FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Freedom Tower
1 World Trade Center
Freedom Tower

Artist's rendering of the Freedom Tower with Midtown Manhattan and the Empire State Building in the background.
Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... Freedom Tower The Freedom Tower is a building in Miami, Florida, that serves as a memorial to Cuban immigration to the United States. ... The Azadi Tower (Persian: , Borj-e Azadi meaning in English: ) (previously known as the Shahyād Āryāmehr Persian: , English: ) is the symbol of Tehran, Iran, and marks the entrance to this large metropolitan city. ... Freedom Tower at night. ... Midtown Manhattan viewed from the World Trade Center. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ...

Information
Location Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States
Status Under construction
Groundbreaking April 27, 2006
Estimated completion 2011 (est.)
Opening 2011 (est.)
Use Office, Dining, Observation
Height
Antenna/Spire 1,776 ft (541.3 m)
Roof 1,368 ft (417 m)
Top floor 1,362 ft (415 m)
Technical details
Floor count 108 floors (82 designated for occupied space)
Floor area 2,600,000 sq ft (242,000 m²)
Companies
Architect David Childs (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill)
Structural
Engineer
WSP Cantor Seinuk
Developer Silverstein Properties, Inc.
Planned rebuilding
of the
World Trade Center
Towers
Freedom Tower (Tower 1)
200 Greenwich Street (Tower 2)
175 Greenwich Street (Tower 3)
150 Greenwich Street (Tower 4)
130 Liberty Street (Tower 5)
7 World Trade Center
Memorial and museum
Reflecting Absence (Memorial)
International Freedom Center
Drawing Center
Transit
Transportation hub

1 World Trade Center,[1] or the Freedom Tower, is the building of the new World Trade Center complex currently under construction in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The tower will be located in the northwest corner of the 16-acre (65,000 m²) World Trade Center site, bound by Vesey, West, Washington and Fulton streets.[2] Construction on below-ground utility relocations, footings, and foundations for the 1,776-foot (541 m) foot Freedom Tower began on April 27, 2006.[3] On December 19, 2006, the first steel columns were installed in the building's foundation. Three other high-rise office buildings plus a residential tower are planned for the site along Greenwich Street, and they will surround the World Trade Center Memorial, which is currently under construction. The area will also be home to a museum, highlighting many of the different aspects of the past and future World Trade Centers. The Freedom Tower is expected to be completed in 2011.[4] This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In general terms, eating is the process of consuming something edible. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... Proposed Freedom Tower 383 Madison at night David M. Childs (born 1941 Princeton, New Jersey) is the Consulting Design Partner at Skidmore, Owings & Merrill who has projects all over the world and now is designing the Freedom Tower in New York. ... Shaklee Terraces, San Francisco, designed in 1982 with a flush aluminum and glass facade and rounded corners. ... WSP Group PLC is a British based multinational company providing management, engineering and consultancy services for the construction industry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... The unofficially named World Trade Center Tower 5 is a proposed building in New York City. ... 7 World Trade Center is a building in New York City located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. ... In August 2006, the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began construction on the Memorial and Museum. ... The International Freedom Center (IFC) was a proposed museum to be located adjacent to the site of Ground Zero at the former Twin Towers in New York City, USA. It was selected in 2004 to comprise a cultural space near to the memorial for victims of the September 11, 2001... The Drawing Center is a museum and educational center located in Lower Manhattan in New York City (USA). ... Late-night and weekend service: The World Trade Center PATH station, originally opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... Woolworth Building, looking south along Broadway Lower Manhattan, from the Brooklyn Bridge, 2005 Rigid airship the USS Akron over Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 The World Trade Center site is the 16 acre (65,000 m²) real estate on which the WTC complex stood in New York until the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... Fulton Street is a busy street located in Lower Manhattan. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In August 2006, the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began construction on the Memorial and Museum. ...

Contents

History

Following the destruction of the World Trade Center towers in the September 11, 2001 attacks, there was much debate regarding the future of the World Trade Center site. Proposals began almost immediately, and by 2002, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which owns the right to develop the site, organized a competition through the newly created Lower Manhattan Development Corporation to determine how to use the land. Public rejection of the first round of designs, the "Preliminary Design Concepts," led to a second, more open competition in December 2002, the "Innovative Design Study," in which a design by Daniel Libeskind was selected. This design went through many revisions,[5] largely because of disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein, who held the lease to the World Trade Center site on September 11, 2001. For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 The World Trade Center site is the 16 acre (65,000 m²) real estate on which the WTC complex stood in New York until the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) was formed after the September 11 attacks to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan and distribute nearly $10 billion in federal funds aimed at rebuilding downtown Manhattan. ... Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... 7 World Trade Center Larry A. Silverstein (born 1932) is an American billionaire real estate investor and operator and the head of Silverstein Properties, a real estate development group. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


A final design for the tower was formally unveiled on June 28, 2006. To satisfy security issues raised by the New York City Police Department a 187-foot (57 m) concrete base was added in April of that year. The final design included plans to clad the base in glass prisms to address criticism that the base looked like a "concrete bunker." Contrasting with Libeskind's plan, the final design tapers the corners of the base outward as they rise. Its designers stated that the tower will be a "monolithic glass structure reflecting the sky and topped by a sculpted antenna." In terms of a completion date, Larry Silverstein stated "By 2012 we should have a completely rebuilt World Trade Center more magnificent, more spectacular than it ever was."[6] On April 26, 2006, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey approved a conceptual framework that enabled foundation construction to begin while a formal agreement was drafted on the following day, the 75th anniversary of the opening of the Empire State Building. Construction began with a formal ceremony that took place when the construction team arrived.[7] It is projected that steel for the building will be visible above ground in 2008, with a topping out in 2010. The building is projected to be ready for occupancy in the first quarter of 2011.[8] is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NYPD redirects here. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ...


