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Encyclopedia > Freemasonry
The Masonic Square and Compasses.(Found with or without the letter G)
The Masonic Square and Compasses.
(Found with or without the letter G)
Part of a series of articles on
Freemasonry
Freemason

Core Articles
Freemasonry · Grand Lodge · Masonic Lodge · Masonic Lodge Officers · Prince Hall Freemasonry · Regular Masonic jurisdictions
Freemason and Freemasons usually refer to the Freemasonry fraternal organization. ... Image File history File links Square_compasses. ... Image File history File links Square_compasses. ... A common Masonic representation of the Square and Compasses. ... For other uses, see G (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Square_compasses. ... A Grand Lodge, or Grand Orient, is the usual governing body of Craft, or Blue Lodge, Freemasonry in a particular jurisdiction. ... In most areas of the world Masons gather together in Masonic Lodges to work the three degrees of Freemasonry: 1° = Entered Apprentice 2° = Fellow Craft 3° = Master Mason Blue Lodge is used to specify the basic Masonic Lodge granting the first three degrees and to differentiate it from other Masonic... This article relates to mainstream Craft Freemasonry, sometimes known in America as Blue Lodge Freemasonry. Every Masonic Lodge appoints Masonic Lodge Officers to execute the necessary functions of the lodges life and work. ... Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events which led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African-American, Freemasonic fraternal organization in North America. ... This article deals with organization in Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry. ...


History
History of Freemasonry · Liberté chérie · Masonic manuscripts
The History of Freemasonry studies the development, evolution and events of the fraternal organization known as Freemasonry. ... Memorial of the KZ Esterwegen close-up Liberté chérie was the only known Masonic Lodge to be founded in a Nazi concentration camp during the Second World War. ... This box:      There are a number of manuscripts that are historically important in the development of Freemasonry. ...

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Freemasonry is a fraternal organizations that arose from obscure origins (theorised to be anywhere from the time of the building of King Solomon's Temple to the mid-1600s). Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, and has millions of members. The various forms all share moral and metaphysical ideals, which include, in most cases, a constitutional declaration of belief in a Supreme Being.[1] A fraternal organization, sometimes also known as a fraternity, is an organization or club that represents the relationship between its members as akin to brotherhood. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... The term Supreme Being is often defined simply as God,[1] and it is used with this meaning by theologians of many religious faiths, including, but not limited to, Christianity,[2] Islam,[3] Hinduism,[4] Deism[5] and Scientology. ...


The fraternity is administratively organised into Grand Lodges (or sometimes Orients), each of which governs its own jurisdiction, which consists of subordinate (or constituent) Lodges. Grand Lodges recognise each other through a process of landmarks and regularity. There are also appendant bodies, which are organisations related to the main branch of Freemasonry, but with their own independent administration. Look up fraternity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Grand Lodge, or Grand Orient, is the usual governing body of Craft, or Blue Lodge, Freemasonry in a particular jurisdiction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Masonic Landmarks are a set of principles which many Freemasons claim to be both ancient and unchangeable precepts of Masonry. Issues of the regularity of a Freemasonic Lodge, Grand Lodge or Grand Orient are judged in the context of the Landmarks. ... This article deals with organization in Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry. ... This box:      The fraternity of Freemasonry, also known as Free and Accepted Masons, is organized into lodges, chapters, councils, commanderies, consistories, etc. ...


Freemasonry uses the metaphors of operative stonemasons' tools and implements, against the allegorical backdrop of the building of King Solomon's Temple, to convey what is most generally defined as "a system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols."[2] This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... The art and craft of the stonemason has existed since the dawn of civilization - creating buildings, structures and sculpture using stone and other raw materials from the earth. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Freemasonry
Goose and Gridiron, Home to a London Lodge forming GLE
Goose and Gridiron, Home to a London Lodge forming GLE

The origins and early development of Freemasonry are a matter of some debate and conjecture. There is some evidence to suggest that there were Masonic Lodges in existence in Scotland as early as the late sixteenth century,[3] and clear references to their existence in England by the mid seventeenth century.[4] A poem known as "The Regius Manuscript" has been dated to approximately 1390 CE and is the oldest known Masonic text.[5] The History of Freemasonry studies the development, evolution and events of the fraternal organization known as Freemasonry. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (969x1293, 272 KB) Beschreibung Goose & Gridiron in London First Grand Lodge Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Freemasonry ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (969x1293, 272 KB) Beschreibung Goose & Gridiron in London First Grand Lodge Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Freemasonry ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The first Grand Lodge, the Grand Lodge of England (GLE), was founded on 24 June 1717, when four existing London Lodges met for a joint dinner. This rapidly expanded into a regulatory body, which most English Lodges joined. However, a few lodges resented some of the modernisations that GLE endorsed, such as the creation of the Third Degree, and formed a rival Grand Lodge on 17 July 1751, which they called the "Antient Grand Lodge of England". The two competing Grand Lodges vied for supremacy—the "Moderns" (GLE) and the "Ancients" (or "Antients")—until they united 25 November 1813 to form the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE). Headquarters of The UGLE. This box:      The United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) is the main governing body of Freemasonry within England and Wales and in some countries, predominantly ex-British Empire and Commonwealth countries, outside the United Kingdom. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The United Grand Lodge of Englands Coat of Arms Headquarters of The UGLE. The United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) is the main governing body of Freemasonry within England, and certain jurisdictions overseas (normally ex-British Empire and Commonwealth countries). ...


The Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland were formed in 1725 and 1736 respectively. Freemasonry was exported to the British Colonies in North America by the 1730s—with both the "Ancients" and the "Moderns" (as well as the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland) chartering offspring ("daughter") Lodges, and organising various Provincial Grand Lodges. After the American Revolution, independent U.S. Grand Lodges formed themselves within each State. Some thought was briefly given to organising an over-arching "Grand Lodge of the United States", with George Washington as the first Grand Master, but the idea was short-lived. The various State Grand Lodges did not wish to diminish their own authority by agreeing to such a body.[6] This article is about the country. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


Although there are no real differences in the Freemasonry practiced by lodges chartered by the Ancients or the Moderns, the remnants of this division can still be seen in the names of most Lodges, F.& A.M. being Free and Accepted Masons and A.F.& A.M. being Antient Free and Accepted Masons.


The oldest jurisdiction on the continent of Europe, the Grand Orient de France (GOdF), was founded in 1728. Most English-speaking jurisdictions cut formal relations with the GOdF around 1877, however, when the GOdF removed the requirement that its members have a belief in Deity, and accepted atheists.[7] The Grande Loge Nationale Française (GLNF)[8] is currently the only French Grand Lodge that is in regular amity with the UGLE and its many concordant jurisdictions worldwide. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Grand Orient de France (GOdF) is the oldest masonic organisation in Continental Europe, founded in 1733. ... The Grande Loge Nationale Française (GLNF) is currently the only French Masonic Grand Lodge that is in regular amity with the United Grand Lodge of England, and concordant jurisdictions. ...


Due to the above history, Freemasonry is often said to consist of two branches not in mutual regular amity:

  • the UGLE and concordant tradition of jurisdictions (termed Grand Lodges) in amity, and
  • the GOdF, European Continental, tradition of jurisdictions (often termed Grand Orients) in amity.

In most Latin countries, the GOdF-style of European Continental Freemasonry predominates, although in most of these Latin countries there are also Grand Lodges that are in regular amity with the UGLE and the worldwide community of Grand Lodges that share regular "fraternal relations" with the UGLE. The rest of the world, accounting for the bulk of Freemasonry, tends to follow more closely to the UGLE style, although minor variations exist. Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and...


