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Encyclopedia > Freeway
Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway) in Berkeley, California: a typical American freeway (MUTCD definition)
Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway) in Berkeley, California: a typical American freeway (MUTCD definition)

A freeway — also known as a highway, superhighway, autoroute, autobahn, autopista, autovía, autostrada, dual carriageway, expressway, or motorway — is a type of road designed for safer high-speed operation of motor vehicles through the elimination of at-grade intersections. This is accomplished by preventing access to and from adjacent properties and eliminating all cross traffic through the use of grade separations and interchanges; railroad crossings are also removed. Such highways are usually divided with at least two lanes in each direction. Because traffic never crosses at-grade, there are generally no traffic lights or stop signs. The autobahn sign All autobahns The Autobahns are the nationally coordinated freeway system in Germany. ... Many countries have national networks of highways with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Look up freeway in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1152, 304 KB)Looking south above Interstate 80, the Eastshore Freeway, near Berkeley, California on a Saturday afternoon. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1152, 304 KB)Looking south above Interstate 80, the Eastshore Freeway, near Berkeley, California on a Saturday afternoon. ... Interstate 80 (abbreviated I-80) is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States. ... Interstate 80 (abbreviated I-80) is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Sign for autovía in Spain Autovía is one of two classes of major highway in the Spanish road system similar to a freeway. ... Autostrada is the Italian word for motorways/freeways, but is used in several countries including Albania, Lithuania, Poland, Egypt, Israel, and Romania. ... This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... The field of road safety is concerned with reducing the numbers or the consequences of vehicle crashes, by developing and implementing management systems ideally based in a multidisciplinary and holistic approach, with interrelated activities in a number of fields. ... An at-grade intersection is a junction at which two or more transport axes cross at the same level (or grade). ... An at-grade intersection is a junction at which two or more transport axes cross at the same level (or grade). ... An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ... High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Divided Highway is the fourteenth studio album by American rock band The Doobie Brothers, released in 2003. ... The word lane has two meanings: The primary meaning is a portion of a paved roadway which is intended for a single line of vehicles and is marked by white or yellow lines. ... “Traffic Signal” redirects here. ... Stop sign used in English-speaking countries, as well as in the European Union Former British stop sign consisting of red Give Way triangle inside a circle. ...


The word "freeway" first surfaced in the mid-1930s in proposals for the improvement of the New York City parkway network.[1] It is currently in regular use in the United States, as well as parts of Australia. Other countries refer to a freeway as a grade-separated highway[citation needed] or a superhighway[citation needed]. In the United States the term "freeway" is frequently used in the western part of the country. Other terms are predominant in other regions, such as "interstate" in the South (and particularly in Florida) and "highway", "expressway", or "turnpike" in the Northeast and Midwest. While some people use these terms interchangeably, "turnpikes" and "thruways" have specific associations with some toll roads and other limited access highways such as the West Virginia Turnpike, New Jersey Turnpike, Florida's Turnpike, and New York State Thruway.[citation needed] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Harden Parkway in Salinas, CA. For other uses, see Parkway (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ... A typical rural stretch of Interstate highway, with two lanes in each direction separated by a large grassy median, and with cross-traffic limited to overpasses and underpasses. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... New York Thruway Trailblazer New York State Thruway (Interstate 87) looking east from Nordkop Mountain, Suffern, New York The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of New York. ... The West Virginia Turnpike is a toll road in the US state of West Virginia. ... This article is about the modern freeway. ... Floridas Turnpike, which has carried the Ronald Reagan Turnpike legislative designation since 1998, is a toll road that runs 312 miles (497 km) down the Florida peninsula through 11 counties, from US 1 in Florida City to Interstate 75 at Wildwood. ... The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of New York. ...

Contents

General characteristics

High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California, USA
High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California, USA

Freeways, by definition, have no cross traffic in the form of other roads, railroads or multi-use trails. Elimination of cross traffic is typically achieved with grade separation in the form of underpasses and overpasses. In addition to sidewalks (footpaths) attached to roads that cross a freeway, specialized pedestrian bridges or tunnels may also be provided. These structures enable pedestrians and cyclists to cross the freeway without a long detour to the nearest motor vehicle crossing. Movable bridges (such as drawbridges) are occasionally present on freeways which require drivers to yield to river traffic, such as the Interstate Bridge on I-5 between Oregon and Washington. However, not all roads bearing the name of freeway are in fact freeways by definition; for example, the William L. Wilson Freeway (U.S. Route 340) by Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, is designated as being a freeway, although it is a two-lane undivided roadway featuring at-grade intersections. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2032x976, 497 KB) Freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2032x976, 497 KB) Freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Segregated cycle facilities may consist of a separate road, track, path or lane that is designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... An underground pedestrian tunnel between buildings at MIT. Note the utility pipes running along the ceiling. ... Overpass in East Potomac Park, Washington, D.C. Flyover in Miami Beach, Florida An overpass (In UK, most Commonwealth countries flyover) is a bridge, road or similar structure that crosses over another road. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cyclist is a person who engages in cycling whether as a sport or rides a bicycle for recreation or transportation. ... A movable bridge is a bridge that can changed in shape or position in order to allow large traffic to pass through it. ... Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is often used to describe all different types of movable bridges, like bascule bridges and lift bridges. ... The Interstate Bridge is a pair of identical steel through truss bridges with a vertical lift that carries Interstate 5 traffic over the Columbia River between Vancouver, Washington and Portland, Oregon. ... Interstate 5 (abbreviated I-5) is the westernmost interstate highway in the continental United States. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... The William L. Wilson Freeway is a portion of U.S. Route 340 located in West Virginia between Harpers Ferry, West Virginia and Charles Town, West Virginia. ... U.S. Highway 340 is a spur of U.S. Highway 40. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ...