Architecture

Many remaining vestiges of the concepts drawn from the 2002 competition have since been discarded. Freedom Tower will now consist of simple symmetries and a more traditional design intended to bear comparison with selected elements of the existing New York skyline. There will now be a central spire drawing from precedents such as the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building (and also visually reminiscent of Tower 1 of the old World Trade Center) rather than an off-center spire intended to echo the Statue of Liberty. The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ...


"Freedom Tower will be a symbol of the entire project, as well as marking the memorial, and it occupies a very important piece of New York City property: the sky. We really wanted our design to be grounded in something that was very real, not just in sculptural sketches. We explored the infrastructural challenges because the proper solution would have to be compelling, not just beautiful. The design does have great sculptural implications, and we fully understand the iconic importance of the tower, but it also has to be a highly efficient building. The discourse about Freedom Tower has often been limited to the symbolic, formal and aesthetic aspects but we recognize that if this building doesn't function well, if people don't want to work and visit there, then we will have failed as architects."[9]


Current design

The Freedom Tower's program includes 2.6 million square feet (241,000 square meters) of office space, as well as an observation deck, world-class restaurants, parking, and broadcast and antennae facilities, all supported by both above and below-ground mechanical infrastructure for the building and its adjacent public spaces. Below-ground tenant parking and storage, shopping and access to the PATH and subway trains and the World Financial Center are also provided. Hoboken- and Newark-bound platform at Exchange Place station in Jersey City. ...


An 80-foot-high (24 m) public lobby topped by a series of mechanical floors form a 200-foot-high (61 m) building base. 69 tenant floors rise above the base to 1,120 feet (341 m) elevation. Mechanical floors, two floors to be occupied by the Metropolitan Television Alliance, restaurants and observation decks culminate in an observation deck and glass parapet that mark 1,362 feet (415 m) and 1,368 feet (417 m) respectively — the heights of the original Twin Towers. A shrouded antenna structure supported by cables, engineered by Schlaich Bergermann & Partner rises to a final height of 1,776 feet (541 m), which is symbolic of the year the Declaration of Independence was signed (July 4, 1776). A mechanical floor, mechanical penthouse, or mechanical level is a floor of a high-rise building that is dedicated to mechanical and electronics equipment. ... A parapet is a barrier at the edge of a roof or structure to prevent persons or vehicles from falling over the edge. ... The world-renowned structural engineering firm of Schlaich Bergermann & Partners, based in Stuttgart, Germany. ... Fourth of July redirects here. ...


The tower rises from a cubic base whose square plan—200 feet by 200 feet—(61 m by 61 m) is almost as wide as the 208 foot (63 m) Twin Towers. The base is clad in more than 2,000 pieces of prismatic glass; each measures 4 feet by 13 feet 4 inches (1.21 m by 4.06 m) with varying depths. It has been designed to draw upon the themes of motion and light; a shimmering glass surface drapes the tower's base and imparts a dynamic fluidity of form whose appearance will reflect its surroundings. Just as the rest of the building, the base will serve as a glowing beacon. Cable-net facades on all four sides of the buildings, again designed by Schlaich Bergermann, measure 60 feet (18 m) high and range in width from 30 feet (9 m) on the east and west sides (for access to the restaurant and observation deck, respectively) to 50 feet (15 m) on the north side and 70 feet (21 m) on the south for primary tenant access, activate the building at street level.[citation needed] The world-renowned structural engineering firm of Schlaich Bergermann & Partners, based in Stuttgart, Germany. ...


As the tower itself rises from this cubic base, its square edges are chamfered back, transforming the square into eight tall isosceles triangles in elevation, or an elongated square antiprism. At its middle, the tower forms a perfect octagon in plan and then culminates in a glass parapet (elevation 1,362 feet (415 m) and 1,368 feet (417 m)) whose plan is a square, rotated 45 degrees from the base. A mast containing an antenna for television broadcasters—designed by a collaboration between SOM, artist Kenneth Snelson (who invented the tensegrity structure), lighting designers and engineers—and secured by a system of cables, rises from a circular support ring, similar to the Statue of Liberty's torch, to a height of 1,776 feet (541 m). The spire will be an intense beam of light that will be lit at night and will likely be visible over a thousand feet (305 m) into the air above the tower. New York City is a suitable place to set such a light pointing towards the sky without complaints of light pollution by astronomers, as the night sky in locations near New York City is already far too bright for serious astronomical observers.[10] In geometry, the Square antiprism is the second in an infinite set of antiprisms formed by an even-numbered sequence of triangle sides closed by two polygon caps. ... Shaklee Terraces, San Francisco, designed in 1982 with a flush aluminum and glass facade and rounded corners. ... Needle Tower by Kenneth Snelson (1968) Needle Tower II by Kenneth Snelson (1969) Kenneth Snelson (born June 29, 1927) is a contemporary sculptor and photographer. ... In mechanics and biomechanics, tensegrity or tensional integrity is a property of objects with components that use tension and compression in a combination that yields strength and resilience beyond the sum of their components. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ...


