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Encyclopedia > Freethought

Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. The cognitive application of freethought is known as freethinking, and practitioners of freethought are known as freethinkers. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ...

Contents

Overview

Freethought holds that individuals should neither accept nor reject ideas proposed as truth without recourse to knowledge and reason. Thus, freethinkers strive to build their beliefs on the basis of facts, scientific inquiry, and logical principles, independent of any factual/logical fallacies or intellectually-limiting effects of authority, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular culture, prejudice, sectarianism, tradition, urban legend, and all other dogmatic or otherwise fallacious principles. As such, when applied to religion, the philosophy of freethought holds that, given presently-known facts, established scientific theories, and logical principles, there is insufficient evidence to support the existence of supernatural phenomena. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up fact in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Conventional wisdom is a term coined by the economist John Kenneth Galbraith, used to describe certain ideas or explanations that are generally accepted as true by the public. ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... Sectarianism refers (usually pejoratively) to a rigid adherence to a particular sect or party or religious denomination. ... For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... A logical fallacy is an error in logical argument which is independent of the truth of the premises. ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A line from "Clifford's Credo" by the 19th Century British mathematician and philosopher William Kingdon Clifford perhaps best describes the premise of freethought: "It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence." Since many laws, doctrines, and popular beliefs are based on dogmas, freethinkers' opinions are often at odds with commonly-established views. William Kingdon Clifford William Kingdon Clifford, FRS (May 4, 1845 - March 3, 1879) was an English mathematician who also wrote a fair bit on philosophy. ...


Symbol

The pansy, symbol of freethought.
The pansy, symbol of freethought.

The pansy has long been the symbol of freethought, originally being used in the literature of the American Secular Union in the late 1800s. The reasoning behind the pansy being the symbol of freethought lies in both the flower's name and appearance. The pansy derives its name from the French word pensée, which means "thought"; it was so named because the flower resembles a human face, and in the month of August it nods forward as if deep in thought.[1] purple, white & yellow pansies. ... purple, white & yellow pansies. ... Pansy, see Isabella Macdonald Alden. ... Pansy, see Isabella Macdonald Alden. ... The American Secular Union was a social movement from the 1800s in the United States After the implosion of the Socialistic Labor Party, the Liberals reorganized as a nonpolitical American Secular Union. ...


History

Origins

There is a very old tradition and re-invention of individual intellectual freedom and freethought, in most philosophical and religious thought systems, against and despite the literalist interpretations and constraints. That tradition holds that everyone can find one's way, through personal effort, with help from friends and mentors. Its history extends from prehistoric shamans engaging on a personal journey to the superior world, to the Indo-Asian world, to the Mediterranean gnostic synthesis, to medieval Islam, to bright spots and trails of the Middle Ages, finally to the modern individuation from metaphysics through the scientific method of experimentation and falsification. In philosophical Buddhism, freethought was advocated by the Buddha, such as in the text Kalama Sutta. For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... Categories: Substubs ... Fundamentalism originally referred to a movement in North American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism (see below, History), stressing that the Bible is literally inerrant, not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record. ... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Specifically, Shaman (saman) is a term in Evenk, Manchu and other Manchu-Tungus languages for an intellectual and spiritual figure; who usually possess power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, one of which is analogous to the function of a healer in other cultures. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... In science and the philosophy of science, falsifiability is the logical property of empirical statements, related to contingency and defeasibility, that they must admit of logical counterexamples. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... The Kalama Sutta (Sanskrit: Kalama Sutra) is a Buddhist sutta in the Anguttara Nikaya of the Tipitaka. ...

"It is proper for you, Kalamas [the people of the village of Kesaputta], to doubt, to be uncertain; uncertainty has arisen in you about what is doubtful. Come, Kalamas. Do not go upon what has been acquired by repeated hearing; nor upon tradition; nor upon rumor; nor upon what is in a scripture; nor upon surmise; nor upon an axiom; nor upon specious reasoning; nor upon a bias towards a notion that has been pondered over; nor upon another's seeming ability; nor upon the consideration, 'The monk is our teacher.' Kalamas, when you yourselves know: 'These things are bad; these things are blameable; these things are censured by the wise; undertaken and observed, these things lead to harm and ill, abandon them.
"...Do not accept anything by mere tradition... Do not accept anything just because it accords with your scriptures... Do not accept anything merely because it agrees with your pre-conceived notions... But when you know for yourselves—these things are moral, these things are blameless, these things are praised by the wise, these things, when performed and undertaken, conduce to well-being and happiness—then do you live acting accordingly."