Organisational structure

Freemasons Hall, London, home of the United Grand Lodge of England.
Freemasons Hall, London, home of the United Grand Lodge of England.
Main article: Grand Lodge

Grand Lodges and Grand Orients are independent and sovereign bodies that govern Masonry in a given country, state, or geographical area (termed a jurisdiction).[9] There is no single overarching governing body that presides over world-wide Freemasonry; connections between different jurisdictions depend solely on mutual recognition.[10] Download high resolution version (750x935, 134 KB)Freemasons’ Hall in Great Queen Street, London, England. ... Download high resolution version (750x935, 134 KB)Freemasons’ Hall in Great Queen Street, London, England. ... A Grand Lodge, or Grand Orient, is the usual governing body of Craft, or Blue Lodge, Freemasonry in a particular jurisdiction. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


Regularity

Regularity is a constitutional mechanism whereby Grand Lodges or Grand Orients give one another mutual recognition. This recognition allows formal interaction at the Grand Lodge level, and gives individual Freemasons the opportunity to attend Lodge meetings in other recognised jurisdictions. Conversely, regularity proscribes interaction with Lodges that are irregular. A Mason who visits an irregular Lodge may have his membership suspended for a time, or he may be expelled. For this reason, all Grand Lodges maintain lists of other jurisdictions and lodges they consider regular.[11] This article deals with organization in Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry. ... Expulsion is one of words used to describe expulsions after World War II, indicating condemnation of the events. ...


Grand Lodges and Grand Orients that afford mutual recognition and allow intervisitation are said to be in amity. As far as the UGLE is concerned, regularity is predicated upon a number of landmarks, set down in the UGLE Constitution and the Constitutions of those Grand Lodges with which they are in amity. Even within this definition there are some variations with the quantity and content of the Landmarks from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Other Masonic groups organise differently.[12]


Both of the two major branches of Freemasonry consider their Lodges to be "regular". Both branches consider the other to be "irregular". As the UGLE branch is significantly larger, however, the various Grand Lodges and Grand Orients in amity with UGLE are commonly referred to as being "regular" (or "Mainstream") Masonry, while those Grand Lodges and Grand Orients in amity with GOdF are commonly referred to "liberal" or "irregular" Masonry. (The issue is complicated by the fact that the usage of "Lodge" versus "Orient" alone is not an indicator of which branch a body belongs to, and thus not an indication of regularity). The term "irregular" is also universally applied to various self created bodies that call themselves "Masonic" but are not recognised by either of the main branches.


The Masonic Lodge

Main article: Masonic Lodge

A Lodge (often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge in Masonic constitutions) is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. Every new Lodge must be warranted by a Grand Lodge, but is subject to its direction only in enforcing the published Constitution of the jurisdiction. A Lodge must hold full meetings regularly at published dates and places. It will elect, initiate and promote its own members and officers; it will own, occupy or share premises; and will normally build up a collection of minutes, records and equipment. Like any other organisation, it will have formal business, annual general meetings (AGMs), charity funds, committees, reports, bank accounts and tax returns, and so forth. In most areas of the world Masons gather together in Masonic Lodges to work the three degrees of Freemasonry: 1° = Entered Apprentice 2° = Fellow Craft 3° = Master Mason Blue Lodge is used to specify the basic Masonic Lodge granting the first three degrees and to differentiate it from other Masonic... This article is about charitable organizations. ... A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ...


A man can only be initiated, or made a Mason, in a Lodge, of which he may well remain a subscribing member for life. A Master Mason is generally entitled to visit any Lodge meeting under any jurisdiction in amity with his own, and a Lodge may well offer hospitality to such a visitor after the formal meeting. He is first usually required to check the regularity of that Lodge, and must be able to satisfy that Lodge of his own regularity; and he may be refused admission if adjudged likely to disrupt the harmony of the Lodge. If he wishes to visit the same Lodge repeatedly, he may be expected to join it, and pay a membership subscription.


Freemasons correctly meet as a Lodge, not in a Lodge, the word "Lodge" referring more to the people assembled than the place of assembly. However, in common usage, Masonic premises are often referred to as "Lodges". Masonic buildings are also sometimes called "Temples" ("of Philosophy and the Arts"). In many countries, Masonic Centre or Hall has replaced Temple to avoid arousing prejudice and suspicion. Several different Lodges, as well as other Masonic organisations, often use the same premises at different times. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about Arts as a group of disciplines. ...


Early Lodges often met in a tavern or any other convenient fixed place with a private room.[7] According to Masonic tradition, the Lodge of medieval stonemasons was on the southern side of the building site, with the sun warming the stones during the day. The social Festive Board (or Social Board),[13] part of the meeting is thus sometimes called the South.[14] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Most Lodges consist of Freemasons living or working within a given town or neighbourhood. Other Lodges are composed of Masons with a particular shared interest, profession or background. Shared schools, universities, military units, Masonic appointments or degrees, arts, professions and hobbies have all been the qualifications for such Lodges. In some Lodges, the foundation and name may now be only of historic interest, as over time the membership evolves beyond that envisaged by its "founding brethren"; in others, the membership remains exclusive. A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ... A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ...


There are also specialist Lodges of Research, with membership drawn from Master Masons only, with interests in Masonic Research (of history, philosophy, etc.). Lodges of Research are fully warranted but, generally, do not initiate new candidates. Lodges of Instruction in UGLE may be warranted by any ordinary Lodge for the learning and rehearsal of Masonic Ritual. This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...


Lodge Officers

Every Masonic Lodge elects certain officers to execute the necessary functions of the lodge's work. The Worshipful Master (essentially the lodge President) is always an elected officer. Most jurisdictions will also elect the Senior and Junior Wardens (Vice Presidents), the Secretary and the Treasurer. All lodges will have a Tyler, or Tiler, (who guards the door to the lodge room while the lodge is in session), sometimes elected and sometimes appointed by the Master. In addition to these elected officers, lodges will have various appointed officers—such as Deacons, Stewards, and a Chaplain (appointed to lead a non-denominational prayer at the convocation of meetings or activities—often, but not necessarily, a clergyman). The specific offices and their functions vary between jurisdictions. This article relates to mainstream Craft Freemasonry, sometimes known in America as Blue Lodge Freemasonry. Every Masonic Lodge appoints Masonic Lodge Officers to execute the necessary functions of the lodges life and work. ...


Many offices are replicated at Provincial and Grand-Lodge levels, but with the addition of the word 'Grand' somewhere in the title. For example, where every lodge has a 'Junior Warden', Grand Lodges have a 'Grand Junior Warden' (or, as it is sometimes rendered, a 'Junior Grand Warden'). In addition there are a number of offices that exist only at the Grand Lodge level.[7]


Prince Hall Freemasonry

Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events in the early United States that led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African-American Freemasonry in North America. Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events which led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African-American, Freemasonic fraternal organization in North America. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...


In 1775, an African-American named Prince Hall[15] was initiated into an Irish Constitution Military Lodge then in Boston, Massachusetts, along with fourteen other African-Americans, all of whom were free-born. When the Military Lodge left North America, those fifteen men were given the authority to meet as a Lodge, form Processions on the days of the Saints John, and conduct Masonic funerals, but not to confer degrees, nor to do other Masonic work. In 1784, these individuals applied for, and obtained, a Lodge Warrant from the Premier Grand Lodge of England (GLE) and formed African Lodge, Number 459. When the UGLE was formed in 1813, all U.S.-based Lodges were stricken from their rolls—due largely to the War of 1812. Thus, separated from both UGLE and any concordantly recognised U.S. Grand Lodge, African Lodge re-titled itself as the African Lodge, Number 1—and became a de facto "Grand Lodge" (this Lodge is not to be confused with the various Grand Lodges on the Continent of Africa). As with the rest of U.S. Freemasonry, Prince Hall Freemasonry soon grew and organised on a Grand Lodge system for each state. Prince Hall (c. ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Widespread segregation in 19th- and early 20th-century North America made it difficult for African-Americans to join Lodges outside of Prince Hall jurisdictions—and impossible for inter-jurisdiction recognition between the parallel U.S. Masonic authorities. Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ...


Prince Hall Masonry has always been regular in all respects except constitutional separation, and this separation has diminished in recent years. At present, Prince Hall Grand Lodges are recognised by some UGLE Concordant Grand Lodges and not by others, but they appear to be working toward full recognition, with UGLE granting at least some degree of recognition.[16] There are a growing number of both Prince Hall Lodges and non-Prince Hall Lodges that have ethnically diverse membership.


