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Encyclopedia > FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Image:FreeBSD-logo.png
Screenshot of FreeBSD terminal
FreeBSD welcome screen
Website: freebsd.org
Company/
developer:
The FreeBSD Project
OS family: BSD
Source model: Free and open source software
Latest stable release: 6.2-RELEASE / 15 January 2007
Latest unstable release: 8.0-CURRENT / daily
Supported platforms: i386, SPARC, SPARC64, ALPHA, AMD64, ia64, PC98, PowerPC
Kernel type: Monolithic
License: BSD License
Working state: Current

FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4.4BSD operating systems. It runs on Intel x86 family (IA-32) PC compatible systems (including the Microsoft Xbox[1]), and also DEC Alpha, Sun UltraSPARC, IA-64, AMD64, PowerPC and NEC PC-98 architectures. Support for the ARM and MIPS architectures are under development. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links FreeBSD.png Summary FreeBSD 5. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The term software company could be applied to: a) a company that produces software, distributes software from a third party, or provides services such as custom software development. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... BSD redirects here. ... Free and Open Source Software, also F/OSS or FOSS, is software which is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... SPARC (Scalable Processor ARChitecture) is a RISC microprocessor architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... Look up alfa, alpha in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... In computing, IA-64 (Instruction Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard for processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... BSD redirects here. ... 386BSD, also known as JOLIX, is a free BSD operating system for the Intel 80386. ... BSD redirects here. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ... Xbox and a Controller S The Xbox is Microsofts game console, released on November 15, 2001. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... NEC Corporation (Japanese: Nippon Denki Kabushiki Gaisha; TYO: 6701 , NASDAQ: NIPNY) is a Japanese multinational IT company headquartered in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ... PC-9801 (PC-98 for short) is a Japanese computer made by NEC. It first appeared in 1983, and employed an 8086-2 CPU. It ran at a speed of either 5 or 8 MHz (selectable), and shipped with 128 kB of RAM, expandable to 640 kB. Its 8-color... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ...


FreeBSD is developed as a complete operating system. The kernel, device drivers and all of the userland utilities, such as the shell, are held in the same source code revision tracking tree (CVS). This model can be contrasted with Linux where the kernel, userland utilities and applications are developed separately and packaged together by other groups as Linux distributions. A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Shell_(computing). ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... Revision control is an aspect of documentation control wherein changes to documents are identified by incrementing an associated number or letter code, termed the revision level, or simply revision. It has been a standard practice in the maintenance of engineering drawings for as long as the generation of such drawings... The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is an open-source version control system invented and developed by Dick Grune in the 1980s. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ...


As an operating system, FreeBSD is generally regarded as reliable and robust, and of the operating systems that accurately report uptime remotely,[2] FreeBSD is the most common free operating system listed in Netcraft's list[3] of the 50 web servers with the longest uptime. A long uptime also indicates that no crashes have occurred and that no kernel updates have been deemed necessary, as installing a new kernel requires a reboot and resets the uptime counter of the system. Uptime is a measure of the time a computer system has been up and running. ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are... A crash in computing is a condition where a program (either an application or part of the operating system) stops performing its expected function and also stops responding to other parts of the system. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ...

Contents

History and development

Initial development of FreeBSD started in 1993, originating in the unofficial patchkit maintained by users of the 386BSD operating system. The first official release of FreeBSD was FreeBSD 1.0 in December 1993. “Software development” redirects here. ... In computing, a patch is a software update meant to fix problems with a computer program. ... 386BSD, also known as JOLIX, is a free BSD operating system for the Intel 80386. ...


However, due to concerns about the legality of the BSD Net/2 release source code used in 386BSD and a consequent lawsuit between USL (then owner of the UNIX copyright) and Berkeley, FreeBSD ended up re-engineering much of the system using the 4.4BSD-Lite release from the University of California, Berkeley, with the FreeBSD 2.0 release in January 1995. The FreeBSD Handbook includes more information about the genesis of FreeBSD. This article is in need of attention. ... UNIX Systems Laboratories or USL was originally organized as part of Bell Labs in 1989. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...