The web of transmissions and reinventions of critical thought meanders from the Hellenistic Mediterranean, through repositories of knowledge and wisdom in Ireland and the Muslim civilizations (e.g. Khayyam and his unorthodox sufi Rubaiyat poems), in other civilisations as the Chinese (e.g. the sea-faring Southern Sòng's renaissance), and through heretical thinkers of esoteric alchemy or astrology, to the Renaissance and the protestant Reformation. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Ghiyās ol-DÄ«n Abol-Fath Omār Ibn EbrāhÄ«m Khayyām NeyshābÅ«rÄ«, (Persian: غیاث الدین ابو الفتح عمر بن ابراهیم خیام نیشابوری, born: May 18, 1048 in Nishapur, Iran (Persia) – died: December 4, 1131), was a Persian poet, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


French physician and writer Rabelais, celebrated "rabelaisian" freedom and good feasting and drinking (an expression and a symbol of freedom of the mind), in defiance of the hypocrisies of conformist orthodoxy, in his utopian Thelema Abbey (from θέλημα: free "will"), the devise of which was "Do What Thou Wilt": François Rabelais François Rabelais (c. ... Hypocrisy is the act of condemning another person, when the critic is guilty of the same thing that is being condemned. ... In English history, Conformists were those whose religious practices conformed with the requirements of the Act of Uniformity and so were in concert with the Established Church, the Church of England, as opposed to those of Nonconformists whose practices were not acceptable to the Church of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun : will, from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ...

"So had Gargantua established it. In all their rule and strictest tie of their order there was but this one clause to be observed, Do What Thou Wilt; because free people ... act virtuously and avoid vice. They call this honor."

When his hero Pantagruel, journeys to the "Oracle of The Div(in)e Bottle", he learns the lesson of life in one simple word: "Trinch!", Drink!, Enjoy simple life, Learn wisdom and knowledge, as a free human. Beyond puns, irony, and satire, Gargantua's prologue metaphor instructs the reader to "break the bone and suck out the substance-full marrow" ("la substantifique moëlle"), the core of wisdom. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A pun (also known as paronomasia) is a figure of speech, or word play which consists of a deliberate confusion of similar words within a phrase or phrases for rhetorical effect, whether humorous or serious. ... Irony is a literary or rhetorical device, in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history). ... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Modern movements

The year 1600 is hailed by many as the beginning of the era of modern freethought, as it is marked by the execution in Italy of Giordano Bruno by the Holy Inquisition. Giordano Bruno. ... The Inquisition was an office of the Roman Catholic Church charged with suppressing heresy. ...


England and France

The term Free-Thinker emerged toward the end of the 17th century in England to describe those who stood in opposition to the institution of the Church and literal belief in the Bible. The beliefs of these individuals was centered around the concept that people could understand the world through consideration of nature. Such positions were formally documented for the first time in 1697 by William Molyneux in a widely publicized letter to John Locke and more extensively in 1713 when Anthony Collins wrote his Discourse of Free-Thinking, which gained substantial popularity. In France, the concept first appeared in publication when Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert and Voltaire included an article on Libre-Penseur in their Encyclopédie in 1765; the article was strongly atheistic. The European freethought concepts spread widely so that even places as remote as the Jotunheimen in Norway had well-known freethinkers such as Jo Gjende by the 19th century. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Charles William Molyneux, 1st Earl of Sefton (September 3, 1748-January 31, 1794). ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... This page is about Anthony Collins the philosopher. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... View from Knutshøi towards central Jotunheimen Jotunheimen is a mountain range in southern Norway covering an area of roughly 3,500 km². It is part of the long Scandinavian Mountains range. ... Jo Gjende (born in VÃ¥gÃ¥ in 1794, died February 27th, 1884 on the Brurusten farm in Murudal, buried in VÃ¥gÃ¥ churchyard) was a Norwegian outdoorsman and freethinker. ...