Other new safety features will include 3-foot (90 cm) thick walls for all stairwells, elevator shafts, risers, and sprinkler systems; extremely wide "emergency stairs"; a dedicated set of stairwells exclusively for the use of firefighters; and biological and chemical filters throughout its ventilation system. The building will no longer be 25 feet (7.6 m) away from West Street—with the redesign and smaller base (the same width and length now as each of the previous towers), Freedom Tower will average 90 feet (27 m) away from the street.[11] At its closest point, West Street will be 65 feet (20 m) away. The windows on the side of the building facing in this direction will be equipped with specially tempered blast-resistant plastic, which will look nearly the same as the glass used in the other sides of the building.


"Ultra-clear" glass, as opposed to reflective or tinted glass, is proposed for the tower's windows. This will benefit internal daylight propagation; however, at this stage it is unclear how the corresponding issue of solar heat gain will be addressed. Although the roof area of any tower is comparatively limited, the building will implement a greywater recycling scheme involving rainwater collection. The robust, redundant steel moment frame, consisting of beams and columns connected by a combination of welding and bolting, resists lateral loads through bending of the frame elements. Paired with a concrete-core shear wall, the moment frame lends substantial rigidity and redundancy to the overall building structure while providing column-free interior spans for maximum flexibility.[citation needed]


Height

The World Trade Center's North Tower featured an occupied floor at 1,355 feet (413 m). Though not occupied by office space, Freedom Tower's observation deck is set to be higher, at about 1,362 feet (415 m).[citation needed] Currently, only the Sears Tower and Taipei 101 have occupied floors higher than Freedom Tower. International Commerce Center, Shanghai World Financial Center, Chicago Spire, and the Burj Dubai will have roofs and floors higher than Freedom Tower's highest roofs and floors. The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. ... Taipei 101 (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Táiběi Yīlíngyī; Wade-Giles: Tai-pei I-ling-i) is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper located in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. ... International Commerce Centre is a 118 story, 484 m (1,588 ft. ... The Shanghai World Financial Center (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Shanghai, China. ... The Chicago Spire is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Chicago, Illinois. ... Burj Dubai (Arabic: ‎ Dubai Tower) is a skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is currently the tallest man-made structure on Earth. ...


If the spire and antenna height (the criteria of two categories of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat) are included, Freedom Tower will stand at 1,776 feet (541 m) (marking the year of the signing of the American Declaration of Independence). Freedom Tower was originally planned to be the tallest building in the world, but will no longer obtain this title, as the Burj Dubai has already broken the record for the tallest building at 2,087 feet (636 m), and it is expected to exceed 2,684 ft (818 m) by the time of its completion in 2009. The Council on Tall buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was founded at Lehigh University in 1969. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... Burj Dubai (Arabic: ‎ Dubai Tower) is a skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is currently the tallest man-made structure on Earth. ...


The Chicago Spire, currently under construction in Chicago, is set to be completed in 2010. It could also be taller than the Freedom Tower. At 150 floors, its roof will top out at 2,000 feet (610 m).[12][13] The height of Freedom Tower will probably not be increased before completion, due to the symbolism of having an exact height of 1,776 feet (541 m). The Chicago Spire is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Chicago, Illinois. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


When completed in 2011, the Freedom Tower will be the third tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, after the Chicago Spire (610 m (2000 ft)) and the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada (553.33 m (1,815.39 ft). The Chicago Spire is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Chicago, Illinois. ... This article is about the CN Tower in Toronto. ...


Even though several buildings throughout the world will be taller than the Freedom Tower, the tower will still most likely obtain the record for tallest office building in the world; no taller all-office buildings are currently proposed, approved, or under construction.


Space allotment

As revealed on June 28, 2006, Freedom Tower will have a top floor denoted as 102, though the total number of floors is 82 (possibly with some uncounted floors). This is because the first office floor of the building atop the tall base will be designated as Floor 20. There are 69 office floors atop the base, ending at Floor 88, above which would be broadcasting space on the 89th and 90th floors. Three stories of mechanical space take up a floor count of 9. Finally, a restaurant will take up Floors 100 and 101, and the observation deck is at Floor 102. Six additional floors of mechanical space exist above to Floor 108.[14] is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Floor breakdown
  • Basement levels 1-6 - Garage/Retail/Transportation
  • Ground floor - Main lobby
  • 1st-19th floors (base) - Podium (not occupied on the base except for lobby)
  • 20th-63rd floors - offices
  • 64th floor - sky lobby
  • 65th-88th floors - offices
  • 89th-90th floors - transmission equipment
  • 91st-100th floors - Mechanical
  • 100th-101st floors - Restaurant
  • 102nd floor - observation deck
  • 103rd-108th floors - mechanical (unoccupied)
  • Top of the building - observation deck two (proposed)[citation needed]

Including basement floors, 1 World Trade Center will have a total of 114 floors. The former World Trade Centers twin towers used sky lobbies, located on the 44th and 78th floors of each tower. ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ... In architecture, a deck is a constructed flat surface capable of supporting weight, similar to a floor but typically constructed outdoors and usually (though not always) connected to a building. ...


Tenants

The State of New York has agreed to a 15 year lease of 415,000 square feet (38,550 square meter) of space in the Freedom Tower, with an option to extend the term of the lease and occupy up to 1,000,000 square feet (92,900 square meter).[15] The General Services Administration (GSA) has agreed to lease over 600,000 square feet (55,700 square meter) of space.[15] In April 2008, the Port Authority announced that it was seeking a bidder to operate an 18,000 square foot observation deck on the tower's 102nd floor.[16] The General Services Administration (GSA) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Construction history

2004 to 2006

The symbolic cornerstone of Freedom Tower was laid down in a ceremony on July 4, 2004[17] and further construction of the tower was stalled until 2006. The cornerstone was temporarily removed from the site on June 23, 2006.[18] The project had been delayed due to acrimonious disputes over money, security and design but the last major issues were resolved on April 26, 2006 with a deal between developer Larry Silverstein and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. During the summer of 2006, test explosives were detonated at the Freedom Tower construction site, testing the use of charges to clear bedrock for the Freedom Tower’s foundation. Three to four controlled explosions per day followed on alternating weekdays for approximately two months after. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ...


