FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > French Navy
Marine Nationale
Motto: Honneur, Patrie, Valeur, Discipline
("Honour, Homeland, Valour, Discipline")
Components
Force d'Action Navale
Force Océanique Stratégique
Aviation Navale
FORFUSCO
Commandos de Marine
Fusiliers de Marine
Gendarmerie Navale
History
History of the French Navy
Future of the French Navy
French Navy ensigns and pennants
Ships
Current Fleet
Current deployments
Historic ships
Historic Fleets
Personnel
Naval Ministers
Préfet Maritime
Ranks in the French Navy

The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. It consists of a full range of vessels, from patrol boats to guided missile frigates, and includes one nuclear aircraft carrier and four submarine-launched ballistic missile-capable nuclear submarines (SNLEs). Navy officers on the bridges of the Motte-Picquet frigate French Navy summer uniforms Frigate division of the French Navy in Toulon harbour The French Navy (Marine Nationale) is the second-largest Western European navy (the largest being the Royal Navy). ... Image File history File links Civil_and_Naval_Ensign_of_France. ... Image File history File links Logo_marine. ... A motto is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... The Force dAction Navale (FAN) is the 12,000-man and about 100-ship strong backbone of the French Navy. ... The Force Océanique Stratégique (FOST, Strategic Oceanic Force) are the strategic submarine forces of the French Navy. ... The Aviation Navale (Naval Aviation) of the French Navy includes 162 airplanes (138 of them combat-capable) and 6,800 men, both civilians and military personel. ... The Naval Light Infantry and Naval Commandos units are under command of the Force Maritime des Fusiliers Marins et Commandos (FORFUSCO) in Lorient. ... The Naval Commandos (Commandos Marines) are the special forces of the French Navy. ... The Fusiliers de Marine, or fusiliers marins, are units specialised in the protection and defence of sensitive points of the French Navy on land. ... The Gendarmerie Navale, or Gendarmerie maritime, is a 1 100-man strong corps of the French Navy. ... The French navy is affectionately known as The Gayest Navy(the Royal), for its supposed attachement to the monarchy; it is to be noted that some of the greatest heroes of the First Republic were in the French Navy (Luc-Julien-Joseph Casabianca, Robert Surcouf, Latouche-Tréville). ... The French Navy is undertaking a significant reinforcement, both in modernising and in number, under the Projet de loi de programmation militaire 2003-2008 (Military programme law project 2003-2008)[1] , which notably calls for A second aircraft carrier - conventionally propelled (the current Charles De Gaulle is nuclear), and built... The French Navy has a specific flag, slightly different from the regular French flag, a number of pennants and jacks, and traditions related to them. ... // Aircraft carriers Charles de Gaulle nuclear aricraft carrier Charles de Gaulle Planned: Second aircraft carrier Projection and Command vessels Mistral Projection and Command vessel Mistral class - 2 ships Mistral Tonnerre Helicopter Carriers Jeanne dArc Jeanne dArc (normally used for training) (Note that most amphibious ships are capable of... Standing French Navy Deployments is a list of current deployment by the French Navy: Caribbean Fort-de-France, Martinique Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe South America Cayenne, Suriname Pacific Tahiti - naval base New Caledonia Indian Ocean Mayotte Réunion Alindien or Indian Ocean Maritime Zone Africa Djibouti Dakar, Senegal North America Saint... This is a list of traditional French Navy ship names, along with notices for notable units. ... List of British fleets of World War I British Grand Fleet List of British fleets of World War II British Eastern Fleet British Home Fleet British Mediterranean Fleet British Pacific Fleet List of United States fleets US Atlantic Fleet US Pacific Fleet US Asiatic Fleet For a list of numbered... One of ancien régime Frances Secretaries of State was entrusted with control of the French Navy. ... From left to right: Capitaine de Vaisseau Xavier Magne (captain of the Charles De Gaulle), vice-amiral descadre Alain Dumontet, commander of the Force dAction Navale, and contre-amiral Edouard Guillaud, Préfet maritime of the English Channel and North Sea. ... The rank insignia of the French Navy are worn on epaulettes of shirts and white jackets, and on sleeves for navy jackets and mantels. ... Organization The French armed forces are divided into four branches: French Army, including Chasseurs Alpins Foreign Legion Marine troops light aviation engineers Navy, including Naval Air naval fusiliers and naval commandos Air Force, including territorial Air Defense air fusiliers National Gendarmerie (military police force) Every year on Bastille Day, a... This article is becoming very long. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


The motto of the French Navy is Honneur, Patrie, Valeur, Discipline ("Honour, Homeland, Valour, Discipline"). These words are found on the deck of every ship of the Navy.

