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Encyclopedia > Freeze distillation

Freeze distillation is a metaphorical term for a process of enriching a solution by partially freezing it and removing frozen material that is poorer in the dissolved material than is the liquid portion left behind. Such enrichment parallels enrichment by true distillation, where the evaporated and recondensed portion is richer than the liquid portion left behind. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Fractional freezing is a process used by chemists to separate two liquids which have a different freezing point. ... Fractional freezing is a process used by chemists to separate two liquids which have a different freezing point. ... Laboratory distillation set-up using, without a fractionating column 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed...


Such enrichment by freezing of a solution in water is sometimes oversimplified by saying that, for instance, because of the difference in freezing points of water (0 °C/32 °F), and ethyl alcohol (-114 °C/-173 °F), "the water freezes into ice ... while the ethyl alcohol remains liquid". This is false, and although some of the implications of that description are true and useful, other conclusions drawn from it would be false. Freezing Point (Chinese: 冰點, bing1 dian3) is a news journal in the Peoples Republic of China which has been the subject of controversy over its criticism of Communist Party officials and the sympathetic ear it lent to a Chinese historian who had criticized official history textbooks. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ...


The detailed situation is the subject of thermodynamics, a subdivision of physics of importance to chemistry. Without resorting to mathematics, the following can be said: Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Physics (from the Greek, (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as molecules, crystals, and metals. ...

  • Freezing in this scenario would begin at a temperature significantly below 0 °C.
  • The first material to freeze would not be water, but a dilute solution of alcohol in water.
  • The liquid left behind would be richer in alcohol, and as a consequence, further freezing would take place at progressively lower temperatures, and the frozen material, while always poorer in alcohol than the (increasingly rich) liquid, would become progressively richer in alcohol.
  • Further stages of removing frozen material and waiting for more freezing will come to nought once the liquid uniformly cools to the temperature of whatever is cooling it.
  • If progressively colder temperatures are available,
    • the frozen material will contain progressively larger concentrations of alcohol, and
    • the fraction of the original alcohol removed with the solid material will increase.
  • In practice, unless the removal of solid material carries away liquid, the degree of concentration will depend on the final temperature rather than on the number of cycles of removing solid material and chilling.
  • Thermodynamics gives fair assurance, even without more information about alcohol and water than that they freely dissolve in each other, that
    • even if temperatures somewhat below the freezing point of ethyl alcohol are achieved, there will still be alcohol and water mixed as a liquid, and
    • at some still lower temperature, the remaining alcohol-and-water solution will freeze without an alcohol-poor solid being separable.

In practice, while not able to produce an alcohol concentration comparable to distillation, this technique can achieve some concentration with far less effort than any practical distillation apparatus would require. Laboratory distillation set-up using, without a fractionating column 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed...


Today, freeze distillation of alcoholic beverages is illegal in many countries because a number of by-products of fermentation (fusel alcohols), which are mostly removed by heat distillation, tend to accumulate to an unhealthy level in freeze-distilled beverages. Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils, are higher order (more than two carbons) alcohols formed by fermentation and present in cider, mead, beer, wine, and spirits to varying degrees. ...


The best-known freeze-distilled beverages are applejack and ice beer. Ice wine is the result of a similar process, but in this case, the freezing happens before the fermentation, and thus it is sugar, not alcohol, that gets concentrated. Various distilled beverages in a Spanish bar A distilled beverage is a liquid preparation meant for consumption containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Applejack is a strong alcoholic beverage produced from apples, originating from the American colonial period. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ice wine (or icewine or Eiswein in German) is a type of dessert wine produced from grapes that have been frozen. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Freeze distillation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (503 words)
Freeze distillation is a metaphorical term for a process of enriching a solution by partially freezing it and removing frozen material that is poorer in the dissolved material than is the liquid portion left behind.
Such enrichment by freezing of a solution in water is sometimes oversimplified by saying that, for instance, because of the difference in freezing points of water (0 °C/32 °F), and ethyl alcohol (-114 °C/-173 °F), "the water freezes into ice...
Today, freeze distillation of alcoholic beverages is illegal in many countries because a number of by-products of fermentation (fusel alcohols), which are mostly removed by heat distillation, tend to accumulate to an unhealthy level in freeze-distilled beverages.
Distillation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (933 words)
The minimum in distillation is flash evaporation, where either the temperature is rapidly increased or pressure reduced, and vapor and liquid fractions are thus obtained, which may be processed as such.
The device used in distillation is referred to as a still and consists at a minimum of a reboiler or pot in which the source material is heated, a condenser in which the heated vapor is cooled back to the liquid state, and a receiver in which the concentrated or purified liquid is collected.
A distillation apparatus sometimes used by chemists is a rotary evaporator to distill (or evaporate) away solvent from a solution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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