Perhaps FreeBSD 2.0's most notable advance was the revamp of the original Carnegie Mellon University Mach Virtual Memory system, which was optimized for performance under high loads, and the creation of the FreeBSD Ports system that made downloading, building and installing third party software very easy. FreeBSD powered extremely successful sites like Walnut Creek CDROM (a huge repository of software that broke several throughput records on the Internet), Hotmail, and Yahoo!. Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Mach is an operating system microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University to support operating system research, primarily distributed and parallel computation. ... The FreeBSD Ports Collection provides an easy and consistent way of installing software ported to FreeBSD. It uses Makefiles laid out in a directory hierarchy, so software can be installed and deinstalled with the make command. ... Simtel is an Internet-based archive of shareware for various operating systems, particularly Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS. The Simtel archive has been available on the public Internet since 1993, when its older ARPANET host was shut down. ... Hotmail is a free webmail e-mail service, which is accessible via a web browser. ... Yahoo redirects here. ...


FreeBSD 3.0 brought many changes: it switched to the ELF binary format, and initial support for SMP systems and the 64 bit Alpha platform were added. In computing, the Executable and Linking Format (ELF, formerly called Extensible Linking Format) is a common standard file format for executables, object code, shared libraries, and core dumps. ... Symmetric multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ...


Initially, FreeBSD employed the BSD Daemon as its logo, but in 2005 a competition for a new logo was arranged. On October 8, 2005, the competition finished and the design by Anton K. Gural was chosen as the new FreeBSD logo.[4] The BSD Daemon will remain as the FreeBSD Project mascot. BSD Daemon, aka Beastie BSD Daemon is the BSD operating systems mascot, named after a daemon, a type of software program common on Unix-like operating systems, but taking the (albeit less arcane) shape of the classic mythical demon. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


FreeBSD 5 development and changes

The latest and final FreeBSD release from the 5-STABLE branch is 5.5, and was released in May 2006. FreeBSD developers maintain (at least) two branches of simultaneous development. A -STABLE branch of FreeBSD is created for each major version number, from which releases are cut about once every 4-6 months. The latest 4-STABLE release of FreeBSD is 4.11, which is the last of the 4-STABLE branch releases. The first 5-STABLE release was 5.3 (5.0 through 5.2.1 were cut from -CURRENT). The first 6-STABLE release was 6.0. The development branch, -CURRENT, is now 7.0-CURRENT, which contains aggressive new kernel and userspace features. If a feature is sufficiently stable and mature, it is eventually backported ("MFC" - Merge from CURRENT in the FreeBSD developer slang) to the -STABLE branch. FreeBSD's development model is described in an in-depth article by Niklas Saers.[5] For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... Backporting is the action of taking a certain software modification (patch) and applying it to an older version of the software than it was initially created for. ...


The largest architectural change in FreeBSD 5 was a major change in the low-level kernel locking mechanisms to enable better symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) support, releasing much of the kernel from the MP lock, sometimes referred to as the Giant Lock. It is now possible for more than one process to execute in kernel mode at the same time.


Other major changes included an M:N native threading implementation called Kernel Scheduled Entities, similar in principle to Scheduler Activations. Starting with FreeBSD 5.3, KSE was the default threading implementation until it was replaced with a 1:1 implementation in FreeBSD 7.0. Kernel Scheduled Entities, or KSE, is a kernel-supported threading system found in FreeBSD, which allows a single process to have multiple kernel-level threads. ... Scheduler Activations is a threading mechanism that, when implemented in an operating systems process scheduler, provides kernel-level thread functionality with user-level thread flexibility and performance. ...


A project called "TrustedBSD" was launched by Robert Watson for the purpose of adding security lock-down frameworks functionality to the FreeBSD operating system (this is not related to "trusted computing"). An extensible mandatory access control framework (the TrustedBSD MAC Framework), filesystem Access Control Lists (ACLs), enhanced PAM support (OpenPAM) and the new UFS2 filesystem all came from TrustedBSD. Some of the TrustedBSD functionality has been integrated into the NetBSD and OpenBSD operating systems as well. This work was supported through sponsorship by DARPA. Robert Watson is a FreeBSD core team developer, and founder of the TrustedBSD Project. ... Logo of Trusted Computing Group, an initiative to implement Trusted Computing Trusted Computing (commonly abbreviated TC) is a technology developed and promoted by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG). ... In computing, a mandatory access control (MAC) technique protects and contains computer processes, data, and system devices from misuse. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many unix operating systems. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...


FreeBSD 5 also significantly changed the block I/O layer with the introduction of the GEOM modular disk I/O request transformation framework, contributed by Poul-Henning Kamp. GEOM enables the simple creation of many kinds of functionality, such as mirroring (gmirror) and encryption (GBDE and GELI). This work was supported through sponsorship by DARPA. Geometry (from the Greek words Ge = earth and metro = measure) is the branch of mathematics first introduced by Theaetetus dealing with spatial relationships. ... Poul-Henning Kamp is a Danish FreeBSD developer, responsible for the widely used MD5 password hash algorithm, a vast quantity of widely used systems code, clock/time code, and the Beerware license: /*- * ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- * THE BEER-WARE LICENSE (Revision 42): * <phk@FreeBSD.org> wrote this file. ... GBDE, standing for GEOM Based Disk Encryption, is a block device-layer disk encryption solution for FreeBSD, initially introduced in version 4. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...