Contents

The French Navy today

As of 2006, the French Navy is the largest naval employer in Western Europe, including, among other things, the Marseille Marine Fire Battalion. The chief of the general staff is Admiral Alain Oudot de Dainville[1]. A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Fire exercice aboard the frigate La Motte-Picquet — one of the main problems is the concentration of very calorific water vapor, therefore the raincoat-like equipment The Marseille Marine Fire Battalion, or in French le Bataillon de marins-pompiers de Marseille or BMPM, is the fire and rescue service... Admiral Alain Oudot de Dainville (15 March 1947 in Marsat (Puy de Dôme)) is a French Navy officer. ...


The current Navy aircraft carrier is the Charles De Gaulle (Normally, the French Navy operates two carriers, but only one of the latest generation has been built as of yet). The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ...


The Navy is organised in five branches:

  • The "Force d'Action Navale" ("Naval Action Force"), surface fleet
  • The "Forces Sous-marines" ("Submarine forces"), strategic nuclear deterrent fleet
  • The "Aviation Navale" ("Naval air force"), ground and sea-based planes and helicopters
  • The "Fusiliers de Marine" ("Naval fusiliers", ground forces used to secure naval installations) and "Commandos de Marine" (amphibious assault and other special operations), collectively known as FORFUSCO.
  • The "Gendarmerie Navale", police operations and coast guard

Note that the Troupes de Marine ("Naval Troops"), organised in Régiments d'Infanterie de Marine (the famous elite RIMa) are the modern name of the Troupes Coloniales ("Colonial Troops"), and are not part of the Navy, but of the Army. The Force dAction Navale (FAN) is the 12,000-man and about 100-ship strong backbone of the French Navy. ... The Force Océanique Stratégique (FOST, Strategic Oceanic Force) are the strategic submarine forces of the French Navy. ... The Aviation Navale (Naval Aviation) of the French Navy includes 162 airplanes (138 of them combat-capable) and 6,800 men, both civilians and military personel. ... The Fusiliers de Marine, or fusiliers marins, are units specialised in the protection and defence of sensitive points of the French Navy on land. ... The Naval Commandos (Commandos Marines) are the special forces of the French Navy. ... The Naval Light Infantry and Naval Commandos units are under command of the Force Maritime des Fusiliers Marins et Commandos (FORFUSCO) in Lorient. ... The Gendarmerie Navale, or Gendarmerie maritime, is a 1 100-man strong corps of the French Navy. ... The Troupes de marine (marine troops) is a subset of the French Army dedicated to external operations. ... The French Army (Armée de Terre) is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces. ...


Currently, French naval doctrine calls for two aircraft carriers, but the French only have one, the Charles de Gaulle, due to restructuring. The navy is in the midst of major technological and procurement changes; newer submarines and a second aircraft carrier have been ordered on top of the Rafales (the naval version) replacing older aircraft. This article is becoming very long. ... The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ...

See also: Current French Navy ships

// Aircraft carriers Charles de Gaulle nuclear aricraft carrier Charles de Gaulle Planned: Second aircraft carrier Projection and Command vessels Mistral Projection and Command vessel Mistral class - 2 ships Mistral Tonnerre Helicopter Carriers Jeanne dArc Jeanne dArc (normally used for training) (Note that most amphibious ships are capable of...

Future developments

The French Navy is undertaking a significant reinforcement, both in modernising and in number, under the Projet de loi de programmation militaire 2003-2008 ("Military programme law project 2003-2008")[2] , which notably calls for:

The Charles De Gaulle nuclear-powered aircraft carrier.
The Charles De Gaulle nuclear-powered aircraft carrier.
  • A second aircraft carrier to be delivered before 2015, the start of a scheduled repair and maintenance period for the nuclear powered Charles De Gaulle. The new carrier will be built in cooperation with a British program for two 65,000 ton conventionally-powered aircraft carriers, with alterations to best fit French needs and better benefit from French construction capabilities.
  • 2 Horizon units that are now under construction;
  • 17 FREMM multipurpose frigates - 8 should be ordered between 2003 and 2008, the first commissioning being expected for 2008.
  • 6 nuclear attack submarines of the Barracuda class - the first commissioning being expected for 2017