Other degrees, orders and bodies

There is no degree in Freemasonry higher than that of Master Mason, the Third Degree.[17] There are, however, a number of organisations that require being a Master Mason as a prerequisite for membership.[18] These bodies have no authority over the Craft.[17] These orders or degrees may be described as additional or appendant, and often provide a further perspective on some of the allegorical, moral and philosophical content of Freemasonry. Whilst there is no degree in Freemasonry higher than that of Master Mason[1], there are a number of related organisations which have as a prerequisite to joining that one be a Master Mason or have some relation to a Master Mason[2]. These bodies are commonly referred to as...


Appendant bodies are administered separately from Craft Grand Lodges but are styled Masonic since every member must be a Mason. However, Craft Masonic jurisdictions vary in their relationships with such bodies, if a relationship exists at all. The Articles of Union of the "Modern" and "Antient" craft Grand Lodges (into UGLE in 1813) limited recognition to certain degrees, such as the Royal Arch and the "chivalric degrees", but there were and are many other degrees that have been worked since before the Union. Some bodies are not universally considered to be appendant bodies, but rather separate organisations that happen to require prior Masonic affiliation for membership. Some of these organisations have additional requirements, such as religious adherence (e.g., requiring members to profess Trinitarian Christian beliefs) or membership of other bodies. The York Rite (also called the American Rite) is one of the two main appendant bodies of United States Freemasonry, which a Master Mason may join to further his knowledge of Freemasonry. ... The adjective trinitarian is used in several senses: Ideas or things pertaining to the Holy Trinity A person or group adhering to the doctrine of Trinitarianism, which holds God to subsist in the form of the Holy Trinity The Trinitarian Order is a Catholic monastic order founded in 1198 by...


Quite apart from these, there are organisations that are often thought of as being related to Freemasonry, but which are in fact not related at all and are not accorded recognition as Masonic. These include such organisations as the Orange Order, which originated in Ireland, or the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ... The I.O.O.F. Hall at the corner of Yonge and College in Toronto, Ontario The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (I.O.O.F.) is a fraternal organization derived from English Oddfellows orders of the mid-1700s. ...


Principles and activities

While Freemasonry has often been called a "secret society", Freemasons themselves argue that it is more correct to say that it is an esoteric society, in that certain aspects are private.[17] The most common phrasing being that Freemasonry has, in the 21st century, become less a secret society and more of a "society with secrets".[19] The private aspects of modern Freemasonry are the modes of recognition amongst members and particular elements within the ritual.[20] For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... As Thought Process During the process of thinking, recognition occurs when some event, process, pattern, or object recurs. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...


Ritual, symbolism, and morality

Masons conduct their meetings using a ritualised format. There is no single Masonic ritual, and each Jurisdiction is free to set (or not set) its own ritual. However, there are similarities that exist among Jurisdictions. For example, all Masonic ritual makes use of the architectural symbolism of the tools of the medieval operative stonemason. Freemasons, as speculative masons (meaning philosophical building rather than actual building), use this symbolism to teach moral and ethical lessons of the principles of "Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth" — or as related in France: "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity".[7] This article is about building architecture. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for Liberty, equality, fraternity (brotherhood), [1] is the motto of the French Republic, and is a typical example of a tripartite motto. ...


Two of the principal symbols always found in a Lodge are the square and compasses. Some Lodges and rituals explain these symbols as lessons in conduct: for example, that Masons should "square their actions by the square of virtue" and to learn to "circumscribe their desires and keep their passions within due bounds toward all mankind". However, as Freemasonry is non-dogmatic, there is no general interpretation for these symbols (or any Masonic symbol) that is used by Freemasonry as a whole.[21] Steel square The steel square is a tool that carpenters and other tradesmen use. ... a compass In drafting, a compass (or pair of compasses) is an instrument]] used by mathematicians and craftsmen in for drawing or inscribing a circle or arc. ...


These moral lessons are communicated in performance of allegorical ritual. A candidate progresses through degrees[17] gaining knowledge and understanding of himself, his relationship with others and his relationship with the Supreme Being (as per his own interpretation). While the philosophical aspects of Freemasonry tend to be discussed in Lodges of Instruction or Research, and sometimes informal groups, Freemasons, and others, frequently publish — to varying degrees of competence — studies that are available to the public. Any mason may speculate on the symbols and purpose of Freemasonry, and indeed all masons are required to some extent to speculate on masonic meaning as a condition of advancing through the degrees. It is well noted, however, that no one person "speaks" for the whole of Freemasonry.[22]


The Volume of the Sacred Law is always displayed in an open Lodge. In English-speaking countries, this is frequently the King James Version of the Bible or another standard translation; there is no such thing as an exclusive "Masonic Bible".[23] In many French Lodges, the Masonic Constitutions are used instead. Furthermore, a candidate is given his choice of religious text for his Obligation, according to his beliefs. UGLE alludes to similarities to legal practice in the UK, and to a common source with other oath taking processes.[24][25][26][27] In Lodges with a membership of mixed religions it is common to find more than one sacred text displayed. The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ...


In keeping with the geometrical and architectural theme of Freemasonry, the Supreme Being is referred to in Masonic ritual by the titles of the Great Architect of the Universe, Grand Geometrician or similar, to make clear that the reference is generic, and not tied to a particular religion's conception of God.[28] Great Architect of the Universe (GAOTU) is a term used within Freemasonry to denominate the Supreme Being which each member individually holds an adherence to. ...


Degrees

The three degrees of Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry are those of:

  1. Entered Apprentice — the degree of an Initiate, which makes one a Mason;
  2. Fellow Craft — an intermediate degree, involved with learning;
  3. Master Mason — the "third degree", a necessity for participation in most aspects of Masonry.

The degrees represent stages of personal development. No Freemason is told that there is only one meaning to the allegories; as a Freemason works through the degrees and studies their lessons, he interprets them for himself, his personal interpretation being bounded only by the Constitution within which he works.[23] A common symbolic structure and universal archetypes provide a means for each Freemason to come to his own answers to life's important philosophical questions.


As previously stated, there is no degree of Craft Freemasonry higher than that of Master Mason.[17] Although some Masonic bodies and orders have further degrees named with higher numbers, these degrees may be considered to be supplements to the Master Mason degree rather than promotions from it.[18] An example is the Scottish Rite, conferring degrees numbered from 4° up to 33°.[29] It is essential to be a Master Mason in order to qualify for these further degrees. They are administered on a parallel system to Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry; within each organisation there is a system of offices, which confer rank within that degree or order alone. It has been suggested that Knight Kadosh be merged into this article or section. ...


In some jurisdictions, especially those in continental Europe, Freemasons working through the degrees may be asked to prepare papers on related philosophical topics, and present these papers in open Lodge. There is an enormous bibliography of Masonic papers, magazines and publications ranging from fanciful abstractions which construct spiritual and moral lessons of varying value, through practical handbooks on organisation, management and ritual performance, to serious historical and philosophical papers entitled to academic respect.


Signs, grips and words

Freemasons use signs (gestures), grips or tokens (handshakes) and words to gain admission to meetings and identify legitimate visitors.


From the early 18th century onwards, many exposés have been written claiming to reveal these signs, grips and passwords to the uninitiated. However, as Masonic scholar Christopher Hodapp states, since each Grand Lodge is free to create its own rituals,[21] the signs, grips and passwords can and do differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.[7] Furthermore, historian John J. Robinson states that Grand Lodges can and do change their rituals frequently, updating the language used, adding or omitting sections.[30] Therefore, any exposé is only valid for a particular jurisdiction at a particular time. Today, an unknown visitor is usually required to produce a dues card or other documentation of membership in addition to demonstrating knowledge of the signs, grips and passwords.


Obligations

Obligations are those elements of ritual in which a candidate swears to abide by the rules of the fraternity and to keep the "secrets of Freemasonry", which are the various signs, tokens and words associated with recognition in each degree,[20] as well as to perform certain duties and to avoid doing those things which are prohibited by his Obligation. In regular jurisdictions these obligations are sworn on the aforementioned Volume of the Sacred Law and in the witness of the Supreme Being and often with assurance that it is of the candidate's own free will.


Details of the obligations vary; some versions are published[20] while others are privately printed in books of coded text. Still other jurisdictions rely on oral transmission of ritual, and thus have no ritual books at all.[31] Moreover, not all printed rituals are authentic — Leo Taxil's exposure, for example, is a proven hoax, while Duncan's Masonic Monitor (created, in part, by merging elements of several rituals then in use) was never adopted by any regular jurisdiction.