Access is typically provided only at interchanges; though lower-standard right-in/right-out access can be used for direct connections to side roads. In many cases, sophisticated interchanges allow for smooth, uninterrupted transitions between intersecting freeways and busy arterial roads. However, sometimes it is necessary to exit onto a surface road to transfer from one freeway to another. An example of this would be Interstate 70 in the town of Breezewood, Pennsylvania.[2] An interchange is a location where two things meet, usually perform some kind of exchange, and possibly go on their ways again. ... Right-in/right-out (RIRO) or left-in/left-out (LILO), corresponding to the side of the road that traffic drives on (RIRO for right-side driving), is a type of access on a divided highway that allows access to only the side of the highway closer to the intersecting... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Interstate 70 (abbreviated I-70) is a long interstate highway in the United States that runs from Interstate 15 about a mile from Cove Fort, Utah to a Park and Ride in Baltimore, Maryland. ... The end of I-70, with a gauntlet of gas/food/motels to be run before reaching the Pennsylvania Turnpike. ...

Ontario Highway 401 in Toronto, Ontario: An example of an urban freeway with an express-collector setup
Ontario Highway 401 in Toronto, Ontario: An example of an urban freeway with an express-collector setup

Two-lane freeways, often undivided, are sometimes built when traffic volumes are low or right-of-way is limited; they may be designed for easy conversion to one side of a four-lane freeway. Otherwise, freeways typically have at least two lanes in each direction; some busy ones can have as many as 16[3] or more lanes.[4] These wide freeways may use separate collector and express lanes to separate through traffic from local traffic, or special high-occupancy vehicle lanes, either as a special restriction on the innermost lane or a separate roadway, to encourage carpooling. These HOV lanes, or roadways open to all traffic, can be reversible lanes, providing more capacity in the direction of heavy traffic, and reversing direction before traffic switches. Sometimes a collector/distributor road, a shorter version of a local lane, shifts weaving between closely-spaced interchanges to a separate roadway or altogether eliminates it. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x771, 78 KB)Highway 401 west of the Don Valley Parkway/Highway 404 junction. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x771, 78 KB)Highway 401 west of the Don Valley Parkway/Highway 404 junction. ... “Macdonald-Cartier” redirects here. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A two-lane freeway or two-lane expressway is a freeway or expressway with only one lane in each direction, and usually no median barrier. ... It has been suggested that express lanes be merged into this article or section. ... A permanent, separated high-occupancy vehicle lane on I-91 in Connecticut A high occupancy vehicle (or HOV) is a transportation engineering and transportation planning term referring to a vehicle with a driver and one or more passengers. ... For the 1996 film, see Carpool (film). ... A permanent, separated high-occupancy vehicle lane on I-91 in Connecticut A high occupancy vehicle (or HOV) is any vehicle with a driver and one or more (or sometimes two or more, or three or more) passengers. ... The Lions Gate Bridge from the south end in Stanley Park, Vancouver. ... A collector/distributor road, often abbreviated as C/D road, is a one-way road next to a freeway that is used for some or all of the ramps that would otherwise merge into or split from the main lanes of the freeway. ...

The Hump Interchange, connecting the Century Freeway (I-105) and the Harbor Freeway (I-110) in Los Angeles, California
The Hump Interchange, connecting the Century Freeway (I-105) and the Harbor Freeway (I-110) in Los Angeles, California

Freeways can have frontage roads, normal surface roads parallel to and on either side of the freeway, to provide access to adjacent properties. Frontage roads typically have one-way traffic flow in urban areas and two-way traffic flow in rural areas.[citation needed] Slip ramps at regularly-spaced intervals allow access between the freeway and adjacent frontage road.[citation needed] Los Angeles, California. ... Los Angeles, California. ... The Century Freeway (formally known as the Glenn Anderson Freeway, for the congressman who advocated its construction) is an east-west freeway in southern Los Angeles County, California. ... The Harbor Freeway goes under many bridges as it passes through downtown Los Angeles The Harbor Freeway is one of the principal north-south freeways in Los Angeles County, California. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... A two-way residential frontage road running parallel to a motorway. ... A one-way function is a function which is easy to calculate but hard to invert — it is difficult to calculate the input to the function given its output. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Sheep eating grass in rural Australia Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... In the USA, a frontage road (also access road, service road or feeder) is a non-limited access road running parallel to a higher-speed road, usually a freeway, and feeding it at appropriate points of access (slip ramps). ...


Except on some two-lane freeways (and very rarely on wider freeways), a median separates the opposite directions of traffic. This strip may be as simple as a grassy area, or may include a crash barrier such as a "Jersey barrier" or a "Ontario Tall Wall"" to prevent head-on collisions.[5] On some freeways, the two carriageways are built on different alignments; this may be done to make use of available corridors in a mountainous area or to provide narrower corridors through dense urban areas.[citation needed] A two-lane freeway or two-lane expressway is a freeway or expressway with only one lane in each direction, and usually no median barrier. ... On an expressway, motorway, or autobahn, the median (North American English) or central reservation (British English) is the strip of grass or the wall which separates opposing lanes of traffic. ... Standard guardrail (A-profile) A crash barrier is a barrier on a road designed to prevent vehicles from leaving the roadway to improve road safety. ... Jersey wall on the Woodrow Wilson Bridge near Washington, D.C. A Jersey barrier or Jersey wall separates lanes of traffic (often opposing lanes of traffic) with a goal of minimizing vehicle crossover in the case of accidents. ... Standard wrong-way sign package used on all freeway off-ramps in California (and since copied by other states such as Georgia and Virginia). ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...