The equipment will also be modernised, notably Charles de Gaulle Nuclear Aircraft carrier , courtesy of www. ... Charles de Gaulle Nuclear Aircraft carrier , courtesy of www. ... Impression of UKs STOVL variant PA2 (Porte-Avions 2) is a planned new aircraft carrier developed for the French Navy by Thales Naval France and DCN from the Thales UK/BMT design for the future British aircraft carriers CV(F). ... The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... The Horizon Common New Generation Frigate (CNGF) is a multi-nationial collaboration to produce a new generation of anti-air warfare frigates. ... The FREMM Multipurpose Frigate is a stealth ship designed by the DCN to operate in anti-air, anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare, and be capable of carrying out deep strikes against land targets. ... The Barracuda is the next generation of nuclear attack submarine of the French Marine Nationale, designed by the DCN to replace the Rubis class submarines. ...

In older English literature there are some uses of exocet to mean flying fish. There is also a typeface known as Exocet. ... Aster is a surface-to-air missile manufactured by the European firm MBDA. The missile comes in two variants, the medium range Aster 15 and the longer range Aster 30. ... Aster 15 SYLVER launchers on the Charles de Gaulle The SYLVER is a vertical missile launcher designed by DCN. The primary application of the launcher has been the MBDA Aster missile. ... Storm Shadow is an Anglo-French air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by MBDA and used by Britain, France, and Italy. ...

Ranks of the National Navy

French Navy summer uniforms
Enlarge
French Navy summer uniforms
Frigate division of the French Navy in Toulon harbour
Frigate division of the French Navy in Toulon harbour

The following are the ranks of the French National Navy. Firstly, the proper French term is used, with an English translation that follows the Royal Navy/Canadian Navy ranking systems. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 737 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 737 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Canadian Forces Maritime Command (MARCOM) is responsible for naval operations of the navy of the Canadian Armed Forces. ...


Officers

Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Commodore is a military rank used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a Flag Officer. ... This article concerns the rank and title of Captain. ... Insignia of a United States Navy Commander Commander is a military rank used in many navies but not generally in armies or air forces. ... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... Lieutenant is a military, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... A Sub-Lieutenant is a junior naval commissioned officer or subordinate officer, ranking below a Lieutenant. ... A Sub-Lieutenant is a junior naval commissioned officer or subordinate officer, ranking below a Lieutenant. ... A midshipman is a subordinate officer, or alternatively a commissioned officer of the lowest rank, in the navies of several English-speaking countries. ...

Majors

A Warrant Officer (WO) is a member of a military organization holding one of a specific group of ranks. ...

Officiers mariniers / Non-commissioned Officers

Chief Petty Officer is a noncommissioned officer or equivalent in many navies. ... Chief Petty Officer is a noncommissioned officer or equivalent in many navies. ... A Petty Officer is a noncommissioned officer or equivalent in many navies. ... A Petty Officer is a noncommissioned officer or equivalent in many navies. ...

Militaires du rang (équipage)- Non-Commissioned Members

Seaman can be a generic term for sailor. ... In the Royal Navy in the middle of the 18th century, the term Able Seaman referred to a seaman with at least two years experience at sea. ... Ordinary Seaman is the lowest normal grade of sailor. ...

History

The French navy is affectionately known as La Royale ("the Royal"). The reason is not well known, may be for his for its traditional attachment to the French monarchy, somes others said that before to be named "nationale", the Navy had be named "royale" or simply because of the location of its headquarters, "rue Royale" in Paris. The navy did not sport the royal titles common with other European navies like the British Royal Navy. The French navy is affectionately known as The Gayest Navy(the Royal), for its supposed attachement to the monarchy; it is to be noted that some of the greatest heroes of the First Republic were in the French Navy (Luc-Julien-Joseph Casabianca, Robert Surcouf, Latouche-Tréville). ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... The rue Royale (pronounced in French) is a short street in Paris, France running between the place de la Concorde and the place de la Madeleine (site of the Church of the Madeleine). ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... This article is about the continent. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Middle Ages

The Battle of Sluys.
The Battle of Sluys.