The obligations are historically known amongst various sources critical of Freemasonry for their so-called "bloody penalties",[32] an allusion to the apparent physical penalties associated with each degree. This leads to some descriptions of the Obligations as "Oaths". The corresponding text, with regard to the penalties, does not appear in authoritative, endorsed sources,[20] following a decision "that all references to physical penalties be omitted from the obligations taken by Candidates in the three Degrees and by a Master Elect at his Installation but retained elsewhere in the respective ceremonies".[33] The penalties are interpreted symbolically, and are not applied in actuality by a Lodge or by any other body of Masonry. The descriptive nature of the penalties alludes to how the candidate should feel about himself should he knowingly violate his obligation.[34] Modern penalties may include suspension, expulsion or reprimand.


Whilst no single obligation is representative of Freemasonry as a whole, a number of common themes appear when considering a range of potential texts. Content which may appear in at least one of the three obligations includes: the candidate promises to act in a manner befitting a member of civilised society, promises to obey the law of his Supreme Being, promises to obey the law of his sovereign state, promises to attend his lodge if he is able, promises not to wrong, cheat nor defraud the Lodge or the brethren, and promises aid or charity to brethren and their families in times of need if it can be done without causing financial harm to himself.[20][35][36]


Landmarks

Main article: Masonic Landmarks

The Landmarks of Masonry are defined as ancient and unchangeable precepts; standards by which the regularity of Lodges and Grand Lodges are judged. Each Grand Lodge is self-governing and no single authority exists over the whole of Freemasonry. The interpretation of these principles therefore can and does vary, leading to controversies of recognition. Masonic Landmarks are a set of principles which many Freemasons claim to be both ancient and unchangeable precepts of Masonry. Issues of the regularity of a Freemasonic Lodge, Grand Lodge or Grand Orient are judged in the context of the Landmarks. ...


The concept of Masonic Landmarks appears in Masonic regulations as early as 1723, and seem to be adopted from the regulations of operative masonic guilds. In 1858, Albert G. Mackey attempted to set down 25 Landmarks.[37] In 1863, George Oliver published a Freemason's Treasury in which he listed 40 Landmarks. A number of American Grand Lodges have attempted the task of enumerating the Landmarks; numbers differing from West Virginia (7) and New Jersey (10) to Nevada (39) and Kentucky (54).[38] Albert Gallatin Mackey (born March 12, 1807, died June 20, 1881), was an American medical doctor, and is best known for his authorship of many books and articles about freemasonry, particularly Masonic Landmarks. ...


Charitable effort

The fraternity is widely involved in charity and community service activities. In contemporary times, money is collected only from the membership, and is to be devoted to charitable purposes. Freemasonry worldwide disburses substantial charitable amounts to non-Masonic charities, locally, nationally and internationally. In earlier centuries, however, charitable funds were collected more on the basis of a Provident or Friendly Society, and there were elaborate regulations to determine a petitioner's eligibility for consideration for charity, according to strictly Masonic criteria. A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society or fraternal organization) is a mutual association for insurance-like purposes, and often, especially in the past, serving ceremonial and friendship purposes also. ...


Some examples of Masonic charities include:

  • Homes[39] that provide sheltered housing or nursing care.
  • Education with both educational grants[40] or residential education[41] which are open to all and not limited to the families of Freemasons.
  • Medical assistance.[42]
  • Masonic Child Identification Programs (CHIP)

The Royal Masonic School for girls is an independent school in Rickmansworth, England with both day and boarding pupils. ... This box:      Masonic Child Identification Programs (CHIP) are a charitable initiative by North American Freemasonry lodges to aid in the identification and recovery of missing children. ...

Membership requirements

Freemasonry initiation. 18th century
Freemasonry initiation. 18th century

A candidate for Freemasonry must petition a lodge in his community, obtaining an introduction by asking an existing member, who then becomes the candidate's proposer. In some jurisdictions, it is required that the petitioner ask three times, however this is becoming less prevalent.[43] In other jurisdictions, more open advertising is utilised to inform potential candidates where to go for more information. Regardless of how a potential candidate receives his introduction to a Lodge, he must be freely elected by secret ballot in open Lodge. Members approving his candidacy will vote with "white balls" in the voting box. Adverse votes by "black balls" will exclude a candidate. The number of adverse votes necessary to reject a candidate, which in some jurisdictions is as few as one, is set out in the governing Constitution of the presiding Grand Lodge. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x594, 472 KB) Initiation eines Suchenden in die Freimaurerei Stich von Ende des 18. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x594, 472 KB) Initiation eines Suchenden in die Freimaurerei Stich von Ende des 18. ...


General requirements

Generally, to be a regular Freemason, a candidate must:[17]

  • Be a man who comes of his own free will.
  • Believe in a Supreme Being. (The form of which is left to open interpretation by the candidate)
  • Be at least the minimum age (18–25 years old depending on the jurisdiction).
  • Be of sound mind and body (Lodges do not deny membership to a man because of a physical disability; this is largely a historical holdover, and if a potential candidate says there will be no problem, he will be taken at his word).
  • Be of good morals, and of good reputation.
  • Be free-born (or "born free", i.e. not born a slave or bondsman).[44] As with the previous, this is entirely an historical anachronism, and can be interpreted in the same manner as it is in the context of being entitled to write a will. Some jurisdictions have removed this requirement.
  • Have character references, as well as one or two references from current Masons, depending on jurisdiction.

Deviation from one or more of these requirements is generally the barometer of Masonic regularity or irregularity. However, an accepted deviation in some regular jurisdictions is to allow a Lewis (the son of a Mason),[45] to be initiated earlier than the normal minimum age for that jurisdiction, although no earlier than the age of 18. Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... Slave redirects here. ... Serf redirects here. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ...


Some Grand Lodges in the United States have an additional residence requirement, candidates being expected to have lived within the jurisdiction for certain period of time, typically six months.[46]


Membership and religion

Freemasonry explicitly and openly states that it is neither a religion nor a substitute for one. "There is no separate Masonic God", nor a separate proper name for a deity in any branch of Freemasonry.[47][48]


Regular Freemasonry requires that its candidates believe in a Supreme Being, but the interpretation of the term is subject to the conscience of the candidate. This means that men from a wide range of faiths, including (but not limited to) Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Hinduism can and have become Masons. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Since the early 19th century, in the irregular Continental European tradition (meaning irregular to those Grand Lodges in amity with the United Grand Lodge of England), a very broad interpretation has been given to a (non-dogmatic) Supreme Being; in the tradition of Baruch Spinoza and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe — or views of The Ultimate Cosmic Oneness — along with Western atheistic idealism and agnosticism. Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Basque: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Goethe redirects here. ... The Ultimate is a general term embracing the concept of an ultimate supernatural reality which transcends material reality and from which, according to a broad spectrum of Eastern philosophies and religions, material reality derives. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ...


Freemasonry in Scandinavia, known as the Swedish Rite, on the other hand, accepts only Christians.[7] Some of the appendant bodies (or portions thereof) in some jurisdictions also have religious requirements, but have no restrictions at the lodge level. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Swedish Rite is a variation of Freemasonry that is worked in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. ...


On October 2007 a Californian court ruled that Freemasonry may rank with Christianity, Judaism and Islam as an official form of "religious exercise."[49] October 2007 is the tenth month of that year. ...


Opposition to and criticism of Freemasonry

Main article: Anti-Masonry
See also: Masonic conspiracy theories

Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as "Avowed opposition to Freemasonry".[50] However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. Anti-Masonry consists of radically differing criticisms from sometimes incompatible groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form. They include religious groups, political groups, and conspiracy theorists. Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as Avowed opposition to Freemasonry.[1] However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. ... Detail from the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States found on the $1 bill - claimed to read M-A-S-O-N, although it can just as easily be read as monas, ASNOM or any other of the 120 possible combinations. ...


There have been many disclosures and exposés dating as far back as the eighteenth century. These often lack context,[51] may be outdated for various reasons,[30] or could be outright hoaxes on the part of the author, as in the case of the Taxil hoax.[52] A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... Poster advertising the work of Leo Taxil. ...