The M25 in the United Kingdom, has freeway characteristics but, as in most Commonwealth nations, are referred to as motorways

Speed limits are generally higher than on similar non-freeways, and are sometimes nonexistent (for instance on several German Autobahns). Because the high speeds reduce decision time, freeways are usually equipped with a larger number of guide signs than other roads, and the signs themselves are physically larger. In major cities, guide signs are often mounted on overpasses or overhead gantries so that drivers can see where each lane goes.[citation needed] Motorway M25 just south of Heathrow Airport. ... Motorway M25 just south of Heathrow Airport. ... The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ... For other uses, see Commonwealth (disambiguation). ... A motorway (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, and some Commonwealth nations) is both a type of road and a classification. ... A road speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. ... All autobahns This is a list of all autobahns in Germany. ...


In most areas, there are public rest areas or service areas on freeways, as well as emergency phones on the shoulder at regular intervals. Exit numbers are commonly derived from the exit's distance in miles or kilometres from the start of the freeway. In the United States, mileposts start at the southern or westernmost point on the freeway (either its terminus or the state line). California uses a postmile system where markers indicate mileage through the state's individual counties. Until the 1980s, New York used reference markers (locally known as "little green signs") which, like California, indicated mileage through individual counties. The New York State Department of Transportation has since supplemented their reference marker system with mileposts indicating a freeway's mileage through the state.[citation needed] Rest stop redirects here. ... In the United States, Canada and parts of Europe, a rest area, rest stop, service area, or service station is a public facility, located adjacent to a highway or interstate, at which drivers and passengers can eat and drink, take a stroll, let their children play in grassy park-like... Emergency telephone on a beach at Trefor in North Wales An Emergency telephone is a phone specifically provided for making calls to emergency services and are most often found in places of special danger or where it is likely that there will only be a need to make emergency calls. ... A hard shoulder or simply shoulder is a reserved area alongside the verge of a road or motorway. ... A milestone A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road at regular intervals, typically at the side of the road or in a median. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... A postmile marker typically found along Californias highways. ... This article is about the state. ... An example of a New York State reference marker found along highways in New York. ... The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is reponsible for the development and operation of highways, railroads, mass transit systems, ports, waterways and aviation facilities in the U.S. state of New York. ...


Access restrictions

View of the Warringah Freeway looking north, in Sydney, New South Wales

To reduce the probability that high-speed freeway traffic will have to slow down for slower same-direction traffic, access to freeways is usually limited to classes of motor vehicles that are powerful enough to maintain a certain minimum speed. Some East Asian countries partially restrict the use of motorcycles or ban them completely from freeways (or expressways in countries where that term is used) (see restrictions on motorcycle use on freeways). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1205 KB)[edit] Summary Warringah Freeway, Sydney, Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1205 KB)[edit] Summary Warringah Freeway, Sydney, Australia. ... The Warringah Freeway looking south at its widest point - 16 lanes View of the Warringah Freeway looking north, over the inner western carriageway. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... “NSW” redirects here. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... The concept of a freeway (a public way intended primarily for high speed travel over long distances) has resulted in a set of highways with engineering features such as long sight distances, wide marked lanes and the absence of cross traffic. ...


In many areas, travelers using low-powered modes of transportation (such as pedestrians, bicyclists, equestrians, and moped drivers) are banned at all times from freeways by default. These users are allowed on freeways in some jurisdictions, usually where freeways too often replaced (rather than supplemented) existing roads (see non-motorized vehicle access on freeways). Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cyclist is a person who engages in cycling whether as a sport or rides a bicycle for recreation or transportation. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Mopeds are a class of low-powered motorized vehicles, generally two-wheeled. ... In general, the concept of a freeway implies that all vehicles must be motorized and have a certain minimum amount of power; signs are usually posted to indicate this, either in the form of a list of disallowed vehicle types, or a minimum travel speed. ...


Legal definitions

United States

Santa Clara County Route G4 (Montague Expressway), an American expressway under the MUTCD definition
Santa Clara County Route G4 (Montague Expressway), an American expressway under the MUTCD definition

In the United States, a freeway is defined by the federal government’s Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices as a divided highway with full control of access.[6] This means two things. First, adjoining property owners do not have a legal right of access, meaning that they cannot connect their lands to the highway by constructing driveways, although frontage roads provide access to properties adjacent to a freeway in many places.[7] When an existing road is converted into a freeway, all existing driveways must be removed and access to adjacent private lands must be blocked with fences or walls. Second, traffic on the highway is "free-flowing", although many non-engineers misinterpret the "free" in "freeway" to mean that such a highway must be free of charge to use. All cross-traffic (and left-turning traffic) has been relegated to overpasses or underpasses, so that there are no traffic conflicts on the main line of the highway which must be regulated by a traffic light, stop signs, or other traffic control devices. Achieving such free flow requires the construction of many bridges, tunnels, and ramp systems. The advantage of grade-separated interchanges is that freeway drivers can almost always maintain their speed at junctions since they do not need to yield to crossing traffic. Image File history File links Montagueexpressway. ... Image File history File links Montagueexpressway. ... Santa Clara County Route G4, more commonly referred to as San Tomas Expressway and Montague Expressway is a busy 14. ... The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is a document issued by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) to specify the standards by which traffic signs, road markings (see lane), and signals are designed, installed, and used. ... A two-way residential frontage road running parallel to a motorway. ...