2006 to 2007

Freedom Tower Construction as of August 7, 2007
Freedom Tower Construction as of August 7, 2007

On November 18, 2006, 400 cubic yards (306 cubic meters) of concrete were poured on to the foundation of the Freedom Tower carried by as many as 40 trucks. On December 17, 2006, a ceremony was held in Battery Park City, with the public invited to sign a 30 foot (9 m) steel beam.[19] This beam, the first to be installed, was welded on to the Freedom Tower's base on December 19, 2006.[20] On January 9, 2007 a second set of beams was welded to the top of the first set. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Battery Park City is a 90 acre (0. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


February 2007 estimates put the cost for construction of The Freedom Tower at $3 billion, or $1,150 per square foot ($12,380 per square meter).[21] Approximately $1 billion of insurance money recuperated by Silverstein is slated for construction of the Freedom Tower.[21] The State of New York is expected to provide $250 million towards construction costs, and the Port Authority would finance another $1 billion for the Freedom Tower, through bonds.[22] Look up bond in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 2007, Tishman Construction Corporation of New York completed a row of steel columns at the perimeter of the construction site. Two tower crane bases were erected, each base containing a functioning luffing-jib tower crane. By the end of 2007, the tower’s footings and foundations were nearly complete.[23] A tower crane with a pivoted main boom A crane is a tower or derrick equipped with cables and pulleys that is used to lift and lower materials. ...


Current progress in 2008

Freedom Tower Site on March 8, 2008
Freedom Tower Site on March 8, 2008

In January 2008, two construction cranes were placed at the construction site of the Freedom Tower. The tower's concrete core began the same year on the basement floors, but began rising in the first months of 2008. [24] By February 22, 2008, 9,400 tons of the nearly 50,000 tons of steel necessary for the Freedom Tower had been ordered.[25] By March 13, 2008, the steel for the tower had reached 70 feet (21 m) high, 10 feet (3.0 m) below street level.[26][27] From late March through early April, a forty-foot-tall mockup of a section of the tower's wall with 24 windows was tested by Construction Consulting Laboratory West in Ontario, California. The two weeks of testing were done to make sure the all-glass exterior of the tower will be able to withstand earthquakes and extreme weather conditions.[28] Testing also took place on another full-scale mockup in rural New Mexico. Both mockups passed the tests.[29] In the middle of April, a batch of concrete had to be replaced after it failed a stress test April 15.[30] is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


The tower's steel will begin to rise above street level by the end of the North American spring.[24]


Future progress

The steel is expected to be visible at street level by spring 2008.[27] By the end of 2010, the Freedom Tower and Towers 2 and 3 will reach rooftop level with topping out expected by 2011.[27] The opening of the skyscraper is scheduled to occur sometime in 2011 (the 10th anniversary year of the attacks) with the completion of the fifth and final building on the World Trade Center site, World Trade Center Tower 5, occuring in 2012.[27] The unofficially named World Trade Center Tower 5 is a proposed building in New York City. ...


Construction gallery

Controversy

Further information: Controversy surrounding the rebuilding of the World Trade Center

The design of Freedom Tower has generated some controversy due to the limited number of floors in the previous design (82) that were designated for office space and other amenities. The floor limit was imposed by Silverstein, who expressed concern that higher floors would be a liability in a major accident or terrorist attack. In a subsequent redesign, the highest occupiable space became comparable to the World Trade Center. One proposal for Rebuilt Twin Towers, from Triroc. ...


Soon after the destruction of WTC Towers 1 and 2 there was a persistent public demand[31] to rebuild the previous twin towers instead of building a single tower. Ian Simpson Architects designed twin towers but the final Freedom Tower design was more favored by officials. Developer Donald Trump also unveiled a twin design, but he was not affiliated with the official project. Ian Simpson is an English architect and one of the partners of Ian Simpson Architects, established in 1987 with Rachel Haugh. ... Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946 in Queens, New York, New York) is an American business executive, entrepreneur, television and radio personality and author. ...


There have been accusations of cronyism on the part of New York Governor George Pataki, using his influence to get the winning architect's bid picked as a personal favor for a close friend.[32] The chosen name of the "Freedom Tower," attributed to Pataki, has been criticized as Orwellian by a critic for The New York Times.[33][34] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is an American politician who was the 57th Governor of New York serving from January 1995 until January 1, 2007. ... The adjective Orwellian describes the situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being inimical to the welfare of a free-society. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


The first steel column of the tower's foundation, installed on December 19, 2006, featured a large decal of the American flag displayed vertically. Several members of the public noticed that the blue field within the flag was on the upper right side, while the United States Flag Code requires that the blue field must always be presented on the left side of the viewer. The decal was quickly removed and replaced on December 23, with a properly oriented flag.[35] is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: United States Flag Code The United States Flag Code establishes advisory rules for display and care of the American Flag. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The base of the tower (fortified because of security concerns) has also been a source of controversy. A number of critics (notably Derek Murdoch in the National Review) have suggested that it is alienating and dull, and reflects a sense of fear rather than freedom, leading them to dub the project "the Fear Tower."[36][37] Nicolai Ouroussoff, the architecture critic for the New York Times, calls the tower base decorations a "grotesque attempt to disguise its underlying paranoia"[38] National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ...