These hoaxes and exposures have often become the basis for criticism of Masonry, usually religious (mainly Roman Catholic and evangelical Christian) or political (usually Socialist or Communist dictatorial objections, but also the historical Anti-Masonic Party in the United States) in nature. The political opposition that arose after the "Morgan Affair" in 1826 gave rise to the term "Anti-Masonry", which is still in use today, both by Masons in referring to their critics and as a self-descriptor by the critics themselves. The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... William Morgan (c. ... Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as Avowed opposition to Freemasonry.[1] However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. ...


Religious opposition

Freemasonry has attracted criticism from theocratic states and organised religions for supposed competition with religion, or supposed heterodoxy within the Fraternity itself, and has long been the target of conspiracy theories, which see it as an occult and evil power. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Heterodoxy includes any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position.[1] As an adjective, heterodox is used to describe a subject as characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards (status quo). ... Detail from the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States found on the $1 bill - claimed to read M-A-S-O-N, although it can just as easily be read as monas, ASNOM or any other of the 120 possible combinations. ... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ...


Christian anti-Masonry

Although members of various faiths cite objections, certain Christian denominations have had high profile negative attitudes to Masonry, banning or discouraging their members from being Freemasons. This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia This box:      Christianity and Freemasonry have had a mixed relationship, with various Christian denominations banning or discouraging members from being Freemasons. ... This box:      This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Roman Catholic Church has long been an outspoken critic of Freemasonry, and has continually prohibited members from being Freemasons since In Eminenti Secula in 1739. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see denomination. ...


The denomination with the longest history of objection to Freemasonry is the Catholic Church. The objections raised by the Catholic Church are based on the allegation that Masonry teaches a naturalistic deistic religion which is in conflict with Church doctrine.[53] A number of Papal pronouncements have been issued against Freemasonry. The first was Pope Clement XII's In Eminenti, April 28, 1738; the most recent was Pope Leo XIII's Ab Apostolici, October 15, 1890. The 1917 Code of Canon Law explicitly declared that joining Freemasonry entailed automatic excommunication.[54] The 1917 Code of Canon Law also forbade books friendly to Freemasonry. Historical and modern deism (from Latin: deus) is defined by the view that reason and logic, rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Clement XII, born as Lorenzo Corsini (Florence, April 7, 1652 – Rome, February 6, 1740), Pope from 1730 to 1740, had been an aristocratic lawyer and financial manager under preceding pontiffs. ... In eminenti apostolatus specula was a Papal Bull issued by Pope Clement XII on 28 April 1738, banning Catholics from becoming Freemasons. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest pontificate... Ab Apostolici was a Papal Encyclical promulgated by Leo XIII on 15 October 1890. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


In 1983, the Church issued a new Code of Canon Law. Unlike its predecessor, it did not explicitly name Masonic orders among the secret societies it condemns. It states in part: "A person who joins an association which plots against the Church is to be punished with a just penalty; one who promotes or takes office in such an association is to be punished with an interdict." This omission caused both Catholics and Freemasons to believe that the ban on Catholics becoming Freemasons may have been lifted, especially after the perceived liberalisation of Vatican II.[55] However, the matter was clarified when Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), as the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, issued Quaesitum est, which states: "...the Church’s negative judgment in regard to Masonic association remains unchanged since their principles have always been considered irreconcilable with the doctrine of the Church and therefore membership in them remains forbidden. The faithful who enroll in Masonic associations are in a state of grave sin and may not receive Holy Communion." Thus, from a Catholic perspective, there is still a ban on Catholics joining Masonic Lodges. For its part, Freemasonry has never objected to Catholics joining their fraternity. Those Grand Lodges in amity with UGLE deny the Church's claims and state that they explicitly adhere to the principle that "Freemasonry is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion."[47] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... A secret society is a social organization that requires its members to conceal certain activities—such as rites of initiation or club ceremonies—from outsiders. ... For other meanings see Interdict The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... This is a Roman Catholic Declaration on Masonic Associations. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ...


In contrast to Catholic allegations of rationalism and naturalism, Protestant objections are more likely to be based on allegations of mysticism, occultism, and even Satanism.[56] Masonic scholar Albert Pike is often quoted (in some cases misquoted) by Protestant anti-Masons as an authority for the position of Masonry on these issues. However, Pike, although undoubtedly learned, was not a spokesman for Freemasonry and was controversial among Freemasons in general, representing his personal opinion only, and furthermore an opinion grounded in the attitudes and understandings of late 19th century Southern Freemasonry of the USA alone. Indeed his book carries in the preface a form of disclaimer from his own Grand Lodge. No one voice has ever spoken for the whole of Freemasonry.[57] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Satanism can refer to a number of belief systems depending on the user and contexts. ... Albert Pike (b. ...


Since the founding of Freemasonry, many Bishops of the Church of England have been Freemasons, such as Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher.[58] In the past, few members of the Church of England would have seen any incongruity in concurrently adhering to Anglican Christianity and practicing Freemasonry. In recent decades, however, reservations about Freemasonry have increased within Anglicanism, perhaps due to the increasing prominence of the evangelical wing of the church. The current Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, appears to harbour some reservations about Masonic ritual, whilst being anxious to avoid causing offence to Freemasons inside and outside the Church of England. In 2003 he felt it necessary to apologise to British Freemasons after he said that their beliefs were incompatible with Christianity and that he had barred the appointment of Freemasons to senior posts in his diocese when he was Bishop of Monmouth.[59] The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Fisher presided at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II Geoffrey Francis Fisher, Baron Fisher of Lambeth GCVO (May 5, 1887 – September 15, 1972) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1945 to 1961. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ...


Regular Freemasonry has traditionally not responded to these claims, beyond the often repeated statement that those Grand Lodges in amity with UGLE explicitly adhere to the principle that "Freemasonry is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion. There is no separate 'Masonic deity', and there is no separate proper name for a deity in Freemasonry".[47] In recent years, however, this has begun to change. Many Masonic websites and publications now address these criticisms specifically.


Lutherans, in particular the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, have traditionally and continue to oppose Freemasonry. Some congregations go so far as to have members pledge, at the time of their confirmation, that they are not and will never be members of Freemasonry.


Muslim anti-Masonry

Many Islamic anti-Masonic arguments are closely tied with Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism, though other criticisms are made such as linking Freemasonry to Dajjal.[60] Some Muslim anti-Masons argue that Freemasonry promotes the interests of the Jews around the world and that one of its aims is to rebuild the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem after destroying the Al-Aqsa Mosque.[61] In article 28 of its Covenant, Hamas states that Freemasonry, Rotary, and other similar groups "work in the interest of Zionism and according to its instructions…."[62] Many Islamic countries do not allow Masonic establishments within their jurisdictions. However, countries such as Turkey, Malaysia, Morocco, Lebanon, Iraq and Egypt have established Grand Lodges.[63] Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine[1][2] Anti-Zionism takes many forms, ranging from political or religious opposition to the idea of a Jewish state, to rejecting Israels right to exist and the legitimacy... al-Dajjal sometimes spelled Dajal, (Arabic: الدّجّال, al-dajjāl) (The Deceiver/impostor), also known as the false Messiah (see also: Antichrist) is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology, who will appear before Yawm al-Qiyamah (The Day of Resurrection, Judgement Day). ... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Islamic militant organization and political party. ... Rotary International is an organization of service clubs known as Rotary Clubs located all over the world. ...


Political opposition

See also: Anti-Masonry, Freemasonry under authoritarian regimes, and Anti-Masonry#Iraqi Baathist Anti-Masonry

Regular Freemasonry has in its core ritual a formal obligation: to be quiet and peaceable citizens, true to the lawful government of the country in which they live, and not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion.[23] A Freemason makes a further obligation, before being made Master of his Lodge, to pay a proper respect to the civil magistrates.[23] The words may be varied across Grand Lodges, but the sense in the obligation taken is always there. Nevertheless, much of the political opposition to Freemasonry is based upon the idea that Masonry will foment (or sometimes prevent) rebellion. Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as Avowed opposition to Freemasonry.[1] However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. ... This box:      Many authoritarian, and virtually all totalitarian, regimes have treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition due to its secret nature and international connections. ... Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as Avowed opposition to Freemasonry.[1] However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ...