In contrast, an expressway is defined as a divided highway with partial control of access.[8] Expressways may have driveways and at-grade intersections, though these are usually less numerous than on ordinary arterial roads. Some states prefer to use the term "expressway" for what the federal government calls "freeways"; see the expressway article for further information. A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ...


This distinction was apparently first developed in 1949 by the Special Committee on Nomenclature of what is now the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.[9] In turn, the definitions were incorporated into AASHTO's official standards book, the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, which would become the national standards book of the U.S. Department of Transportation under a 1966 federal statute. The same distinction has also been codified into the statutory law of seven states: California,[10] Mississippi,[11] Missouri,[12] Nebraska,[13] North Dakota,[14] Ohio,[15] and Wisconsin.[16] However, each state codified the federal distinction slightly differently. California expressways do not necessarily have to be divided, though they must have at least partial access control. For both terms to apply, in Wisconsin, a divided highway must be at least four lanes wide; and in Missouri, both terms apply only to divided highways at least 10 miles long that are not part of the Interstate Highway System. In North Dakota and Mississippi, an expressway may have "full or partial" access control and "generally" has grade separations at intersections; a freeway is then defined as an expressway with full access control. Ohio's statute is similar, but instead of the vague word "generally", it imposes a requirement that 50% of an expressway's intersections must be grade-separated for the term to apply.[17] AASHTO, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, is a standards setting body which publishes specifications, test protocols and guidelines which are used in highway design and construction throughout the United States. ... The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transport. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to...


One way to summarize the difference is that all freeways can be considered expressways, but not all expressways are freeways.


Effects and controversy

Rush hour on I-45, downtown Houston, USA.
Rush hour on I-45, downtown Houston, USA.

Freeways have been constructed both between urban centers and within them, leading to the sprawling suburban development found near most modern cities. Freeways reduced travel times[citation needed] and accident rates[citation needed], though the higher speeds have increased the severity and death rates of the collisions that do occur[citation needed]. from FHWA.gov website (public) http://ops. ... from FHWA.gov website (public) http://ops. ... For other uses, see Rush hour (disambiguation). ... Interstate 45 is an intrastate interstate highway located entirely within the state of Texas, United States. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... The field of road safety is concerned with reducing the numbers or the consequences of vehicle crashes, by developing and implementing management systems based in a multidisciplinary and holistic approach, with interrelated activities in a number of fields. ... For other uses, see Collision (disambiguation). ...


Freeways have been heavily criticized by environmentalists, urbanists, and preservationists for the noise,[18] pollution, and economic shifts they bring. Additionally, they have also been criticized by the driving public for the inefficiency with which they handle peak hour traffic.[19][20][21]


Often, rural freeways open up vast areas to economic development, generally raising property values. In contrast to this, above ground freeways in urban areas are often a source of lowered property values, contributing to urban decay. Even with overpasses and underpasses, above ground freeways divide neighborhoods — especially impoverished ones where residents are less likely to own a car, or to have the political and economic influence to resist construction efforts.[22] Beginning in the early 1970s the U.S. Congress identified freeways and other urban highways as responsible for most of the noise exposure of the U.S. population.[23] Subsequently, computer models were developed to analyze freeway noise and aid in their siting and design to minimize noise exposure.[24] Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ...


Some freeways have even been demolished and reclaimed as boulevards, notably in Portland (Harbor Drive), New York City (West Side Highway), Boston (Central Artery), San Francisco (Embarcadero Freeway) and Milwaukee (Park East Freeway). The Champs Elysees in Paris, France. ... Portland skyline. ... Harbor Drive is the name of a street in Portland, Oregon, which was formerly a freeway that carried U.S. Route 99W along the western shore of the Willamette River in the downtown area. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The last elevated portion of the West Side Highway by Trump Place apartment complex The West Side Highway (officially the Joe DiMaggio Highway, formerly the Miller Highway) is a mostly-surface section of New York State Route 9A (NY 9A) that runs from West 72nd Street along the Hudson River... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... The Central Artery, officially the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Highway 1 and Route 3. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Section of the Embarcadero Freeway in front of the Ferry Building during demolition The Embarcadero Freeway was a freeway in San Francisco. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... The Park East Freeway was a freeway planned and partially built in Milwaukee. ...


An alternative to surface or above ground freeway construction has been the construction of underground urban freeways using tunnelling technologies. This has been extremely successful in the Australian cities of Sydney (which has five such freeways) and Melbourne (which has one such freeway). This has had the benefit of removing traffic from surface roads and has led to urban renewal due to a significant decrease in surface road traffic congestion, noise and pollution. Public transport has been improved in these areas through the provisioning of dedicated bus lanes where previously traffic congestion prevented such lane allocations from being made. This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ...