On April 18, 2008, a homeless man revealed that he found important blueprints about the Freedom Tower in a New York City trash can. The Port Authority called it "a serious security lapse" and has opened an investigation.[39] is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Blueprint (disambiguation). ...


Key people

Larry Silverstein

Main article: Larry Silverstein

Larry Silverstein of Silverstein Properties, the leaseholder and developer of the complex, will retain control of the surrounding buildings, while the Port Authority gets full control of the tower itself. Silverstein signed a 99-year lease for the World Trade Center site in July 2001. Silverstein's insurance payout has been a subject of public discourse, as he maintained that the two planes constituted two separate attacks and sued for an extra $3.5 billion. Silverstein has pledged to support the reconstruction and remains actively involved in most aspects of the redevelopment process. 7 World Trade Center Larry A. Silverstein (born 1932) is an American billionaire real estate investor and operator and the head of Silverstein Properties, a real estate development group. ...


David Childs

Main article: David Childs

One of the developers and World Trade Center leaseholder Larry Silverstein's favorite architects, Childs initially came on board thanks to Silverstein's insistence, and developed a proposal for Freedom Tower in collaboration with Daniel Libeskind, a design which was revised in May 2005 to address security concerns. He is currently the project architect of the new Freedom Tower, and is responsible for overseeing the day-to-day design development from rough inception to final completion. Proposed Freedom Tower 383 Madison at night David M. Childs (born 1941 Princeton, New Jersey) is the Consulting Design Partner at Skidmore, Owings & Merrill who has projects all over the world and now is designing the Freedom Tower in New York. ...


Daniel Libeskind

Main article: Daniel Libeskind

Libeskind won the invitational competition to develop a master plan for the World Trade Center's redevelopment in 2002. He included an initial proposal for the design of Freedom Tower, a building with aerial gardens and windmills with an off center spire. It was also Libeskind who denied a request to place the tower in a more rentable location next to the PATH station and instead placed it a block west because in profile it would line up and resemble the Statue of Liberty. Although these designs have since been changed, his contributions continue to shape the design and development at Ground Zero, as they are revised to meet economic and security realities. Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... The Pile, Manhattan The Pile was the term coined by the rescue workers to describe the tons of wreckage left from the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center. ...


Dan Tishman

Dan Tishman, along with his father John Tishman, builder of the original World Trade Center, is leading the construction management effort for Tishman Realty and Construction, the selected builder for Freedom Tower.


In popular culture

After the Harlem Boys Choir finished singing "America The Beautiful" at WWE WrestleMania XX on March 14, 2004, a computer generated image of the New York City skyline with the Freedom Tower included appeared on screen. The Harlem Boys Choir is a choir in Harlem. ... America the Beautiful is an American patriotic song. ... WrestleMania XX was the twentieth WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view produced by World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Tower appeared in the opening sequence of the New York skyline in the 2005 video game Fahrenheit. However, as there were numerous plans for the tower circulating when the game was published, the portrayal of the tower is not consistent with its final design. Computer and video games redirects here. ... Fahrenheit (known as Indigo Prophecy in the United States and Canada) is a video game that was released in September 2005. ...


The Freedom Tower, in its final design, appears in the 2006 film Click, in scenes that are set in the years 2017 and 2030. However, the tower appears as two towers, rather than as a singular structure, imitating the appearance of the original World Trade Center. Click is a 2006 comedy/drama/fantasy film directed by Frank Coraci and written by Steve Koren and Mark OKeefe. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ...


See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest completed building, is located in Taipei City, Taiwan These are lists of skyscrapers, ranked by: structural height (vertical elevation from the base to the highest architectural or integral structural element of the building). ... The United States is home to many of the worlds tallest skyscrapers. ... New York City has the most skyscrapers in the world with 50 buildings taller than 200 meters and 2 taller than 300 meters. ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ... The Freedom Tower Silver Dollar is a one dollar coin minted under license of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in 2004. ... A vision of the planned Memory Foundations The Memory Foundations is the name given by Daniel Libeskind to his site plan selected by officials as what is to be built on the former World Trade Center site in New York City. ... One proposal for Rebuilt Twin Towers, from Triroc. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... In August 2006, the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began construction on the Memorial and Museum. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 The World Trade Center site is the 16 acre (65,000 m²) real estate on which the WTC complex stood in New York until the September 11, 2001 attacks. ...