Conspiracy theorists have long associated Freemasonry with the New World Order and the Illuminati, and state that Freemasonry as an organisation is either bent on world domination or already secretly in control of world politics. Historically, Freemasonry has attracted criticism - and suppression - from both the politically extreme right (e.g. Nazi Germany)[64][65] and the extreme left (e.g. the former Communist states in Eastern Europe). The Fraternity has encountered both applause for supposedly founding, and opposition for supposedly thwarting, liberal democracy (such as the United States of America).[citation needed] A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... One World Government redirects here. ... For other uses, see Illuminati (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ...


In some countries anti-Masonry is often related to anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism. For example, In 1980, the Iraqi legal and penal code was changed by Saddam Hussein's ruling Ba'ath Party, making it a felony to "promote or acclaim Zionist principles, including Freemasonry, or who associate [themselves] with Zionist organisations."[66] Professor Andrew Prescott, of the University of Sheffield, writes: "Since at least the time of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, anti-semitism has gone hand in hand with anti-masonry, so it is not surprising that allegations that 11 September was a Zionist plot have been accompanied by suggestions that the attacks were inspired by a masonic world order."[67] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine[1][2] Anti-Zionism takes many forms, ranging from political or religious opposition to the idea of a Jewish state, to rejecting Israels right to exist and the legitimacy... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... For the 2005 documentary film by Marc Levin, see Protocols of Zion (film). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


In 1799 English Freemasonry almost came to a halt due to Parliamentary proclamation. In the wake of the French Revolution, the Unlawful Societies Act, 1799 banned any meetings of groups that required their members to take an oath or obligation.[68] The Grand Masters of both the Moderns and the Antients Grand Lodges called on the Prime Minister William Pitt, (who was not a Freemason) and explained to him that Freemasonry was a supporter of the law and lawfully constituted authority and was much involved in charitable work. As a result Freemasonry was specifically exempted from the terms of the Act, provided that each Private Lodge's Secretary placed with the local "Clerk of the Peace" a list of the members of his Lodge once a year.[68] This continued until 1967 when the obligation of the provision was rescinded by Parliament.[68] The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Freemasonry in the United States faced political pressure following the disappearance of William Morgan in 1826. Reports of the "Morgan Affair", together with opposition to Jacksonian democracy (Jackson was a prominent Mason) helped fuel an Anti-Masonic movement, culminating in the formation of a short lived Anti-Masonic Party which fielded candidates for the Presidential elections of 1828 and 1832. William Morgan (c. ... Jacksonian democracy refers to the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his followers in the new Democratic Party. ...


Even in modern democracies, Freemasonry is still sometimes accused of being a network where individuals engage in cronyism, using their Masonic connections for political influence and shady business dealings. This is officially and explicitly deplored in Freemasonry.[23] It is also charged that men become Freemasons through patronage or that they are offered incentives to join. This is not the case; no one lodge member may control membership in the lodge and in order to start the process of becoming a Freemason, an individual must ask to join the Fraternity "freely and without persuasion."[23] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... ...


In Italy, Freemasonry has become linked to a scandal concerning the Propaganda Due Lodge (aka P2). This Lodge was Chartered by the Grande Oriente d'Italia in 1877, as a Lodge for visiting Masons unable to attend their own lodges. Under Licio Gelli’s leadership, in the late 1970s, the P2 Lodge became involved in the financial scandals that nearly bankrupted the Vatican Bank. However, by this time the lodge was operating independently and irregularly; as the Grand Lodge d'Italia had revoked its charter in 1976.[69] By 1982 the scandal became public knowledge and Gelli was formally expelled from Freemasonry. This box:      Propaganda Due or P2 was an irregular or black Masonic lodge that operated in Italy from 1877-1981, headed in its final decades by Licio Gelli. ... The Grande Oriente dItalia or Grand Orient of Italy (GOI) is based at Palazzo Giustiniani, Rome. ... The Vatican Bank is a common name given to the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR) or Institute for Religious Works, the central bank for the Roman Catholic Church located in Vatican City. ...


Holocaust

Forget-me-not
Main article: Holocaust
See also: Freemasonry under authoritarian regimes and Liberté chérie (Freemasonry)

The preserved records of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (the Reich Security Main Office) show the persecution of Freemasons.[70] RSHA Amt VII (Written Records) was overseen by Professor Franz Six and was responsible for "ideological" tasks, by which was meant the creation of anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic propaganda. While the number is not accurately known, it is estimated that between 80,000 and 200,000 Freemasons were killed under the Nazi regime.[7] Masonic concentration camp inmates were graded as political prisoners and wore an inverted red triangle.[71] Image File history File links Forgetmenotflower. ... Image File history File links Forgetmenotflower. ... Species about 50 The Forget-me-nots are the genus Myosotis of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... This box:      Many authoritarian, and virtually all totalitarian, regimes have treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition due to its secret nature and international connections. ... Memorial of the KZ Esterwegen close-up Liberté chérie was the only known Masonic Lodge to be founded in a Nazi concentration camp during the Second World War. ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ... Franz Six Dr. Franz Alfred Six (August 12, 1909 in Mannheim - July 9, 1975 in Bolzano) first rose to prominence as dean of the faculty of Economics of the University of Berlin. ... Nacht und Nebel (German for Night and Fog) was a directive (German: ) of Adolf Hitler on December 7, 1941 signed and implemented by Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces Wilhelm Keitel, resulting in kidnapping and disappearance of many political activists throughout Nazi Germanys occupied territories. ... A contemporary table of badges worn in the Dachau concentration camp (see also translation of table below) Nazi concentration camp badges, primarily triangles, were part of the system of Identification in Nazi camps. ...


The small blue forget-me-not flower was first used by the Grand Lodge Zur Sonne, in 1926, as a Masonic emblem at the annual convention in Bremen, Germany. In 1938 the forget-me-not badge – made by the same factory as the Masonic badge – was chosen for the annual Nazi Party Winterhilfswerk, a Nazi charitable organisation which collected money so that other state funds could be freed up and used for rearmament. This coincidence enabled Freemasons to wear the forget-me-not badge as a secret sign of membership.[72][73][74] Species about 50 The Forget-me-nots are the genus Myosotis of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... The Winterhilfswerk (WHW) was a Nazi charity program with the slogan None shall starve nor freeze. It was designed to provide food and fuel to indigent Germans, and of course it was an excellent propaganda opportunity. ...


After World War II, the forget-me-not[75] flower was again used as a Masonic emblem at the first Annual Convention of the United Grand Lodges of Germany in 1948. The badge is now worn in the coat lapel by Freemasons around the world to remember all those that have suffered in the name of Freemasonry, especially those during the Nazi era.[75][76] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Women and Freemasonry

Main articles: Women and Freemasonry and Co-Freemasonry

Freemasonry is sometimes criticised for not admitting women as members.[citation needed] Since the adoption of Anderson's constitution in 1723, it has been accepted as fact by regular Masons that only men can be made Masons. Most Grand Lodges do not admit women because they believe it would violate the ancient Landmarks. While a few women were initiated into speculative lodges prior to 1723, and on the continent after that date, officially regular Freemasonry remains exclusive to men. The subject of women and Freemasonry is complex and without an easy explanation. ... The Square and Compasses. ...


While women cannot join regular lodges, there are (mainly within the borders of the United States) many female orders associated with regular Freemasonry and its appendant bodies, such as the Order of the Eastern Star, the Order of the Amaranth, the White Shrine of Jerusalem, the Social Order of Beauceant and the Daughters of the Nile. These have their own rituals and traditions, but are founded on the Masonic model. General Grand Chapter logo The Order of the Eastern Star is the largest fraternal organization in the world that both men and women can join. ... The Order of the Amaranth is a fraternal organization composed of Master Masons and their properly qualified female relatives. ...