Other Australian cities face similar problems (lack of available land, cost of home acquisition, aesthetic problems, and community opposition). Brisbane, which also has to contend with physical boundaries (the river) and heavy population increases, has embraced underground tunnel freeways. There are currently three under active development, one of which (the North-South Bypass Tunnel) is currently under construction. All of the planned tunnels include provisions for public transport, whether underground or in reclaimed space on the surface.[25] Artists impression of the Southern Portal of the tunnel. ...


Freeway opponents have found that freeway expansion is often self-defeating: expansion simply generates more traffic. That is, even if traffic congestion is initially shifted from local streets to a new or widened freeway, people will begin to run errands and commute to more remote locations. Over time, the freeway and its environs become congested again as both the average number and distance of trips increases. This idea is known as induced demand.[26][27] Induced demand is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good is consumed. ...

Interstate H-1 eastbound into Honolulu, USA.
Interstate H-1 eastbound into Honolulu, USA.

Urban planning experts such as Drusilla Van Hengel, Joseph DiMento, and Sherry Ryan, argue that although properly designed and maintained freeways may be convenient and safe, at least in comparison to uncontrolled roads, they may not expand recreation, employment and education opportunities equally for different ethnic groups, or for people located in certain neighborhoods of a given city.[28] Still, they may open new markets to some small businesses.[29] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1738x502, 669 KB)A view of Interstate H-1, eastbound, previous to the Waikiki exits. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1738x502, 669 KB)A view of Interstate H-1, eastbound, previous to the Waikiki exits. ... A small business may be defined as a business with a small number of employees. ...


At present, freeway expansion has largely stalled in the United States, due to a multitude of factors that converged in the 1970s: higher due process requirements prior to taking of private property, increasing land values, increasing costs for construction materials, local opposition to new freeways in urban cores, the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (which imposed the requirement that each new federally-funded project must have an environmental impact statement or report), and falling gas tax revenues as a result of the nature of the flat-cent tax (it is not automatically adjusted for inflation) and the tax revolt movement.[30] In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... According to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) whenever the U.S. Federal Government takes a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment it must first consider the environmental impact in a document called an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). ... A gasoline tax (also known as a gas tax, petrol tax, fuel tax or fuel duty) is a sales tax imposed on the sale of gasoline. ... A tax revolt is a political struggle to repeal, limit, or roll back a government-imposed tax. ...


History

See also: Dual carriageway#History

The concept of limited-access automobile highways dates back to the New York City area Parkway system, whose construction began in 1907–1908; but parkways are traditionally distinguished from freeways by lower design speeds and a ban on commercial traffic. Some parkways, notably the Taconic Parkway, Sprain Brook Parkway, and Saw Mill Parkway have at-grade intersections, although direct access to property adjacent to the parkways is prohibited. Designers elsewhere also researched similar ideas, especially in Germany, where the Autobahn would become the first national freeway system. This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Harden Parkway in Salinas, CA. For other uses, see Parkway (disambiguation). ... The Taconic State Parkway is a part of the New York State highway system. ... The Sprain Brook Parkway is a part of the New York State highway system. ... The Saw Mill River Parkway is a 28. ... This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ...


However, in 1925, Italy was technically the first country to build a freeway-like road, which linked Milan to Lake Como.[31] It is known in Italy as the Autostrada dei Laghi. Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Lake Como (Lago di Como in Italian, also known as Lario; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. ...


Meanwhile, in Great Britain, the related concept of the motorway was first proposed by Sidney Webb in a 1910 book, The King's Highway, but was not formally embraced by the government until the passage of the Special Roads Act 1949.[32] In 1926, the English intellectual Hilaire Belloc recognized the necessity of grade-separated roads for "rapid and heavy traffic", but thought they would be the exception rather than the rule: Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... Photograph of Belloc Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 1870 – 16 July 1953) was one of the most prolific writers in England during the early twentieth century. ...

The creation of a great network of local highways suitable for rapid and heavy traffic is impossible. Even if the wealth of the community increases, the thing would be impossible, because it would mean the destruction of such a proportion of buildings as would dislocate all social life.[33]

While Connecticut's Merritt Parkway was the first fully controlled-access highway in America when it opened on June 29, 1938, it does not qualify as the country's first freeway, since low bridge heights, tight curve radii, and short interchange ramps fell well below freeway standards. The first long-distance rural freeway in the United States is generally considered to be the Pennsylvania Turnpike, which opened on October 1, 1940.[34] The Turnpike was so advanced for its time that tourists even had picnics in the median (that is, after it was already open to traffic) and local entrepreneurs did a brisk business in souvenirs.[35] It was designed so that straightaways could handle maximum speeds of 102 miles per hour, and curves could be taken as fast as 90. Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Merritt Parkway in autumn. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This Pennsylvania state route article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject Pennsylvania State Highways. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An entrepreneur (a loanword from French introduced and first defined by the Irish economist Richard Cantillon) is a person who operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some accountability for the inherent risks. ...


What may be the world's first long-distance intercity freeway is the Queen Elizabeth Way in Southern Ontario in Canada, initially linking the large cities of Toronto and Hamilton together by 1939. A Romanian InterCity train, run by Romanian Railways, at Arad station in May 2003 InterCity is a name for the inter-city rail services in Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Southern Ontario is the portion of the Canadian province of Ontario which lies south of the French River and Algonquin Park. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea...


