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Encyclopedia > Free Soil Party

The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. It was a breakaway faction of the Democratic Party and was largely absorbed by the Republican Party in 1854. Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery. The free soilers were against the expansion of slavery but not the idea of slavery; their goal was to gain the land to the west, and keep the land free of slaves. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Slave redirects here. ...

Contents

Positions

Free Soil candidates ran on the platform that declared: "...we inscribe on our banner, 'Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor and Free Man,' and under it we will fight on and fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions."


The party also called for a homestead act and a tariff for revenue only. The Free Soil Party attracted mainly abolitionists from the North and other free states. Its main support came from Yankee-settled areas of upstate New York, western Massachusetts, and northern Ohio, although other states also had representatives. The Homestead Act was a United States Federal law that gave freehold title to 160 acres (one quarter section or about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American West. ...

Van Buren / Adams campaign banner.
Van Buren / Adams campaign banner.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1072x1536, 282 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Martin Van Buren Free Soil Party User:Davepape/Images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1072x1536, 282 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Martin Van Buren Free Soil Party User:Davepape/Images ...

First convention

In 1848, the first party convention was held in Buffalo, New York, where the party nominated former Democratic President Martin Van Buren with Charles Francis Adams as vice president. The main party leaders were Salmon P. Chase of Ohio and John P. Hale of New Hampshire. They won no electoral votes. The nomination of Van Buren had the adverse effect of discouraging many anti-slavery Whigs from joining the Free Soil Party. Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown Area  - City 52. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the 8th President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Several notable persons have been named Charles Adams: Charles Adams is an adult male age 30 living in Philadelphia. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... John Parker Hale (March 31, 1806 - November 19, 1873) was an American politician. ...


Compromise of 1850

The Compromise of 1850 undercut the party's no-compromise position, and its vote fell off sharply. Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ...


Legacy

The Free Soil Party was a notable third party. More successful than most, it sent two Senators and fourteen Representatives to the thirty-first Congress. Its presidential nominee in 1848, Martin Van Buren, received 291,616 votes against Zachary Taylor of the Whigs and Lewis Cass of the Democrats; Van Buren received no electoral votes. The Party's "spoiler" effect in 1848 may have put Zachary Taylor into office in a narrowly-contested election. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... This is a list of members of the Thirty-First United States Congress. ... Summary President James Polk, having achieved virtually all of his objectives in one term and suffering from declining health that would take his life less than four months after leaving office, chose not to seek re-election. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the 8th President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)[2] was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... The spoiler effect is a term to describe the effect a candidate can have on a close election, in which their candidacy results in the election being won by a candidate dissimilar to them, rather than a candidate similar to them. ...


The strength of the party, however, was its representation in Congress. The sixteen elected officials' influence far exceeded its numbers. The party's most important legacy was as a route for anti-slavery Democrats to join the new Republican coalition.


Presidential candidates

Year Presidential candidate Vice Presidential candidate Won/Lost
1848 Martin Van Buren Charles Francis Adams Lost
1852 John P. Hale George W. Julian Lost

Summary President James Polk, having achieved virtually all of his objectives in one term and suffering from declining health that would take his life less than four months after leaving office, chose not to seek re-election. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the 8th President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Charles Francis Adams (August 18, 1807, Boston - November 21, 1886, Boston), the son of John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat and writer. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Parker Hale (March 31, 1806 - November 19, 1873) was an American politician. ... George Washington Julian was an American politician born in Indiana. ...

Famous Free Soilers

Charles Francis Adams (August 18, 1807, Boston - November 21, 1886, Boston), the son of John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat and writer. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and statesman from Massachusetts. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Oren B. Cheney Oren Burbank Cheney was the founder of Bates College. ... Bates College is a private liberal arts college, founded in 1855 by abolitionists, located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. ... William Cullen Bryant William Cullen Bryant (November 3, 1794 - June 12, 1878) an American Romantic poet, journalist, political adviser, and homeopath, was born in Cummington, Massachusetts, the second son of Peter Bryant, a doctor and later a state legislator, and Sarah Snell; the William Cullen Bryant Homestead, his boyhood home... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819–March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ...

See also

The Second Party System is the term historians give to the political system existing in the United States from about 1824 to 1854. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... The Appeal of the Independent Democrats was a manifesto issued in January, 1854, was inspired by the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, then pending (see Kansas-Nebraska Act). ...

References

  • Frederick J. Blue; Salmon P. Chase: A Life in Politics 1987
  • Frederick J. Blue. The Free Soilers: Third Party Politics, 1848-54 (1973)
  • Martin Duberman; Charles Francis Adams, 1807-1886 1968.
  • Eric Foner; Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War 1970
  • T. C. Smith, Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the Northwest (New York, 1897)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Free Soil Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (607 words)
The party was formed around the Wilmot Proviso, failed legislation requiring all territory taken from Mexico in the Mexican-American War to be free from slavery.
The party evolved from abolitionists in the Democratic and Whig parties.
The Whig Party dissolved after the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, and many northern Whigs combined with former Free-Soilers and northern Democrats to form the Republican Party, which advocated a free-soil platform while changing their name in order to avoid being associated with the failure of the Free Soil Party.
Free Soil Party - definition of Free Soil Party in Encyclopedia (567 words)
The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States organized in 1848 that petered out by about 1852.
Collapse of the Whig party and the Compromise of 1850
The Whig Party dissolved after the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and many northern Whigs combined with former Free-Soilers and northern Democrats to form the Republican Party, which advocated a free-soil platform while changing their name in order to avoid being associated with the failure of the Free Soil Party.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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