In addition, there are many non-mainstream Masonic bodies that do admit both men and women or exclusively women. Co-Freemasonry admits both men and women, but it is held to be irregular because it admits women. The systematic admission of women into International Co-Freemasonry began in France in 1882. In more recent times, women have created and maintained separate Lodges, working the same rituals as the all male regular lodges. These Female Masons have founded lodges around the world, and these Lodges continue to gain membership. The Square and Compasses. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up Freemasonry in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This box:      The relationship between Freemasonry and the Latter Day Saint movement began early in the history of Mormonism. ... Hiram Abiff is an allegorical figure mentioned in Masonic ritual, who is figuratively the master of the construction of King Solomons Temple. ... Humanum Genus (on Freemasonry) was a papal encyclical promulgated on April 20, 1884 by Pope Leo XIII. // It starts by using the Augustinian concept of the two cities, the City of Man and the City of God. ... This box:      The International Order of the Rainbow for Girls (IORG) is a Masonic youth service organization which teaches leadership training through community service. ... This box:      Jobs Daughters International is a Masonic sponsored youth organization for girls aged 10 to 20. ... This box:      This is a list of notable Freemasons. ... Masonic Knights Templar is an international philanthropic templar organization and is a part of the York Rite in Freemasonry. ... The pigpen cipher uses graphical symbols assigned according to a key similar to the above diagram. ... Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events which led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African-American, Freemasonic fraternal organization in North America. ... The Shriners, A.A.O.N.M.S. or Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, established in New York City in 1870, is an appendant body to Freemasonry. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Griffin, Mark (2002). Freemasonry and Religion. United Grand Lodge of England. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  2. ^ Gruber, Hermann (1910-10-01). "Masonry (Freemasonry)". The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church IX. Ed. Remy Lafort, Censor. New York: Robert Appleton Company. OCLC 1017058. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  3. ^ Stevenson, David (November 1988). The Origins of Freemasonry: Scotland's Century 1590-1710. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521353267. OCLC 17546610. 
  4. ^ Coil, Henry Wilson (1961). Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia (Revised and Updated by Allen E. Roberts, 1995). Ed. William M. Brown, William L. Cummings, Harold Van Buren Voorhes. Richmond, Va: Macoy Pub. & Masonic Supply Co.. ISBN 9780880530545. 
  5. ^ The Regius Manuscript (English). Franc-Maçonnerie Européenne.
  6. ^ Bullock, Steven C.; Institute of Early American History and Culture (Williamsburg, Va.) (1996). Revolutionary brotherhood: Freemasonry and the transformation of the American social order, 1730-1840. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807847503. OCLC 33334015. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Hodapp, Christopher (September 2005). Freemasons For Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. 9780764597961. OCLC 61302442. 
  8. ^ GLNF: Grande Loge Nationale Francaise (French). Grande Loge Nationale Francaise (GLNF). Retrieved on 2006-02-06.
  9. ^ Constitution. Grand Lodge of North Carolina (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-09. See Preamble.
  10. ^ Form letter to request mutual recognition. Grand Lodge FAAM (Free And Accepted Masons) of Washington, D.C. (the District of Columbia), Committee on Masonic Recognition. Retrieved on 2007-04-09. Example letter to request recognition.
  11. ^ Campbell, Donald G.; Committee on Ritual. "The Master Mason; Irregular and Clandestine Lodges", Handbook for Candidate's Coaches (excerpt), Grand Lodge F.&A.M. of California. “The solution of the problem [of irregular Masonry] lies in the publication furnished every California lodge. Entitled "List of Regular Lodges Masonic", it is issued by the Grand Lodge of California to its constituent lodges, with the admonition that this book is to be kept in each lodge for reference in receiving visitors and on applications for affiliation. There may well be an old copy which you can use, for it is re-issued every year.” 
  12. ^ Report From The United Grand Lodge of England: Prince Hall Masonry and the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts (Annex A: Regularity). Joseph A. Walkes Jr. Commission on Bogus Masonic Practices, Phylaxis Society (2006-10-03). Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
  13. ^ Bourne, W.J. (1997). The Festive Board (abridged portion). Godolphin Lodge No. 7790. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  14. ^ Mackey, Albert Gallatin (2004). "South", Lexicon of Freemasonry. New York: Barnes & Noble, p. 445. ISBN 0760760039. OCLC 58654158. “...but when [the sun] reaches the south, the hour is high twelve, and we are summoned to refreshment.” 
  15. ^ Johnson, Lawrence (1996). Who is Prince Hall? And other well known Prince Hall Masons. Retrieved on 2005-11-14.
  16. ^ Bessel, Paul M.. Prince Hall Masonry Recognition details: Historical Maps. Retrieved on 2005-11-14.
  17. ^ a b c d e f United Grand Lodge of England [1815] (2005). "Aims and Relationships of the Craft", Constitutions of the Antient Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons (pdf), London: Freemason's Hall, pp. x–xii. OCLC 18976592. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  18. ^ a b Jackson, Keith B. (1980). Beyond the Craft. London: Lewis Masonic. ISBN 9780853181187. OCLC 16542250. 
  19. ^ Freemasonry Revealed: The Secrets of Freemasonry. Grand Lodge of North Carolina (1997). Retrieved on 2006-06-12.
  20. ^ a b c d e Freemasons. Emulation Lodge of Improvement (London, England) (1991). Emulation Ritual. London: Lewis Masonic. ISBN 9780853181873. OCLC 40357899. 
  21. ^ a b Gilkes, Peter (July 2004). "Masonic ritual: Spoilt for choice". Masonic Quarterly Magazine (10). Retrieved on 2007-05-07. 
  22. ^ King, Edward L. (2007). Top Leader speaks. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  23. ^ a b c d e f The United Grand Lodge of England - Home Page. United Grand Lodge of England (2002). Retrieved on 2006-02-23.
  24. ^ UK Government information on Courts system. Criminal Justice System for England and Wales. Retrieved on 2006-03-08.
  25. ^ What promises do Freemasons take?. United Grand Lodge of England (2002). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  26. ^ Jacob, Margaret C. (2005). The origins of freemasonry: facts & fictions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812239010. OCLC 61478025. 
  27. ^ Trueman, Chris. Feudalism. Archived from the original on 2006-04-21. Retrieved on 2006-03-08. “They had to swear an oath of loyalty to William… a sworn oath on the Bible was a very important thing and one which few men would dare to break as it would condemn them to Hell.”
  28. ^ King, Edward L. (2007). GAOTU. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  29. ^ Scottish Rite Freemasonry F.A.Q.. Scottish Rite Freemasonry, Northern Jurisdiction – United States of America. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  30. ^ a b John J. Robinson, A Pilgrim's Path, M. Evans and Co., Inc. New York, p.129
  31. ^ Bessel, Paul M. (2006-11-29). Printed Rituals. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  32. ^ Cassiel Sophia. Masonry. Metareligion. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  33. ^ Freemasons. Emulation Lodge of Improvement. Emulation Ritual, 8th edition, London, England: Lewis Masonic, Preface. Retrieved on 2007-07-08. 
  34. ^ Firestone, Roger (2001-12-01). Difficult Questions About Freemasonry. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  35. ^ Cohoughlyn-Burroughs, Charles E. [1996] (2004). Bristol Masonic Ritual: The Oldest and Most Unique Craft Ritual Used in England. Kila, Mont.: Kessinger. ISBN 9781417915668. OCLC 78368255. 
  36. ^ (1990) Craft Ritual. Privately published. 
  37. ^ Mackey, Albert G. (October 1858). "Landmarks of Freemasonry". American Quarterly Review of Freemasonry and its kindred sciences ii: 230. ISSN 0741-790X. OCLC 1480641. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.  (Transcribed by Eugene Goldman, 10 September 1998.)
  38. ^ Botelho, Michael A. (February 2002). "Masonic Landmarks". The Scottish Rite Journal. ISSN 1076-8572. OCLC 21360724. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  39. ^ Royal Masonic Benevolent Institute. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  40. ^ Royal Masonic Trust for Girls and Boys. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  41. ^ Royal Masonic School for Girls. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  42. ^ New Masonic Samaritan Fund. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  43. ^ (January 2001) "Ill. Ernest Borgnine, 33°, G.C., Receives 50-Year Pin". The Scottish Rite Journal. ISSN 1076-8572. OCLC 21360724. Retrieved on 2006-07-12. “Illustrious Borgnine also told of the difficulties he had in becoming a Mason. He did not know that, at the time, it was necessary to ask three times.” 
