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 22 September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 23 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

CCXVIII (218)

2009 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

September 22* September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 22 September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 22 September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 23 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

CCXIV (219)

2010 This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

September 23 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

September 22 September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 22* September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ...

September 23 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

* Leap year, extra day added at end of year

French Republican calendar in fiction

The shared world of Liavek uses a calendar which is a simple adaptation of the French Republican calendar. It consists of twelve months of 30 days, called Snow, Rain, Wind, Buds, Flowers, Meadows, Reaping, Heat, Fruit, Wine, Fog and Frost. The year begins at the winter solstice, with five days of festival (Festival Week). Every four years is the Grand Festival, which lasts an extra day. There are six weeks of five days: Sunday, Moonday, Windday, Rainday, and Luckday. A Shared universe is a literary technique in which several different authors share settings and characters which appear in their respective works of fiction, often referring to events taking place in the other writers stories. ... Liavek is a shared world brought to life in a series of five fantasy anthologies edited by Emma Bull and Will Shetterly. ...


The French calendar is in use in the Republic of Louisianne, a Francophone North American nation of the alternate history project Ill Bethisad, although the ten-day week was dropped and replaced with the original seven-day week. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Ill Bethisad is an ongoing, collaborative alternative history project with currently ca. ...


Sarah Monette used the French Revolutionary calendar as the basis for the City Calendar in her novel Melusine and its sequels.[12]


Neil Gaiman used the name of the month Thermidor as the title of a story set in the time of the French Revolution in Sandman (Vertigo Comics). Neil Richard Gaiman () (born November 10, 1960, Portchester, Hampshire) is an English author of numerous science fiction and fantasy works, including many graphic novels. ... Thermidor was the eleventh month in the French Revolutionary Calendar, which was used only in France and only for thirteen years. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A statue of the sandman at Filmpark Babelsberg The Sandman is a giving character in popular Western folklore who brings good sleep and dreams by sprinkling magic sand on to the eyes of children. ... Vertigo logo Vertigo is an imprint of comic book and graphic novel publisher DC Comics. ...


Susanne Alleyn used the calendar in her historical crime novels Game of Patience and A Treasury of Regrets, set in revolutionary Paris.


See also

French decimal clock from the time of the French Revolution Decimal time is the representation of the time of day using units which are decimally related. ... Page of the Soviet revolutionary calendar showing December 12, 1937 The Soviet revolutionary calendar was in use in the USSR from 1929 to 1940. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The French Revolutionary Calendar (567 words)
The existing calendar perpetuated the frauds of the Christian church (Jesus himself was probably a good sans-culotte; all the nonsense stemmed from Paul), and was highly irrational and inconvenient.
The new calendar, based on a report of Fabre d'Églantine, was adopted by the Convention in October, 1793.
The republican era was to date from the declaration of the republic in September, 1792.
French Republican Calendar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1419 words)
The French Republican Calendar or French Revolutionary Calendar is a calendar proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about twelve years from late 1793.
The calendar was adopted by the Jacobin-controlled National Convention on 24 October 1793.
French Republican Calendar of 1794, drawn by Louis-Philibert Debucourt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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