The Freethinker magazine was first published in Britain in 1881. For other uses of The Freethinker, see The Freethinker (disambiguation). ...


Germany

In Germany during the period (1815-1848) before the March Revolution, the resistance of citizens against the dogma of the church increased. In 1844 under the influence of Johannes Ronge and Robert Blum the belief in the rights of man, tolerance among men, and humanism grew and by 1859 they established the Bund Freireligiöser Gemeinden Deutschlands(Union of free-thinking communities in Germany). This union still exists today, and is included as a member in the umbrella organization of free humanists. In 1881 in Frankfurt am Main, Ludwig Büchner established Deutschen Freidenkerbund as the first German organization for atheists. In Hamburg in 1882 the social-democratic Freidenker-Gesellschaft was formed. Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 38 states including parts of Austria and Prussia loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... Johannes von Rönge (16 October 1813 (in Bischofswalde) - 26 October 1887 (in Vienna)) was an early builder of the Christian denomination of New Catholics. ... Robert Blum (10 November 1807 - 9 November 1848) was a German politician and member of the National Assembly of 1848. ... Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner (March 29, 1824 – May 1, 1899) was a German philosopher, physiologist and physician who became one of the exponents of 19th century scientific materialism. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018...


Belgium

The Free University of Brussels, also known as the Université Libre de Bruxelles / Vrije Universiteit Brussel (ULB / VUB), along with the two Circles of Free Inquiry (Dutch and French speaking) defend the freedom of critical thought, the rejection of the argument of authority, and lay philosophy and ethics. The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) is a Flemish university situated in Brussels, Belgium. ... An appeal to authority or argument by authority is a type of argument in logic, consisting on basing the truth value of an otherwise unsupported assertion on the authority, knowledge or position of the person asserting it. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Ethics (via Latin from the Ancient Greek moral philosophy, from the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ...


ULB physicist and chemist Ilya Prigogine (1917 - 2003) received the 1977 Chemistry Nobel Prize for his work on the entropy of dissipative and self-organizing natural systems, allowing a better lay understanding of the fundamental freedom of complex nature and life, against simplistic newtonian determinism. The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying... Nobel Prize medal. ... Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ... A dissipative system (or dissipative structure) is an open system which is operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium within an environment that exchanges energy, matter or entropy. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... A fundamental is something that cannot be built out of more basic things, which other things are built upon. ... Mohandas K. Gandhi - Freedom can be achieved through inner sovereignty. ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Simplistic is defined by the Wiktionary as an adjective, meaning In a manner that simplifies the issue to a degree where many important details are lost. ... Generally speaking, Newtonian refers to the scientific work of Isaac Newton, e. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and behavior, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ...


United States

Driven by revolutions of 1848 in the German states, the 19th century saw immigration of German freethinkers and atheists to the United States. They appear to be the first in the United States to refer to themselves as Freethinkers. Many of them settled in Texas, founding the town of Comfort, Texas, as well as others. Their settlements had no church buildings, and these newcomers were persecuted and sometimes killed for their opposition to the institution of slavery. In 1994, a few freethinkers founded the Church of Freethought, which now exists as two active congregations of freethinkers: the North Texas Church of Freethought and the Houston Church of Freethought. Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 38 states including parts of Austria and Prussia loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Comfort is a census-designated place located in Kendall County, Texas. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... This politics-related article is a stub. ... Slave redirects here. ... The North Texas Church of Freethought was founded in 1994 to serve the religious needs of atheists, agnostics, and other unbelievers in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. ...


German Freethinker settlements were located in –

Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Washington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. ... Millheim is a borough in Centre County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Austin County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Kendall County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Tusculum, an ancient city of Latium, situated in a commanding position on the north edge of the outer crater ring of the Alban volcano, 18 km (11 miles) north-east of the modern Frascati. ... Castells are human towers that are traditionally built during festivals in many places in Catalonia, Spain. ... Llano County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Look up comfort in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Colorado County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... DeWitt County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Ratcliffe is a former hamlet which now is a section of the contemporary city of Greater London, England, and is located in Stepney near the River Thames. ... Shelby is the name of some places in the United States of America: Shelby Charter Township, Michigan, in Macomb County, Michigan Shelby Township, Michigan, in Oceana County, Michigan Shelby, Oceana County, Michigan, in Oceana County, Michigan Shelby, Indiana Shelby, Montana Shelby, Nebraska Shelby, New York Shelby, North Carolina Shelby, Ohio... Belleville is the name of several places in North America: Belleville, Ontario, Canada Belleville, Illinois, United States of America Belleville, Kansas, United States of America Belleville, Michigan, United States of America Belleville, New Jersey, United States of America Belleville, Pennsylvania, United States of America Belleville is the name or part... St. ...