The history of the French Navy goes back to the Middle Ages, when it was defeated by the English at the Battle of Sluys and, with Castilian help, managed to beat the English at La Rochelle. Battle of Sluys Illustration from Chronicles, a 14th century manuscript by Jean Froissart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Battle of Sluys Illustration from Chronicles, a 14th century manuscript by Jean Froissart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Combatants England France Commanders Edward III of England Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength 250 ships 190 ships Casualties Unknown 20 000 (Europe A History by Norman Davies) The naval Battle of Sluys was fought on 24 June 1340. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... The Battle of La Rochelle was a naval engagement fought in 1372 between a Franco-Castilian and an English fleet. ...


The Navy became a consistent instrument of national power around the seventeenth century with Louis XIV. Under the tutelage of the "Sun King," the French Navy was well financed and equipped, managing to score several early victories in the Nine Years War against the Royal Navy and the Dutch Navy. Financial troubles, however, forced the navy back to port and allowed the English and the Dutch to regain the initiative. Before the Nine Years War, in the Franco-Dutch War, it managed to score a decisive victory over a combined Spanish-Dutch fleet at the Battle of Palermo. Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... The Nine Years War (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Grand Alliance, the Orleans War, the War of the Palatinian Succession, and the War of the English Succession) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Flag of the Royal Netherlands Navy Royal Netherlands Navy Jack The Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy ) is the navy of the Netherlands. ... The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... This naval battle took place in 1676? and was a French victory over a Dutch/Spanish force of 27 battleships and some galleys. ...


18th century

The eighteenth century saw the beginning of Royal Navy domination, which managed to inflict a number of significant defeats on the French. However, the French Navy continued to score various successes, as in the campaigns led in the Atlantic by Picquet de la Motte. In 1766, Bougainville led the first French circumnavigation. Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte Count Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte (Rennes, 1 November 1720 -- Brest, 10 June 1791) was a French admiral. ... Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729–1811) Louis-Antoine de Bougainville Louis Antoine de Bougainville, Comte de Bougainville (November 12, 1729 – August 20, 1811) was a French navigator and military commander. ...

French Navy ships of the line in the Battle of Chesapeake.
French Navy ships of the line in the Battle of Chesapeake.

During the American War of Independence the French Navy played a decisive role in supporting the American side. The French Navy was the only standing navy to fight the British, alongside the modest Continental and American state navies and American privateers.[1] In a very impressive effort, the French under de Grasse managed to defeat an English fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake in 1781, thus ensuring that the Franco-American ground forces would win the ongoing Battle of Yorktown. Image File history File links BattleOfVirginiaCapes. ... Image File history File links BattleOfVirginiaCapes. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse (1722 - Paris, 14th of January 1788), French admiral, was born at Bar, in the present départment of the Alpes-Maritimes. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Comte de Grasse Thomas Graves Strength 24 ships 19 ships Casualties none some ships damaged The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as Battle of the Virginia Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War which took place near the mouth of Chesapeake... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Yorktown can refer to: Battle of Yorktown (1781) Battle of Yorktown (1862) ...

French Navy 120 cannon warship L'Océan. 1st Empire.

In India, Suffren managed impressive campaigns against the British (1770-1780), successfully contending for supremacy against Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1146x859, 1778 KB) French Navy 120 cannon warship LOcean. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1146x859, 1778 KB) French Navy 120 cannon warship LOcean. ... Statue of Suffren - Museum of the Navy, Toulon. ... Sir Edward Hughes (c. ...


The French Revolution, in eliminating numerous officers of noble lineage (among them, Charles d'Estaing), all but crippled the French Navy. Efforts to make it into a powerful force under Napoleon were dashed by the death of Latouche Tréville in 1804, and the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, where the British all but annihilated a combined Franco-Spanish fleet. The disaster guaranteed British naval domination until World War II. Comte Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector d Estaing Portrait by Benson John Lossing in The pictorial field-book of the revolution Comte Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector d Estaing Comte Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector d Estaing (November 1729 - April 28, 1794) was a French admiral. ... Louis-René Levassor de Latouche Tréville Letter by Latouche-Tréville Louis-René Levassor de Latouche Tréville (Rochefort-sur-mer, 3rd of June 1745 - Toulon, aboard vessel Bucentaure, 19th of August 1804) was a French admiral and a hero of the American Revolutionary War and of the Napoleonic... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire, Spain Commanders The Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line 33 ships of the line Casualties 449 dead 1,214 wounded 4,480 dead 2,250 wounded 7,000 captured 21 ships captured 1 ship blown up The... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The only French Naval victory against the British during the Napoleonic Wars was the 1810 Battle of Grand Port, won by Admiral Duperré. Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Guy-Victor Duperré Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin Sir Samuel Pym Strength 5 ships 4 ships Casualties some ships damaged 2 ships lost (HMS Sirius, HMS Magicienne) 2 captured (HMS Néréide, HMS Iphigenia The naval Battle of Grand Port took place on 20... Guy-Victor Duperré (February 20, 1775–November 2, 1846) was a French admiral. ...