  44. ^ Robinson, John J. (1989). Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. New York: Evans, p. 56. ISBN 9780871316028. OCLC 20419501. “…by the late fifteenth century virtually every man in England was free.”  Robinson also states that the presence of the requirement meant that Freemasonry was organisationally much older than the 1717 founding of the Premier Grand Lodge of England.
  45. ^ Falconer, Dan (2003-04-16). Freemasonry: The Lewis. Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  46. ^ Become a Mason: Requirements. Grand Lodge of Illinois, Ancient Free & Accepted Masons. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  47. ^ a b c Is Freemasonry a religion?. United Grand Lodge of England (2002). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  48. ^ Smart, Earnest (April 2005). "Faith and Freemasonry". Masonic Quarterly Magazine (13). Retrieved on 2007-05-07. 
  49. ^ Court Says Freemasons Fall Under Religious Protection Law, Pew Forum, October 9, 2007
  50. ^ "Anti-Masonry". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  51. ^ Morris, S. Brent (2006). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. New York: Alpha Books, p. 85 (also discussed in chapters 13 and 16). ISBN 9781592574902. OCLC 68042376. 
  52. ^ de Hoyos, Arturo; S. Brent Morris (2002-08-18). Leo Taxil Hoax - Bibliography. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Retrieved on 2007-07-07. Lists many books which perpetuate Masonic ritual hoaxes.
  53. ^ Cardinal Law, Bernard (1985-04-19). Letter of April 19, 1985 to U.S. Bishops Concerning Masonry. CatholicCulture.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  54. ^ Canon 2335, 1917 Code of Canon Law from Canon Law regarding Freemasonry, 1917-1983. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon.
  55. ^ McInvale, Reid (1991). "Roman Catholic Church Law Regarding Freemasonry". Transactions of Texas Lodge of Research 27: pp. 86–97. OCLC 47204246. 
  56. ^ Jack Chick. The Curse of Baphomet. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  57. ^ Pike, Albert; T. W. Hugo; Scottish Rite (Masonic order). Supreme Council of the Thirty-Third Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction [1871] (1950). Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Washington, DC: House of the Temple. OCLC 12870276. “In preparing this work [Pike] has been about equally Author and Compiler. (p. iii.) … The teachings of these Readings are not sacramental, so far as they go beyond the realm of Morality into those of other domains of Thought and Truth. The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite uses the word "Dogma" in its true sense of doctrine, or teaching; and is not dogmatic in the odious sense of that term. Everyone is entirely free to reject and dissent from whatsoever herein may seem to him to be untrue or unsound (p. iv)” 
  58. ^ Beresiner, Yasha (July 2006). "Archbishop Fisher – A Godly man and a Brother". Masonic Quarterly Magazine (18). Retrieved on 2007-05-07. 
  59. ^ Hastings, Chris; Elizabeth Day. "Rowan Williams apologises to Freemasons", The Daily Telegraph, 2003-04-20. Retrieved on 2007-07-09. 
  60. ^ Prescott, Andrew. The Study of Freemasonry as a New Academic Discipline (pdf), pp. 13–14. Retrieved on 2006-05-21. 
  61. ^ Can a Muslim be a freemason? (asp). Islamonline.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  62. ^ Hamas Covenant of 1988. Wikisource. Accessed 2 October 2007.
  63. ^ Leyiktez, Celil. "Freemasonry in the Islamic World". Accessed 2 October 2007.
  64. ^ Wilkenson, James; H. Stuart Hughes (1995). Contemporary Europe: A History. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, p. 237. ISBN 9780132918404. OCLC 31009810. 
  65. ^ Zierer, Otto (1976). Concise History of Great Nations: History of Germany. New York: Leon Amiel Publisher, p. 104. ISBN 9780814806739. OCLC 3250405. 
  66. ^ Sands, David R. "Saddam to be formally charged", The Washington Times, 2004-07-01. Retrieved on 2006-06-18. 
  67. ^ Prescott, op. cit., pp. 13-14, 30, 33
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  69. ^ King, Edward L. (2007). P2 Lodge. Retrieved on 2006-10-31.
  70. ^ World War II Documents showing the persecution of Freemasonry. Mill Valley Lodge #356. Retrieved on 2006-05-21.
  71. ^ Katz "Jews and Freemasons in Europe". The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Ed. Israel Gutman. ISBN 9780028971667 OCLC 20594356. 
  72. ^ Das Vergißmeinnicht-Abzeichen und die Freimaurerei, Die wahre Geschichte (German). Internetloge.de. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  73. ^ Bernheim, Alain (2004-09-10). The Blue Forget-Me-Not": Another Side Of The Story. Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  74. ^ Francke, Karl Heinz; Ernst-Günther Geppert (1974). Die Freimaurer-Logen Deutschlands und deren Grosslogen 1737-1972, Second rev. ed. (in German), Bayreuth: Quatuor Coronati. Also in: Francke, Karl Heinz; Ernst-Günther Geppert (1988). Die Freimaurer-Logen Deutschlands und deren Grosslogen 1737 - 1985 : Matrikel und Stammbuch; Nachschlagewerk über 248 Jahre Geschichte der Freimaurerei in Deutschland (in German). Bayreuth: Quatuor Coronati. ISBN 9783925749056. OCLC 75446479. 
  75. ^ a b [http://www.galenlodge.co.uk/forgetmenot.htm Das Vergissmeinnicht The Forget-Me-Not: The True Story Behind This Beloved Emblem of the Craft in Germany]. Galen Lodge, No. 2394 (2001-02-08). Retrieved on 2006-02-06.
  76. ^ About the… Forget-Me-Not. Monitor Lousbury Lodge, No. 522. Retrieved on 2006-03-04.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Christopher L. Hodapp (born 1958 in Cleveland, Ohio) is an American author and filmmaker, noted for his writings about Freemasonry and secret societies. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Albert Gallatin Mackey (born March 12, 1807, died June 20, 1881), was an American medical doctor, and is best known for his authorship of many books and articles about freemasonry, particularly Masonic Landmarks. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Albert Gallatin Mackey (born March 12, 1807, died June 20, 1881), was an American medical doctor, and is best known for his authorship of many books and articles about freemasonry, particularly Masonic Landmarks. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bernard Cardinal Law His Eminence Bernard Francis Cardinal Law, (born November 4, 1931 in Torreon, Mexico) is a former archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States and former Archbishop of Boston until December 13, 2002 when he resigned in disgrace for his role in the Roman Catholic... This article is about the year. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Albert Pike (b. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Washington Times[1] is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Washington, D.C., United States. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Freemasonry article from the 1911 (11th Ed.) Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Web of Hiram at the University of Bradford. A database of donated Masonic material.
  • Masonic Books Online of the St. Louis Scottish Rite.
  • Masonic Books Online of the Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry
  • The Constitutions of the Free-Masons (1734), James Anderson, Benjamin Franklin, Paul Royster. Hosted by the Libraries at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln
  • The Mysteries of Free Masonry, by William Morgan, from Project Gutenberg
  • The United Grand Lodge of England's Library and Museum of Freemasonry, London
  • The Centre for Research into Freemasonry at the University of Sheffield, UK

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Masonry (Freemasonry) (14025 words)
English Freemasonry had no opinions political or religious, and that it did not in the least degree sympathize with the loose opinions and extravagant utterances of part of the Continental Freemasonry, it was very justly and very conclusively checkmated by the Romish Organs with the reply, 'It is idle for you to protest.
In Germany and Austria, Freemasonry during the eighteenth century was a powerful ally of the so-called party, of "Enlightenment" (Aufklaerung), and of Josephinism; in the nineteenth century of the pseudo-Liberal and of the anti-clerical party.
No doubt the claims of Freemasonry in France are highly exaggerated, and such success as they have had is due chiefly to the lowering of the moral tone in private and public life, facilitated by the disunion existing among Catholics and by the serious political blunders which they committed.
Freemasonry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8363 words)
Organisationally, Freemasonry is governed on a geographic basis by independent, Sovereign Grand Lodges which may, or may not, be in a state of mutual recognition.
Freemasonry explicitly and openly states that it is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion.
Freemasonry is a system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbol and in the ritual context employs an ellegorical foundation myth of foundation of the fraternity by the builders of King Solomon’s Temple.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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