The 5.4 and 5.5 releases of FreeBSD have confirmed the FreeBSD 5.x branch as a highly stable and well-performing release, albeit one with a long gestation period due to the large feature set.


FreeBSD 6

The FreeBSD 6 release series is the current -STABLE development series. FreeBSD 6.2 was released on January 15, 2007. These versions continue the work on SMP and threading optimization, as well as additional work in the area of advanced 802.11 functionality, TrustedBSD security event auditing, significant network stack performance enhancements, a fully preemptive kernel, and support for hardware performance counters (HWPMC). The primary accomplishments of these releases include removal of the Giant lock from VFS, addition of a better-performing optional libthr library with 1:1 threading and the addition of a Basic Security Module (BSM) audit implementation called OpenBSM, created by the TrustedBSD Project (based on the BSM implementation found in Apple's open source Darwin) and released under a BSD-style license. is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... IEEE 802. ... OpenBSM is an open source implementation of Suns Basic Security Module (BSM) Audit API and file format. ... ... Darwin is a free and open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. ... The BSD daemon BSD licenses represent a family of permissive free software licenses. ...


FreeBSD 7

FreeBSD 7.0 is currently under development, the third beta having been released in November 2007. Features currently under development include: SCTP, UFS journaling, a port of Sun's ZFS file system, GCC4, support for the ARM and MIPS architectures and major updates and optimizations relating to network, audio and the scheduler. FreeBSD 7.0 is scheduled for release in January 2008. SCTP, or Stream Control Transmission Protocol is a transport layer protocol defined in 2000 by the IETF. The protocol is defined in RFC 2960, and an introductory text is provided by RFC 3286. ... The UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems. ... A journaling (or journalling) file system is a file system that logs changes to a journal (usually a circular log in a specially-allocated area) before actually writing them to the main file system. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... In computing, ZFS is a file system originally created by Sun Microsystems for the Solaris Operating System. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... To a large extent, the design of a CPU, or central processing unit, is the design of its control unit. ...


FreeBSD 8

FreeBSD 8.0 is the bleeding edge development version (so called -CURRENT in FreeBSD parlance). It should feature superpages, dtrace, Xen and network stack virtualization. This version is currently in the early stages of development[6]. DTrace is a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework created by Sun Microsystems. ... Xen is a free virtual machine monitor for IA-32, x86-64, IA-64 and PowerPC architectures. ...


Linux compatibility

FreeBSD provides binary compatibility with several other Unix-like operating systems, including Linux. This permits Linux programs to be run, including some commercial applications distributed only in binary form. Applications which use the Linux compatibility layer include StarOffice, the Linux version of Firefox, Adobe Acrobat, RealPlayer, Oracle, Mathematica, Matlab, WordPerfect, Skype, Doom 3 and Quake 4[7]. There is said to be no noticeable performance penalty when running Linux binaries over native FreeBSD programs, and, in some cases, they may even perform better than the same binaries running on Linux[8]. However, the layer is not completely seamless and some Linux binaries are unusable on FreeBSD or possess limited functionality: this is often as the compatibility layer only supports the system calls available in the historical Linux kernel 2.4.2, work is ongoing to provide Linux 2.6 support. In software engineering, a compatibility layer allows binaries for an emulated system to run on a host system. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... StarOffice is Sun Microsystems proprietary office suite software package. ... Firefox may refer to: Firefox (novel), written by Craig Thomas, published in 1978 Firefox (film), the 1982 movie starring Clint Eastwood, based on the novel Firefox (arcade game), the laserdisc arcade game based on the movie Mozilla Firefox, a web browser The Red Fox or the Red Panda, based on... Adobe Acrobat is a family of application software by Adobe Systems. ... RealPlayer, briefly known also as RealOne Player, is a cross-platform media player by RealNetworks that plays a number of multimedia formats including MP3, MPEG-4, QuickTime, Windows Media and multiple versions of proprietary RealAudio and RealVideo formats. ... The term Oracle database may refer either to the database management system (DBMS) software released by Oracle Corporation as Oracle RDBMS, or to any of the individual databases managed by such software. ... For other uses, see Mathematica (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Matlab Upazila in Chandpur District, Bangladesh. ... WordPerfect is a proprietary word processing application. ... Skype (IPA: , rhymes with type) is a software program created by the entrepreneurs Niklas Zennström and Janus Friis. ... Doom 3 is a science fiction, survival horror, first-person shooter video game. ... Quake 4 is the fourth title in the series of Quake FPS computer games. ...