19th century revival

Technological innovations (19th century)

Le Napoléon (1850).

In the nineteenth century, the navy recovered and became the second finest in the world after the Royal Navy. It conducted a successful blockade of Mexico in the Pastry War of 1838 and obliterated the Chinese navy at the Battle of Foochow in 1884. It also served as an effective link between the growing parts of the French empire. The French Navy, eager to challenge British naval supremacy, took a leadership role in many areas of warship development, with the introduction of new technologies. Image File history File linksMetadata Napoleon(1850). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Napoleon(1850). ... Le Napoléon was a battleship of the French Navy, and the first purpose-built steam battleship in the world [1]. She is also considered as the first true steam battleship, and the first screw battleship ever [2]. Launched in 1850, she was the lead ship of a class of... The Pastry War (Spanish: Guerra de los pasteles) was an invasion of Mexico by French forces in 1838. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Foochow occurred in August 1884 during the Sino-French War. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

  • France led the development of shell guns for the Navy, with its invention by Henri-Joseph Paixhans
  • In 1850, Le Napoléon became the first steam-powered battleship in history.
La Gloire (1863).
La Gloire (1863).
  • La Gloire became the first seagoing ironclad in history when she was launched in 1853.
  • In 1863, the French Navy launched Plongeur, the first submarine in the world to be propelled by mechanical power.
  • In 1876, the Redoutable became the first steel-hulled warship ever.

The French Navy also became an active proponent of the "Jeune Ecole" doctrine, calling for small but powerful warship using shell guns to annihilate the British fleet. The Mortier monstre, invented by Henri-Joseph Paixhans. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Le Napoléon was a battleship of the French Navy, and the first purpose-built steam battleship in the world [1]. She is also considered as the first true steam battleship, and the first screw battleship ever [2]. Launched in 1850, she was the lead ship of a class of... Image File history File links Gloire. ... Image File history File links Gloire. ... The French Navys La Gloire (Glory) was the first ocean-going ironclad warship in history. ... The French Navys La Gloire (Glory) was the first ocean-going ironclad warship in history. ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The French submarine Plongeur, 1863 Plongeur (French for Diver) was a French submarine launched in 1863. ... The Redoutable (1876) was a central battery and barbette ship of the French Navy. ... The Jeune Ecole (Young School) was a French naval school of thought developed during the 19th century. ...

Plongeur (1876).
Plongeur (1876).

Her conceptual and technological edge proved attractive to the newly industrializing Japan, when the French engineer Emile Bertin was invited for four years to design a new fleet for the Imperial Japanese Navy, which led to her success in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894. Image File history File links Plongeur. ... Image File history File links Plongeur. ... The French submarine Plongeur, 1863 Plongeur (French for Diver) was a French submarine launched in 1863. ... Louis-Emile Bertin in his later years. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun) or sometimes referred to as the Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan (Dai Nippon Teikoku) from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army, Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino–Japanese War (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zh... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


20th century

The navy continued to innovate significantly and performed well in World War I.


The first proto-aircraft carrier

Seaplane carrier La Foudre.
Seaplane carrier La Foudre.

The invention of the seaplane in 1910 with the French Le Canard led to the earliest development of ships designed to carry airplanes, albeit equipped with floats. In 1911 appears the French Navy La Foudre, the first seaplane carrier. She was commissioned as a seaplane tender, and carried float-equipped planes under hangars on the main deck, from where they were lowered on the sea with a crane. La Foudre was further modified in November 1913 with a 10 metre flat deck to launch her seaplanes.[2]
Image File history File links LeFoudre. ... Image File history File links LeFoudre. ... La Foudre was a French seaplane carrier, and arguably the first seaplane carrier in history [1]. Her development followed the invention of the seaplane in 1910 with the French Le Canard. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... The 1910 Le Canard Le Canard (lit. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... La Foudre was a French seaplane carrier, and arguably the first seaplane carrier in history [1]. Her development followed the invention of the seaplane in 1910 with the French Le Canard. ... A seaplane tender (or seaplane carrier) is a ship which provides the facililites necessary for operating seaplanes. ...