Shortly thereafter, on December 30, 1940, California opened its first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway (now called the Pasadena Freeway) which connected Pasadena with Los Angeles.[36] And in 1942, Detroit, Michigan opened the world's first urban depressed freeway, the Davison Freeway.[37] Portions of the first freeway in Texas and the Southern United States, the Gulf Freeway in Houston, opened in 1948. [38] Meanwhile, traffic in Los Angeles continued to deteriorate and local officials began planning the huge freeway network for which the city is now famous.[39] is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... California State Route 110 extends from from California State Route 47 in USA. Most of Route 110 south of Interstate 10 is designated Interstate 110; the southernmost section is again signed as a state route. ... California State Route 110 extends from from California State Route 47 in San Pedro, California to Glenarm Street in Pasadena, California, USA. Most of Route 110 south of Interstate 10 is designated Interstate 110; the southernmost section is again signed as a state route. ... Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Detroit redirects here. ... Michigan State Highway 8, or M-8, is a short but important Michigan state highway lying within Detroit. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The Gulf Freeway is a stretch of Interstate Highway 45 in the U.S. state of Texas, connecting Galveston with Houston. ... Houston redirects here. ...


Today, many freeways in the United States belong to the extensive Interstate highway system (most of which was completed between 1960 and 1990). Starting in the 1970s freeways began to consider environmental factors, particularly noise and air quality in their location and design. Nearly all Interstate highways are freeways. The earlier United States highway system and the highway systems of U.S. states also have many sections that are built to controlled-access standards (though these systems are mostly composed of uncontrolled roads). Only a handful of sections of the Interstate system are not freeways, such as I-81 as it crosses the American span of the 2-lane Thousand Islands Bridge and a segment of Interstate 93 through Franconia Notch, New Hampshire that is a 2-lane road with partial access control.[citation needed] Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ... Current U.S. Highway shield The United States Highway System is an integrated system of roads in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Interstate 81 (abbreviated I-81) is an interstate highway in the eastern part of the United States. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 93 Interstate 93 (abbreviated I-93) is an interstate highway in the New England section of the United States. ... Franconia Notch State Park is located in the White Mountains in northern New Hampshire and straddles 8 miles of Interstate 93 as it passes between the Kinsman Range and Franconia Range. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ...


Recent developments

The Southern Expressway in Adelaide, South Australia, is the world's longest reversible freeway.
The Southern Expressway in Adelaide, South Australia, is the world's longest reversible freeway.

Besides the U.S., some provinces of Canada have adopted the term "freeway" or "superhighway" to describe comparable roads (instead of or alongside the term expressway) and they continue to extend their freeway networks. In Australia, some states such as Victoria use the term freeway, and others such as Queensland and New South Wales use both terms. Image File history File linksMetadata SouthernExpresswayClosed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SouthernExpresswayClosed. ... The Expressway near its start, at Marion. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... VIC redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... “NSW” redirects here. ...


Australia has been innovative in using the newest tunneling technologies to bring freeways into its high-density central business districts (Sydney and Melbourne). In Australia, the city of Adelaide pioneered the concept of a dedicated reversible freeway. The M2 expressway runs toward the city in the morning and out of the city in the evening. Its ramps are designed so that they can double as on- or off-ramps, depending upon the time of day. Gates and electronic signage prevent motorists from driving in the wrong direction. Brisbane currently has three major freeway tunnels under development; all are planned to incorporate traffic, congestion, incident and accident management technology. The Central Business District of Sydney, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ...


Major progress has been made in making existing U.S. freeways and expressways more efficient. Innovations include the addition of high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV lanes) to discourage driving solo, and building new roads with train tracks down the median (or overhead). California's Caltrans has been very innovative in squeezing HOVs into limited right-of-way (by elevating them), and in building special HOV-only ramps so that HOVs can switch freeways or exit the freeway without having to merge across regular traffic. Many states have added truck-only ramps or lanes on heavily congested routes, so that cars need not weave around slow-moving big rigs. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... The second proper album of Beth Orton, Central Reservation helped Orton build on the success of her debut Trailer Park. ... Caltrans logo The soaring ramps in the stack interchanges favored by Caltrans often provide stunning views. ...


Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are also increasingly used, with cameras to monitor and direct traffic, so that police, fire, ambulance, tow, or other assistance vehicles can be dispatched as soon as there is a problem, and to warn drivers via variable message signs, radio, television, and the Web to avoid problem areas. Research has been underway for many years on how to partly automate cars by making smart roads with such things as buried magnets to guide sensor-equipped vehicles, with on-board GPS to determine location, direction, and destination. While these systems may eventually be used on surface streets as well, they are most practical in a freeway setting. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) program is a worldwide initiative to add information and communications technology to transport infrastructure and vehicles. ... This article is about the photographing device. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... Heavy Tow truck A tow truck (also called a wrecker, a breakdown truck or a breakdown lorry), is a vehicle used to take disabled motor vehicles off a roadway to another location in case of breakdown or collision, or to impound illegally parked vehicles on public or (more commonly) private... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... A dispatch can be: A report sent to a newspaper by a correspondent. ... For other uses, see Driving (disambiguation). ... A variable (also changeable, electronic, or dynamic) message sign, often abbreviated VMS or CMS, is an electronic traffic sign often used on roadways to give travelers information about special events. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Automation (ancient Greek: = self dictated) or Industrial Automation is the use of computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... GPS redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Public-private partnerships in the United States

Until the late 1990s, funding of construction and maintenance of the Interstate Highway System was by the national gasoline tax. Originally, revenues generated by the national gasoline tax were intended solely for the maintenance and expansion of the country's highway system. During the Clinton Administration, federal legislation was passed allowing the use of gasoline tax revenues to fund other government programs and projects not related to highways or transportation. Since this reduced the amount of money available for the intended purpose of maintaining America's road network, many projects were either delayed, canceled, or scaled back.