License

FreeBSD is released under a variety of licenses. All of the kernel code and most newly created code is released under the two-clause BSD license, which allows everyone to use and redistribute FreeBSD as they wish. There are also parts under the GPL, LGPL, ISC, CDDL, and Beerware licenses, as well as three- and four-clause BSD licenses. In addition, some device drivers include a binary blob, such as the Atheros HAL. The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... GPL redirects here. ... The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... The ISC licence is a free software licence that is functionally equivalent to the BSD licence, with language deemed unnecessary removed. ... Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) is an open source and Free software license, produced by Sun Microsystems, based on the Mozilla Public License (MPL), version 1. ... Beerware is a term that originally referred to a software license similar to shareware but more layed-back. ... In computing, a binary blob is an object file loaded into the kernel of a free or open source operating system without publicly available source code. ... Atheros Communications (NASDAQ: ATHR) is a developer of semiconductors for wireless communications. ... A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is an abstraction layer, implemented in software, between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer. ...


Derivatives

A wide variety of products are directly or indirectly based on FreeBSD. These range from embedded devices, such as Juniper Networks routers, Ironport network security appliances, Nokia's firewall operating system, NetApp's OnTap GX, Panasas's and Isilon Systems's cluster storage operating systems, NetASQ security appliances, St Bernard iPrism web filtering appliances, to portions of other operating systems including Linux and the RTOS VxWorks. Darwin, the core of Apple's Mac OS X, borrows heavily from FreeBSD, including its virtual file system, network stack and components of its userspace. Apple continues to integrate new code from and contribute changes back to FreeBSD. The now-defunct OpenDarwin project, which was based on Apple's Darwin operating system, also included substantial FreeBSD code. In addition, there are a number of operating systems originally forked from or based on FreeBSD including PC-BSD and DesktopBSD, which include enhancements aimed at home users and workstations; the FreeSBIE and Frenzy live CD distributions; the m0n0wall and pfSense embedded firewalls; FreeNAS Free network attached storage ; and DragonFly BSD, a fork from FreeBSD 4.8 aiming for a different multiprocessor synchronization strategy than that chosen for FreeBSD 5 and development of some microkernel features. In mathematics, see embedding. ... Juniper Networks NASDAQ: JNPR is a telecommunications equipment company. ... IronPort Systems of San Bruno, CA, USA is an email anti-spam appliance provider. ... This article is about the telecommunications corporation. ... Network Appliance, Inc. ... Pittsburgh Advanced Network Attached Storage, or Panasas Inc. ... Isilon Systems, Inc. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Realtime redirects here. ... VxWorks is a Unix-like real-time operating system made and sold by Wind River Systems of Alameda, California, USA. Like most RTOSes, VxWorks includes a multitasking kernel with pre-emptive scheduling and fast interrupt response, extensive inter-process communications and synchronization facilities, and a file system. ... Darwin is a free and open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... An operating system usually segregates the available system memory into kernel space and user space. ... Hexley, the mascot of OpenDarwin OpenDarwin is a freely available, multi-platform BSD / Mach 3. ... In software engineering, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes a copy of source code from one software package and starts to independently develop a new package. ... PC-BSD is a Unix-like, desktop-oriented operating system based on FreeBSD similar to DesktopBSD. It aims to be easy to install by using a graphical installation program, and easy- and ready-to-use immediately by providing KDE as the default, pre-installed graphical user interface. ... DesktopBSD is a UNIX-derivative, desktop-oriented operating system based on FreeBSD. Its goal is to combine the stability of FreeBSD with the ease-of-use of KDE, which is the default graphical user interface. ... FreeSBIE FreeSBIE is a LiveCD—an operating system that is able to load directly from a bootable CD without any installation process and without any hard disk. ... Gnoppix 0. ... m0n0wall is an embedded firewall distribution of FreeBSD, one of the BSD operating system descendants. ... pfSense is a FreeBSD based (firewall) operating system derived from m0n0wall, which, as the name implies, uses the pf packet filter from OpenBSD. Its goals differ from those of m0n0wall in that pfSense attempts to provide a heavy, feature rich routing platform. ... FreeNAS is a free NAS (Network-attached storage) server, supporting: CIFS (Samba), FTP, NFS, rsync, AFP protocols, S.M.A.R.T., local user authentication, and software RAID (0,1,5), with a web-based configuration interface. ... DragonFly BSD is a free Unix-like operating system created as a fork of FreeBSD 4. ... Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ...