Genesis of the flat-deck carrier

"An airplane-carrying vessel is indispensable. These vessels will be constructed on a plan very different from what is currently used. First of all the deck will be cleared of all obstacles. It will be flat, as wide as possible without jeopardizing the nautical lines of the hull, and it will look like a landing field."
Clément Ader, "L'Aviation Militaire", 1909

As heavier-than-air aircraft developed in the early 20th century various navies began to take an interest in their potential use as scouts for their big gun warships. In 1909 the French inventor Clément Ader published in his book "L'Aviation Militaire" the description of a ship to operate airplanes at sea, with a flat flight deck, an island superstructure, deck elevators and a hangar bay.[3] That year the US Naval Attaché in Paris sent a report on his observations[4] and the first experiments to test the concept were made in the United States from 1910. Photograph of Ader Clément Ader (February 4, 1841 – March 5, 1926) was a French engineer born in Muret, Haute Garonne remembered primarily for his pioneering work in aviation. ... LAviation Militaire (lit. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Photograph of Ader Clément Ader (February 4, 1841 – March 5, 1926) was a French engineer born in Muret, Haute Garonne remembered primarily for his pioneering work in aviation. ... LAviation Militaire (lit. ...


Fleet Construction Between the World Wars

France's Le Fantasque, the fastest destroyer class ever built.
France's Le Fantasque, the fastest destroyer class ever built.

Every naval fleet consists of a variety of ships of different sizes, and no fleet has enough resources to make every vessel supreme in its class. Nonetheless, different countries strive to excel in particular classes. Between the world wars, the French fleet was remarkable in its building of small numbers of ships that were "over the top" with relation to their equivalents of other powers. Image File history File links Fantasque. ... Image File history File links Fantasque. ... Le Fantasque (Capricious) was a large destroyer (contre-torpilleur, counter-torpedo boat) of the French Navy which served during the Second World War. ...


For example, the French chose to build "super-destroyers" which were deemed during the Second World War by the Allies as the equivalent of light cruisers. The Le Fantasque class of destroyer is still the world's fastest class of destroyer. The Surcouf submarine was the largest and most powerful of its day. Le Fantasque (Capricious) was a large destroyer (contre-torpilleur, counter-torpedo boat) of the French Navy which served during the Second World War. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Five ships of the French Navy have borne the name Surcouf, in honour of the 18th century Saint-Malo corsair Robert Surcouf: see French ship Surcouf for the list. ...


But the French did not or could not build supreme examples of every category. When the Germans came out with the so-called pocket battleships, the French responded with a class of two ships of the Dunkerque type, with guns just powerful and numerous to defeat them, not full-size battleships of the day. The Dunkerque class was a new type of warship of the French Navy, labelled as fast battleship. Not quite the size of a full battleship, they were designed to counter the threat of the German pocket battleships of the Deutschland class. ...


World War II

At the outset of the war, the French Navy participated in a number of operations against the Axis Powers, patrolling the Atlantic and bombarding Genoa. The French surrender and its armistice terms, however, completely changed the situation: the French fleet immediately withdrew from the fight. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Genoa (GE) Mayor Giuseppe Pericu (since 2005-05-30) Elevation 20 m Area 243 km² Population  - Total (as of 2006) 620,316  - Density 2,553/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Genovesi Dialing code 010 Postal code 16100 Frazioni Acquasanta, Vesima Patron St. ...


The British perceived the French fleet as a potentially lethal threat, should the French become formal enemies or, more likely, should the German Kriegsmarine gain control. It was essential that they should be put out of action. Some vessels were in British-controlled ports in Britain or Egypt and these were either persuaded to re-join the Allies as Free French ships or were boarded and disarmed. The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ...


The bulk of the fleet, however, was in Dakar or Mers-el-Kebir. The Royal Navy delivered an ultimatum but, when agreement proved impossible, they opened fire and sunk or damaged much of the French fleet (Operation Catapult) on 3 July 1940. The action soured Anglo-French relations and inhibited further defections to the Allies. (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... Mers-el-Kebir is a town in northwestern Algeria, located by the Mediterranean Sea near Oran, in the Oran Province. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 3 battleships, 1 carrier, 2 cruisers, 11 destroyers 4 battleships, 6 destroyers, 1 seaplane tender Casualties — 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships damaged 1,297 killed The Destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, French North Africa (now...