References

  1. ^ Freedom Tower: About the Building. Silverstein Properties. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  2. ^ Building Features. wtc.com (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  3. ^ Progress and Setbacks. CBS News.
  4. ^ Freedom Tower. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  5. ^ New York Times: "Freedom Tower's Evolution"
  6. ^ "Architects in New York unveil new Freedom Tower", Reuters, June 29, 2006. 
  7. ^ "Trucks roll to begin Freedom Tower construction", New York Daily News, April 27, 2006. 
  8. ^ Freedom Tower Building Features. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  9. ^ Interview with David Childs (cont'd) Accessed October 12, 2007
  10. ^ http://www.space.com/spacewatch/light_pollution_030321.html | Space.com - "Disappearing Stars" |
  11. ^ Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (June 2005). "SOM Freedom Tower Fact Sheet". Press release.
  12. ^ Shelbourne Development Group, Inc. (2006 December 7). Shelbourne Development Files New Design of The Chicago Spire with the City of Chicago. Press release.
  13. ^ Maxwell, T. (2007, January 15). Tallest tower will be built, developer pledges. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2007-01-18, from http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/custom/newsroom/chi-070115spire,1,1024654.story
  14. ^ "Revised design for Freedom Tower unveiled", New York Times, June 28, 2006. 
  15. ^ a b "Gov. Pataki, Governor Corzine, Mayor Bloomberg Announce Agreements to Occupy Freedom Tower", US States News, September 17, 2006. 
  16. ^ Feiden, Douglas. "Freedom Tower to open observation deck on 102nd floor", Daily News, New York, New York: Mortimer Zuckerman, 10 April 2008. 
  17. ^ Office of the Governor of New York State (July 4, 2004). "Governor Pataki, Governor McGreevey, Mayor Bloomberg Lay Cornerstone for Freedom Tower". Press release.
  18. ^ "Cornerstone of Freedom Tower removed", CBS News, 2006-06-25. 
  19. ^ Chan, Sewell. "Messages of Love and Hope on a Freedom Tower Beam", The New York Times, December 18, 2006. 
  20. ^ "First Freedom Tower Beam Rises At Ground Zero", WCBS-TVV, December 19, 2006. 
  21. ^ a b Nordenson, Guy. "Freedom From Fear", The New York Times, February 16, 2007. 
  22. ^ Bagli, Charles V.. "Spitzer, in Reversal, Is Expected to Approve Freedom Tower, Officials Say", The New York Times, February 13, 2007. 
  23. ^ Port Authority of New York & New Jersey (December 31, 2007). "Statement by Port Authority Regarding Preparation of Towers 3 and 4 Bathtub at WTC Site to Allow Silverstein Properties to Begin Construction in January". Press release.
  24. ^ a b Port Authority of New York & New Jersey (December 31, 2007). "Statement by Port Authority Regarding Preparation of Towers 3 and 4 Bathtub at WTC Site to Allow Silverstein Properties to Begin Construction in January". Press release.
  25. ^ Westfeldt, Amy. "Long Journey of Freedom Tower Steel", Associated Press, February 22, 2008. 
  26. ^ Ritter, Ian. "Silverstein: WTC Still on Track for 2012 Finish", GlobeSt.com, March 13, 2008. 
  27. ^ a b c d Rising from the Pit. WTC.com (March 17, 2008).
  28. ^ Topousis, Tom. "'FREEDOM' RATTLED", New York Post, New York, New York: News Corporation, 1 April 2008. 
  29. ^ Dunlap, David W.. "Replicas of New Tower Endure Nature’s Fury and a Test Blast", New York Times, New York, New York: New York Times Co., 9 April 2008. 
  30. ^ "Weak Concrete Foundation Removed From Freedom Tower", NY1, 2008-04-16. Retrieved on 2008-04-19. 
  31. ^ "Thousands Sign Petition To Rebuild". 
  32. ^ "America's Freedom Tower?", MSNBC, February 17, 2005. 
  33. ^ "A Temple of Contemplation and Conflict", The New York Times, May 20, 2005. 
  34. ^ "Lockdown at Ground Zero", New York Arts, November/December 2005. 
  35. ^ "Freedom Tower Flag Faced Wrong Way", CBS News, December 2006. 
  36. ^ New York Times letters to the editor: Taking the Measure of the New Freedom Tower
  37. ^ Deroy Murdock on World Trade Center on National Review Online
  38. ^ Design Strikes a Defensive Posture - The Green Zone - Freedom Tower - Caltrans District 7 - New York Times
  39. ^ "Report: NYC Freedom Tower plans found in trash", Associated Press, 18 April 2008. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Daily News Building, John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood, architects, rendering by Hugh Ferriss. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... Mort Zuckerman Mortimer Benjamin Mort Zuckerman (born 1937, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is a Jewish American magazine editor, publisher, and real estate billionaire. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... 1211 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue), where News Corporation is based News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS, NYSE: NWSa, ASX: , LSE: NCRA) is an American media conglomerate company and the third worlds largest. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Coordinates: 40°42′46.8″N, 74°0′48.6″W New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... The Beekman Place Tower is an architecturally unique, mixed-use tower that is under construction on Manhattan Island in New York City, New York. ... Goldman Sachs New World Headquarters, under construction in Battery Park City The Goldman Sachs New World Headquarters building is a 740-ft tall, 43-story building under construction in the Battery Park City neighborhood in New York City. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... 80 South Street, also known as Eighty South Street, is a supertall skyscraper approved for construction in New York City. ... The unofficially named World Trade Center Tower 5 is a proposed building in New York City. ... This articles sections 1 to 6. ... Skyline of Midtown Manhattan, as seem from the observation deck of the GE Building This list of tallest buildings in New York City ranks skyscrapers in New York City by height. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... The Aon Center (200 East Randolph Street) is a modern skyscraper in Chicago designed by architect Edward Durell Stone and completed in 1973 as the Standard Oil Building. ... View from above The AT&T Corporate Center is the 4th tallest skyscraper in Chicago and 8th tallest in the United States at 1,007 ft (307 m) with 60 floors. ... The Baiyoke Tower II is the tallest building in Thailand. ... This article is about the Bank of America Plaza in Atlanta. ... The Burj Al Arab (Arabic: برج العرب, Tower of the Arabs) is a luxury hotel in Dubai, United Arab Emirates managed by the Jumeirah Group and built by Said Khalil. ... A screen showing financial news at The Center, an office complex in Central. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ... CITIC Plaza is an 80-story high-rise building or skyscraper built in Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Emirates Office Tower, also referred to as Emirates Tower One is a 54-floor office building along Sheikh Zayed Road in the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. ... Hotel during the day The Emirates Towers Hotel, also referred to as Emirates Tower Two is a 56 floor five-star business hotel in the city of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... The Eureka Tower is a residential building in the Southbank precinct of Melbourne, Australia. ... First Canadian Place is a skyscraper in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... International Finance Centre (abbr. ... The 75-story, 305 m (1000 ft) tall JPMorgan Chase Tower of Houston, Texas, formerly the Texas Commerce Tower, is the tallest building in Texas and one of the tallest structures in the world. ... Jin Mao Building as seen from the Bund The Jin Mao Building is a high-rise building in the Pudong district of Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China. ... Several buildings bear this name, all built by John Hancock Insurance and named after John Hancock. ... Kingdom Centre (Arabic: ) in Riyadh is the tallest skyscraper in Saudi Arabia. ... Menara Telekom Menara Telekom is the headquartes of Telekom Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur. ... A rendering of the New York Times Building The New York Times Building is a skyscraper currently under construction on the west side of Midtown. ... Nina Tower (Chinese: 如心廣場) is a twin tower of 80-storey and 42-storey highrise building under construction in Tsuen Wan, New Territories, Hong Kong. ... The Petronas Twin Towers (also known as the Petronas Towers or Twin Towers), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are the worlds tallest twin buildings. ... For other uses, see Q1. ... The Rose Tower is a 333 metre (1,093 feet), 72-story skyscraper on Sheikh Zayed Road in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. ... Shimao International Plaza is a 333 m 60 storey office tower in Shanghai, China and completed in 2005. ... Shun Hing Square Shun Hing Square (信兴广场) is a tall high-rise building or skyscraper in Shenzhen, China. ... Taipei 101 (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: TáibÄ›i YÄ«língyÄ«; Wade-Giles: Tai-pei I-ling-i) is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper located in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. ... Tuntex Sky Tower at night Lantern Festival at Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Tuntex Sky Tower, or the T & C Tower , 85 SKYTOWER (the Tuntex & Chien-Tai Tower), is a 85-floor skyscraper located in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. ... Two Prudential Plaza is a skyscraper built in Chicago in 1990. ... This article is about the U.S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles. ... The Wells Fargo Bank Plaza, formerly the Allied Bank Plaza and First Interstate Bank Plaza, is located in Downtown Houston, Texas. ... 23 Marina is a residential skyscraper that is currently under construction in Dubai and is being made by the Hiranandani Group based in Mumbai, India. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... The Abraj Al Bait Towers is a building complex under construction in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... The Ahmed Abdul Rahim Al Attar Tower is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai. ... The Al Hamra Tower is a skyscraper currently under construction in downtown Kuwait City, Kuwait. ... The Al Yaquob Tower is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai. ... APIIC Tower (Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Tower) is a 100 plus storeyed,450 m supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Hyderabad ,India. ... Almas Tower (Diamond Tower) is a 365 metre tall skyscraper under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... The Arraya 2 is a skyscraper currently under construction in Kuwait City, Kuwait. ... The Burj al Alam (World Tower in English) is an under construction 108 story, 501m skyscraper in the Business Bay area of Dubai, UAE designed to resemble a crystal flower. ... Burj Dubai (Arabic: ‎ Dubai Tower) is a skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is currently the tallest man-made structure on Earth. ... The Chicago Spire is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Chicago, Illinois. ... China World Trade Center Tower 3 is a 301. ... City Hall and City Duma model on MIPIM exhibition For the historic structure, see Moscow City Hall. ... DAMAC Heights, or formerly Ocean Heights 2, is an approved supertall skyscraper located in the Dubai Marina of Dubai. ... Dubai Towers - Doha is a 445 meter mixed-use skyscraper being constructed in Doha, Qatar. ... Elite Residence is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates in the Dubai Marina district. ... A render of the tower under construction. ... Faros del Panamá is a 95 floor building with a planned height of 346 metres under construction in Panama City, Panama. ... Federation Tower rendering The Federation Tower is a skyscraper complex currently under construction in Moscow, Russia and is designed to be both the tallest building in Europe as well as Europes first supertall building. ... Gate of Kuwait is a skyscraper with 84 floors and a roof height of 320 metres at Kuwait City, Kuwait, whose construction started in 2005. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Guangzhou Twin Towers West Tower is a 432 metre tall skyscraper with 103 floors under construction at Zhujiang Avenue West in Tianhe District at Guangzhou, China. ... International Commerce Centre is a 118 story, 484 m skyscraper under construction in West Kowloon, Hong Kong; as part of the Union Square project built on top of the MTR Kowloon Station. ... JW Marriott International Finance Centre is a highrise building with 77 floors and with a roof height of 377. ... Keangnam Hanoi Lanmark Tower is a skyscraper under construction in Hanoi, Vietnam. ... Mag 218 Tower is a 66 floor residential skyscraper with 534 rooms under construction at Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Marina 101 is a 412 metre tall skyscraper with 101 floors under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Mercury City Tower is a skyscraper currently under contruction in Moscow, Russia. ... The Minsheng Bank Building (also known as Wuhan International Securities Building) is a 331. ... The Northeast Asia Trade Tower is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Incheon, South Korea. ... Ocean One is a 367 metre (1,204 feet) tall supertall skyscraper with 91 floors and 587 rooms under construction at Jomtien Beach in Pattaya, Thailand. ... Ocean Heights is a supertall skyscraper under construction in the Dubai Marina of greater Dubai. ... One Island East (Chinese: 港島東中心) , also called One Island East Centre, is a supertall skyscraper that is currently under construction in Taikoo Place in Island East, Hong Kong. ... Park Hyatt Tower is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Mumbai, Maharashtra