Anglophone Canada

The earliest known secular organization in English Canada is the Toronto Freethought Association, founded in 1873 by a handful of secularists. Reorganized in 1877 and again in 1881, when it was renamed the Toronto Secular Society, the group formed the nucleus of the Canadian Secular Union, established in 1884 to bring together freethinkers from across the country.


A significant number of the early members appear to have been drawn from the educated labour “aristocracy,” including Alfred F. Jury, J. Ick Evans and J. I. Livingstone, all of whom were leading labour activists and secularists. The second president of the Toronto association was T. Phillips Thompson, a central figure in the city’s labour and social reform movements during the 1880s and 1890s and arguably Canada’s foremost late nineteenth-century labour intellectual. By the early 1880s, freethought organizations were scattered throughout southern Ontario and parts of Quebec, and elicited both urban and rural support.


The principal organ of the freethought movement in Canada was Secular Thought (Toronto, 1887-1911). Founded and edited by English freethinker, Charles Watts (1835-1906), during its first several years, the editorship was assumed in 1891 by Toronto printer and publisher James Spencer Ellis when Watts returned to England.


Canadian Freethought groups are essentially atheist, base their philosophy on freethought and humanist principles, and are increasingly popular. Examples of such freethought groups are the Society of Ontario Freethinkers and Toronto Secular Alliance.


See also

The Golden Age of Freethought is a term sometimes used to describe the freethought boom of the late 19th century. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the psychological term. ... William of Ockham Occams razor (sometimes spelled Ockhams razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Cynicism (Greek ) was originally the philosophy of a group of ancient Greeks called the Cynics, founded by Antisthenes. ... George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... For other uses of The Freethinker, see The Freethinker (disambiguation). ... The North Texas Church of Freethought was founded in 1994 to serve the religious needs of atheists, agnostics, and other unbelievers in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. ... The Center for Inquiry - On Campus (originally the Campus Freethought Alliance) is an organization launched by the Council for Secular Humanism in 1996 in order to reach out to university and high school students. ... The Freedom From Religion Foundation is an American Freethought organization based in Madison, Wisconsin. ... American Atheist logo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Brethren of the Free Spirit (Brüder und Schwestern des Freien Geistes) was a medieval heretical pantheistic movement. ... The Fellowship of Reason is a moral community based in Atlanta. ...

References

  • Jacoby, Susan (2004). Freethinkers: a history of American secularism. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-7442-2
  • Royle, Edward (1974). Victorian Infidels: the origins of the British Secularist Movement, 1791-1866. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-0557-4 Online version
  • Royle, Edward (1980). Radicals, Secularists and Republicans: popular freethought in Britain, 1866-1915. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-0783-6
  • Tribe, David (1967). 100 Years of Freethought. London: Elek Books.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Freethought - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1337 words)
Freethought is a philosophical doctrine that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be comprised by authority, tradition or any other dogmatic or otherwise fallacious belief system that restricts logical reasoning.
The cognitive application of freethought is known as freethinking, and practitioners of freethought are known as freethinkers.
In philosophical Buddhism, freethought was advocated by the Buddha, e.g.
Freethought, AH Eden (2447 words)
Freethought is the application of critical thinking and logic to all areas of human experience, and the rejection of supernatural and authoritarian beliefs.
Freethought is generally associated with scientific naturalism, or the preference for scientific explanations over religious and irrational pretext, where 'scientific' is taken to mean established methods of investigation such as observation, analysis, and empirical validation.
Freethought is not committed to any particular code of ethics, but many freethinkers endorse secular humanism because, they argue, it has been proven to be resilient to critical examination and because it satisfies the criteria of minimality and consistency (§1).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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