In November, 1942, the Allies invaded French North Africa. In response, the Germans occupied (Case Anton) Vichy France, including the French naval port of Toulon, where the main part of the surviving French fleet lay. This was a major German objective and forces under SS command had been detailed to capture them (Operation Lila). French naval authorities were divided on their response: Amiral Jean de Laborde, the commander of the Forces de Haute Mer (the High Seas Fleet) advocated sailing to attack the Allied invasion fleet while others, such as the Vichy Secretary of the Navy, Contre-Amiral Auphan favoured joining the Allies. On several warships, there were spontaneous demonstrations in favour of sailing with the Allies, chanting "Vive de Gaulle! Appareillage!". This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... HMS Victory in 1884 Battleship was the name given to the most powerfully gun-armed and most heavily armored classes of warships built between the 15th and 20th centuries. ... Richelieu was the name-ship of a class of French battleships of World War II. She was named after the seventeenth century statesman Cardinal Richelieu. ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Case (or operation) Anton was the code-name for the Nazi-German occupation of Vichy France during World War II. Anton was invoked at Hitlers order after the allied landings in French Morocco (Operation Torch) in November 1942. ... For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ... Jean de Laborde (29 November 1878 - 30 July 1977) was a French Vichyst admiral, famous for the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon. ... Gabriel Paul Auphan (Alès, 4 November 1894 - 16 April 1982) was a French admiral, chief of cabinet of Admiral Darlan under Vichy France and later Secrétaire dÉtat à la marine of Vichy. ...


The orders to French commanders to scuttle their ships in case of an attempted take-over had been reinforced, however, and, often despite the presence of German troops, this was done, in the Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon. No capital ships and few others were taken in reparable condition [3]. A few ships fled Toulon and joined the Allies, notably the submarine Casabianca. Combatants Vichy France Nazi Germany Commanders Jean de Laborde, André Marquis Casualties whole fleet scuttled ; 12 killed ; 26 wounded. ... The Casabianca (Q.183) was a submarine of the French Navy, named in honour of Luc-Julien-Joseph Casabianca. ...


Following this, more French moved to the Allies, including ships interned in Egypt, and there were French warships supporting the landings in southern France (Operation Dragoon) and Normandy (Operation Neptune). Combatants United States1 Free France, United Kingdom Germany Commanders Jacob L. Devers Johannes Blaskowitz Strength 250,000 (approx) 230,000 (approx) Casualties 4,500 American, 4,500+ French 125,000+ (approx) Monument to the landings of Allied troops under General Patch on the beach of St Tropez, France. ... Operation Neptune refers to the landing phase of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. ...


Customs

Prefixes

The French Navy does not use prefixes (like the Royal Navy for instance). Foreign commentators sometimes use the prefixes "FS" (for "French Ship") or FNS (for "French Navy Ship"); these are however not official.


Addressing officers

Unlike in the French army and air force, one does not prepend mon to the name of the rank when addressing an officer (that is, not mon capitaine, but simply capitaine).[4] The French Army (Armée de Terre) is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces. ... The French Air Force is the air force branch of the French Armed Forces. ...


This custom is sometimes said to date back to the Battle of Trafalgar, when Napoleon decided that French Navy officers did not deserve to be called "monsieur" (mon being here elliptical for monsieur). Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire, Spain Commanders The Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line 33 ships of the line Casualties 449 dead 1,214 wounded 4,480 dead 2,250 wounded 7,000 captured 21 ships captured 1 ship blown up The... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


Addressing a French Navy lieutenant de vaisseau (for instance) with a "mon capitaine" will attract the traditional answer "Dans la Marine il y a Mon Dieu et mon cul, pas mon capitaine !" ("In the Navy there are My God and my arse, no 'my captain'!").


Famous French Naval Officers

Heroes of the First Republic

See Casabianca (disambiguation) for other meanings Luc-Julien-Joseph Casabianca The Orient explodes during the Battle of Aboukir Bay. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... Louis-René Levassor de Latouche Tréville Letter by Latouche-Tréville Louis-René Levassor de Latouche Tréville (Rochefort-sur-mer, 3rd of June 1745 - Toulon, aboard vessel Bucentaure, 19th of August 1804) was a French admiral and a hero of the American Revolutionary War and of the Napoleonic...