and will be the tallest and greenest building in India once completed. ... Pearl River Tower is a skyscraper that is under construction at the junction of Jinsui Road/Zhujiang Avenue West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, China. ... The Pentominium is a supertall skyscraper, currently approved for construction in the city of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... The Princess Tower is a residential skyscraper that is currently under construction in Dubai. ... Russia Tower Russia Tower - skyscraper in the territory of Moscow, whose building they plan to complete in 2012. ... The Shanghai World Financial Center (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Shanghai, China. ... Shenzhen Nikko Tower is a 310 metre tall highrise building at Nanshan in Shenzhen, China, whose construction started in 2006. ... Sky Tower Dubai is a 379 metre tall skyscraper with 83 floors under construction in Abu Dhabi. ... Square Capital Tower is a futuristic highrise building with 63 floors, which is since 2005 under at Kuwait City in Kuwait. ... Tianjin International Trade Centre is a skyscraper with 80 floors and a floor area of 260,000 m², which is since 1998 under construction at 112 Munan Road in Tianjin, China. ... The Marina Torch is a tower currently under construction for the Dubai Marina, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Torre Gran Costanera is a 300 metre tall highrise building, which is since 2006 under construction in Santiago, Chile. ... For other buildings of the same name see Trump International Hotel and Tower The Trump International Hotel and Tower is a skyscraper condo-hotel under construction at 401 N. Wabash Avenue in downtown Chicago, Illinois named for famed real estate developer Donald Trump. ... Waterview Tower is a mixed used development under construction in downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... 868 Towers Offices and Hotel is a 86 floor tall 331 metre tall highrise building, whose construction is pending at Haikou, China. ... BDNI Center I is a 317 metre tall skyscraper with 62 floors, whose construction is pending at the district Pusat of Jakarta in Indonesia. ... Busan Lotte Tower is a mixed use tower in the southern South Korean city of Busan that is currently under construction. ... The Dalian International Trade Center is a 78 floor skyscraper currently under construction in Dalian, China with a planned floor area of 288,566 m². Its construction started in 2003 however is currently suspended. ... Infinity Tower is a skyscraper under construction by Palma Real Estate in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Marina Gardens is a 75 store residential skyscraper at Area 392-Plot Marsa in Dubai. ... Najd Tower is a 340 metre tall futuristic skyscraper with 82 floors and 496 rooms at Dubai in United Arab Emirates, whose construction started in 2005. ... Plaza Rakyat is a project that was on hold since 1997 due to the economic crisis. ... The Ryugyong Hotel (or Ryu-Gyong Hotel or Yu-Kyung Hotel or the 105 Building) is a partially constructed concrete skyscraper that was once intended for use as a hotel in Sojang-dong, in the Potong-gang District of Pyongyang, North Korea. ... Artists conception of the completed towers. ... Tianlong Hotel is a hotel skyscraper with 73 floors in Nanan District, Chongqing, China. ... Xiamen Post & Telecommunications Building is a 66 floor tall office skyscraper under construction at Hubin Road South / Xiahe Road at Xian, China. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ... View of the World Trade Centers construction from across the Hudson River The construction of the World Trade Center was conceived as an urban renewal project, spearheaded by David Rockefeller, to help revitalize Lower Manhattan. ... The World Trade Center bombing was the February 26, 1993 attack in the garage of the New York City World Trade Center. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Ground Zero debris with markup showing building locations. ... 7 World Trade Center Larry A. Silverstein (born 1932) is an American billionaire real estate investor and operator and the head of Silverstein Properties, a real estate development group. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... The World Trade Center has been featured in numerous films, as well as made appearances in many television shows, cartoons, comic books, and computer/video games. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... Marriott with Twin Towers, July 2001 The Marriott World Trade Center Hotel was a 22-story[1] steel-framed building with 825 rooms. ... World Trade Center 4 was a 9-story low-rise office building in the southeast corner of the site, in Lower Manhattan, New York City. ... 5 WTC, upper right corner. ... 6 World Trade Center was the U.S. Customs House: a 537,693 square foot (49,953 m²), 7 story low rise building, in Lower Manhattan, New York City. ... 7 World Trade Center is a building in New York City located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. ... Late-night and weekend service: The World Trade Center PATH station, originally opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 The World Trade Center site is the 16 acre (65,000 m²) real estate on which the WTC complex stood in New York until the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... The unofficially named World Trade Center Tower 5 is a proposed building in New York City. ... In August 2006, the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began construction on the Memorial and Museum. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Design Build Network - Freedom Tower, New York (1606 words)
The glass-clad tower's asymmetrical form is a structural allusion to the nearby Statue of Liberty, particularly the offset spire rising 84ft above the tower, which mirrors the statue's raised Torch of Freedom.
Freedom Tower's role is similar to that of the old WTC, with 2.6 million square feet of office space.
Freedom Tower's glazing is to be coated in low-e materials, which maximise the transmission of visible light and block infrared rays, which contribute to heat gain in the summer and energy loss during the colder months.
Freedom Tower - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2284 words)
The Freedom Tower is intended to be taller than Chicago's Sears Tower and become the tallest building in the United States, and among the tallest buildings in the world when completed.
Depending on the angle from which the building is viewed, Freedom Tower is designed to appear as either a cuboid shape like both of the previous towers, or as a massive obelisk design.
Emaar, the builders of the Burj Dubai tower, are keeping the final height of their building a secret, but speculation is that it will surpass all existing structures at a height of over 2,600 feet (800 m) when it is finished in 2008, three to four years before Freedom Tower.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m