Additionally, the original Highway Act of 1956 prohibited states from collecting tolls on Interstate-funded freeways. As more miles of freeways were completed, the cost of maintaining the infrastructure increased dramatically. A major issue that has slowed new freeway construction in America has been the application of highway funds to maintaining and repairing existing infrastructure. Most of the freeways in America are near or have exceeded their designed life span, which necessitates replacing of bridges and overpasses and reconstruction of the driving surfaces on many freeways nationwide. The Highway Act was an act by the United States federal government which led to the creation of the highway system. ...


To address the issue of lack of funding for new freeways and maintenance of existing roads, legislation enacted in 1998 gives states greater flexibility in funding major highway projects. Specifically the legislation, known as TEA-21 in official documents, authorizes states to add tolls to Interstate-funded freeways. Additionally, it gave states the latitude to enter into public-private partnership P3 arrangements to facilitate expansion and maintenance of the freeway network. Texas, Florida, Virginia, and California quickly took advantage of the TEA-21 legislation and began on massive projects to expand their respective states' freeway networks, complementing existing Interstate freeways with privately funded and operated tollways. In 2004, Illinois sealed a $1.8 billion deal with Macquarie Infrastructure Group and Cintras to operate the Chicago Skyway for 99 years. In a similar P3 arrangement in Indiana, the Cintras-Macquarie joint venture assumed responsibility for the Indiana East-West Toll Road for 75 years on June 30, 2006 in a very controversial $3.8 billion deal, which for political purposes was dubbed Major Moves. As of late 2006, Pennsylvania is actively pursuing the P3 toll road concept, but still has to clear challenges in the state legislature before such an arrangement can be implemented on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Also in late 2006 Delaware has plans to enter into an agreement with a private firm to design, build, and operate a planned 17-mile (27 km) bypass of U.S. Route 301 between Delaware Route 1 and the Maryland state line. Meanwhile in New York and Massachusetts, the respective state public authorities that operate the New York State Thruway and Massachusetts Turnpike have generated enough revenue to assume maintenance of other freeways beyond the roads on which tolls are collected. The Massachusetts Turnpike Authority provided more than 50 percent of the funding to complete the Big Dig project in Boston, and later assumed responsibility for operating the Central Artery, the Sumner Tunnel, and the Callahan Tunnel following the project's completion in 2005. Alfa Romeo P3 1930s Grand Prix racing car DR P3 (radio station) DR P3* Period 3 of the periodic table Intel 80386 3rd generation processor architecture P3 biological confinement level P3 club owned by Piper Halliwell on the television series Charmed P3 Fulfillment, provider of fulfillment services P3, one of... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Macquarie Bank Limited is an Australian merchant bank and financial services group, providing a broad range of services to businesses individuals. ... The Chicago Skyway also known as Chicago Skyway Toll Bridge System is a 7. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... The Indiana Toll Road, officially the Indiana East-West Toll Road, is a tolled expressway running east-west across the northernmost part of Indiana; the furthest it gets from the Michigan state line or Lake Michigan is about 10 miles (15 km). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Major Moves is the name of a controversial plan by Indiana governor Mitch Daniels to lease the Indiana Toll Road to an Australian-Spanish consortium to obtain funding for the planned extension of Interstate 69 through southwestern Indiana. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... This Pennsylvania state route article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject Pennsylvania State Highways. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... U.S. Route 301 is a spur of U.S. Route 1. ... Delaware Route 1 is a 110 mile long, four-to-six lane highway going from the Maryland-Delaware State line on the eastern Atlantic shoreline to the Delaware Turnpike (Interstate 95) just outside of Wilmington. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of New York. ... View of the Turnpike from an overpass by Boston University, facing east (towards central Boston). ... Massachusetts Turnpike logo. ... For other projects of the same name, see Big Dig. ... An old shield for the Sumner Tunnel, with the Masspike hat. ... The Lieutenant William F. Callahan Tunnel carries traffic from Boston, Massachusettss North End to Logan International Airport and Route 1A in East Boston. ...


As federal funding dries up for expanding and maintaining America's freeway network, states are looking to innovative solutions using a combination of state and federal funding, toll collection through public authorities, and private sector investment.