Explorers

Lapérouse by François Rude (1784-1855), in 1828 Lapérouse Jean François Galaup, comte de La Pérouse (August 23, 1741[1] – 1788) was a French naval officer and explorer whose expedition vanished in Oceania. ... Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni DEntrecasteaux (1739–1793) was a French navigator who explored the Australian coast in 1792 while seeking traces of the lost expedition of La Pérouse. ... Rear Admiral Jules Sébastien César Dumont dUrville (May 23, 1790 – May 8, 1842) was a French explorer and naval officer, who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. ... Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729–1811) Louis-Antoine de Bougainville Louis Antoine de Bougainville, Comte de Bougainville (November 12, 1729 – August 20, 1811) was a French navigator and military commander. ... Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1976. ...

Other important French naval officers

Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve (31 December 1763 – 22 April 1806) was a French naval officer during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire, Spain Commanders The Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line 33 ships of the line Casualties 449 dead 1,214 wounded 4,480 dead 2,250 wounded 7,000 captured 21 ships captured 1 ship blown up The... Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse (May 29, 1750 - July 24, 1812) was a French admiral. ... Comte Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector d Estaing Portrait by Benson John Lossing in The pictorial field-book of the revolution Comte Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector d Estaing Comte Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector d Estaing (November 1729 - April 28, 1794) was a French admiral. ... Statue in St Malo René Trouin, Sieur du Gué, usually called Réné Duguay-Trouin, (Saint Malo, 10 June 1673 -- 1736) was a famous French privateer, Lieutenant-Général des armées navales du roi (admiral) and Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis. ... Louis Marie Julien Viaud (January 14, 1850 - June 10, 1923) was a French sailor and writer, who used the pseudonym Pierre Loti. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Source
  2. ^ Descriptionand photograph of Foudre
  3. ^ Clement Ader on the structure of the aircraft carrier:
    "An airplane-carrying vessel is indispensable. These vessels will be constructed on a plan very different from what is currently used. First of all the deck will be cleared of all obstacles. It will be flat, as wide as possible without jeopardizing the nautical lines of the hull, and it will look like a landing field." Military Aviation, p35
    On stowage:
    "Of necessity, the airplanes will be stowed below decks; they would be solidly fixed anchored to their bases, each in its place, so they would not be affected with the pitching and rolling. Access to this lower decks would be by an elevator sufficiently long and wide to hold an airplane with its wings folded. A large, sliding trap would cover the hole in the deck, and it would have waterproof joints, so that neither rain nor seawater, from heavy seas could penetrate below." Military Aviation, p36
    On the technique of landing:
    "The ship will be headed straight into the wind, the stern clear, but a padded bulwark set up forward in case the airplane should run past the stop line" Military Aviation, p37
  4. ^ Reference

Gallery

French Military

Components
Air Force French Air Force
Army French Army
Navy French Navy
Force de Frappe Force de frappe
Ranks
Ranks in the French Army
Ranks in the French Navy
History of the French Military
Military History of France
La Grande Armée

See also

One of ancien régime Frances Secretaries of State was entrusted with control of the French Navy. ... This is a list of French battleships. ... The French 100 mm naval gun is a polyvalent artillery piece (anti-air, anti-ship, ground), capable of a high rate of fire. ... In older English literature there are some uses of exocet to mean flying fish. There is also a typeface known as Exocet. ...

External links

Commons logo
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
French Navy
  • Official site
  • Alabordache French Navy
  • French Fleet Air Arm , about French naval aviation.

  Results from FactBites:
 
French Navy (0 words)
The French Navy Cassard Class anti-aircraft frigates are assigned to the Force d'Action Navale with headquarters at the Mediterranean Command base at Toulon.
French Floreal Class patrol frigate of 2600 tons displacement, launched in 1991, and officially described as 'Fregates de Surveillance' and designed to operate in the offshore zone in low intensity operations.
The French Navy operates two Foudre class landing platform dock ships, the Foudre (L9011) and the Siroco (L9012), which were commissioned in 1990 and 1998.The Foudre class is capable of landing and supporting a mechanised armoured regiment of the French rapid deployment force.
Continental Period (4463 words)
French sea power, allied with the American cause after 1778, enabled General George Washington to isolate and destroy the British army of Lord Charles Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781.
Since the bulk of the French navy was blockaded in its home ports by the Royal Navy, the prospect of a limited U.S. naval response to depredations primarily in the Caribbean appeared to be realistic.
When the negotiations with the French collapsed, in what has become known as the XYZ Affair, Congress between 1798 and 1800 passed a series of bills expanding the navy to a force of more than thirty ships and, on 30 April 1798, passed an act that established the independent executive Department of the Navy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m