Gallery of freeways around the world

References

  1. ^ E.L. Yordan, "The 'Freeway' System Expands: Broader Roads With Grade Crossings Eliminated Are Built And Latest Designs Envision Still Greater Speed And Safety", New York Times, 24 February 1935, p. 21.
  2. ^ Manuel Roig-Franzia, "The Town That Stops Traffic: Travelers Encounter Way Station as Way of Life in Breezewood," Washington Post, 22 November 2001, B1.
  3. ^ Portions of the Downtown Connector in Atlanta, Georgia has eight lanes in each direction.
  4. ^ In Mississauga, Ontario, Highway 401 uses collector-express lanes for a total of 18 lanes through its intersection with 403/410 and 427.
  5. ^ Anonymous, "Median barriers prove their worth", Public Works 123, no. 3 (March 1992): 72-73.
  6. ^ Section 1A.13, Paragraph 29, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, 2003 ed., rev. 1.[1]. See also 23 CFR 750.153(k).
  7. ^ This part of the word's meaning was codified in 1939 at Section 23.5 of the California Streets and Highways Code.[2] See also People v. Scheinman, 248 Cal. App. 2d 180, 182, 56 Cal. Rptr. 168, 168-169 (1967) (interpreting Section 23.5 to find that a property owner had deeded to the State just the access from the side of his property directly abutting a future freeway but not the access through a connecting road which the state wished to close in order to upgrade an expressway to a freeway).
  8. ^ Section 1A.13, Paragraph 27, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, 2003 ed., rev. 1.[3]
  9. ^ American Association of State Highway Officials, AASHO Highway Definitions (Washington D.C., American Association of State Highway Officials, 1962), 1-3.
  10. ^ Cal. Sts. & High. Code § 257.
  11. ^ Miss. Code Ann., § 65-5-3, subds. (b) and (c).
  12. ^ Mo. Rev. Stat., § 304.010.
  13. ^ Neb. Rev. Stat., §§ 60-618.01 and 60-621.
  14. ^ N.D. Cent. Code, § 24-01-01.1 (2006).
  15. ^ Ohio Rev. Code Ann., § 4511.01, subds. (YY) and (ZZ).
  16. ^ Wis. Stat., §§ 59.84(1)(b) and 346.57(1)(am).
  17. ^ Ohio Rev. Code Ann., § 4511.01, subd. (ZZ).
  18. ^ Hugo Martin, "Sounding Off On Noise: Freeways' Neighbors Struggle To Drown Out Road Racket, Experts Say The Din Creates Mental And Physical Hazards", Los Angeles Times, 20 April 2003, B1.
  19. ^ Sandy McCreery, "Don't just sit there, enjoy it!" New Statesman, 23 July 2001, 23.
  20. ^ Martha Smilgis, "Trapped behind the wheel; clever commuters learn to live in the slow lane", Time, 20 July 1987, p. 64-65.
  21. ^ Gerard Coulombe, "Doing The Turnpike Crawl", New York Times, 6 July 1986, sec. CN, p. 16.
  22. ^ Jeffrey Spivak, "Today's road opening represents progress, pain", Kansas City Star, 27 July 1999, sec. A, p. 1.
  23. ^ >Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972, S. Rep. No. 1160, 92nd Cong. 2nd session
  24. ^ [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/wcpa/top3mset/2930880 C. Michael Hogan and Gary L. Latshaw,The relationship between highway planning and urban noise , :Proceedings of the ASCE, Urban Transportation Division specialty conference, May 21-23, 1973, Chicago, Illinois. by American Society of Civil Engineers. Urban Transportation Division
  25. ^ TransApex (Brisbane City Council) [4]
  26. ^ Robert Cervero, "Road expansion, urban growth, and induced travel: a path analysis", Journal of the American Planning Association 69, no. 2 (Spring 2003): 145-164.
  27. ^ Hugo Martin, "Will More Freeways Bring More Traffic?" Los Angeles Times, 10 April 2002, sec. B, p. 1.
  28. ^ Drusilla Van Hengel, Joseph DiMento, and Sherry Ryan, Equal Access? Travel Behaviour Change in the Century Freeway Corridor, Los Angeles, Urban Studies 36, no. 1 (March 1999): 547.
  29. ^ Christy Borth, Mankind on the Move: The Story of Highways (Washington, D.C.: The Automobile Safety Foundation, 1969), 248 and 264.
  30. ^ Brian D. Taylor, "Public perceptions, fiscal realities, and freeway planning: the California case", Journal of the American Planning Association 61, no. 1 (Winter 1995): 43-59.
  31. ^ Paul Hofmann, "Taking to the Highway in Italy", New York Times, 26 April 1987, 23.
  32. ^ Geoffrey Hindley, A History of Roads (London: Peter Davies, 1971), 142.
  33. ^ Hilaire Belloc, The Highway and Its Vehicles (London: The Studio Limited, 1926), 39.
  34. ^ Phil Patton, The Open Road: A Celebration of the American Highway (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986), 77.
  35. ^ Phil Patton, "A quick way from here to there was also a frolic", Smithsonian 21, no. 7 (October 1990): 96-108.
  36. ^ Cecilia Rasmussen, "Behind the Wheel: Harrowing Drive on State's Oldest Freeway — Curvy, quirky 110 carries motorists between downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena", Los Angeles Times, 6 November 2001, 2.
  37. ^ http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Environment/E_Casestudy/Davison.htm
  38. ^ http://www.texasfreeway.com
  39. ^ Gladwin Hill, "Traffic Chaos Spurs Los Angeles To Plan 'Freeways' On Mass Scale: Coast Metropolis, Lacking Rapid Transit System Such as New York Possesses, Maps $300,000,000 Highway Set-Up", New York Times, 13 January 1947, p. 12.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Freeway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5043 words)
A freeway (sometimes known as an expressway or motorway, or any of a large number of other terms, depending on the area of the world) is a highway, usually divided and carrying at least two lanes in each direction, designed primarily for high-speed movement of large numbers of motor vehicles.
Two-lane freeways, often undivided, are sometimes built when traffic volumes are low or right-of-way is limited; they may be designed for easy conversion to one side of a four-lane freeway.
But mature freeways in urban areas are quite often a source of lowered property values, contributing to the deleterious effects of urban blight.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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