TrustedBSD

The TrustedBSD project provides a set of trusted operating system extensions to FreeBSD. It was begun primarily by Robert Watson with the goal of implementing concepts from the Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation and the Orange Book. The project still continues, and many of its extensions have been integrated into FreeBSD. The Common Criteria (CC) is an international standard (ISO 15408) for computer security. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


The main focuses of the TrustedBSD project are access control lists (ACLs), security event auditing, extended file system attributes, fine-grained capabilities, and mandatory access controls (MAC). The project has also ported the NSA's FLASK/TE implementation from SELinux to FreeBSD. Other work includes the development of OpenBSM, an open source implementation of Sun's Basic Security Module (BSM) API and audit log file format, which supports an extensive security audit system. This was shipped as part of FreeBSD 6.2. Other infrastructure work in FreeBSD performed as part of the TrustedBSD Project has included SYN cookies, GEOM, and OpenPAM. In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A capability (also known as a key) is a concept in secure computing. ... In computing, a mandatory access control (MAC) technique protects and contains computer processes, data, and system devices from misuse. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up flask in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a version of the Linux kernel and utilities, which contains support for mandatory access controls based on the principle of least privilege. ... OpenBSM is an open source implementation of Suns Basic Security Module (BSM) Audit API and file format. ... SYN Cookies are the key element of a technique used to guard against SYN flood attacks. ...


While most components of the TrustedBSD project are eventually folded into the main sources for FreeBSD, many features, once fully matured, find their way into other operating systems. For example, OpenPAM and UFS2 have been adopted by NetBSD, and the TrustedBSD MAC Framework and TrustedBSD Audit implementation have been adopted by Apple Computer for Mac OS X. NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... Apple Inc. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


Governance structure

The FreeBSD Project is run by FreeBSD committers, or developers who have CVS commit access. Committers come in several flavours, including source committers (base operating system), doc committers (documentation and web site authors) and ports (third party application porting and infrastructure). Every two years, the FreeBSD committers elect a 9-member FreeBSD Core Team, who are responsible for overall project direction, setting and enforcing project rules, and approving new "commit bits", or the granting of CVS commit access. A number of responsibilities are officially assigned to other development teams by the FreeBSD Core Team, including responsibility for security advisories (the Security Officer Team), release engineering (the Release Engineering Team), and managing the ports collection (the Port Manager team). Developers may give up their commit rights to retire or for "safe-keeping" after a period of a year or more of inactivity, although commit rights will generally be restored on request (both of which have happened a moderate number of times in over 12 years of development). Under rare circumstances, commit rights may be removed by Core Team vote as a result of repeated violation of project rules and standards. The FreeBSD Project is unusual among open source projects in having developers who have worked with its source base for over 25 years, as a result of the involvement of a number of past University of California developers who worked on BSD at the CSRG. BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... Computer Systems Research Group was a research group that was dedicated to enhancing AT&T Unix operating system and funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. ...


See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... The acronym LAMP (or L.A.M.P.) refers to a set of free software programs commonly used together to run dynamic Web sites or servers: Linux, the operating system; Apache, the Web server; MySQL, the database management system (or database server); Perl, PHP, Python, and/or (rarely) Primate, scripting... BSD redirects here. ... There are a number of Unix-like operating systems based on, or descended from, the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) series of Unix variants. ... These tables compare general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available operating systems. ... The FreeBSD Documentation License is listed below. ... // The FreeBSD jail mechanism is an early implementation of operating system-level virtualization that allows administrators to partition a FreeBSD-based computer system into several independent mini-systems called jails. ... The FreeBSD Ports Collection provides an easy and consistent way of installing software ported to FreeBSD. It uses Makefiles laid out in a directory hierarchy, so software can be installed and deinstalled with the make command. ... Jordan K. Hubbard (born April 8, 1963 in Hawaii) is co-founder of the FreeBSD project. ... Marshall Kirk McKusick (b. ... OpenBSM is an open source implementation of Suns Basic Security Module (BSM) Audit API and file format. ... Poul-Henning Kamp is a Danish FreeBSD developer, responsible for the widely used MD5 password hash algorithm, a vast quantity of widely used systems code, clock/time code, and the Beerware license: /*- * ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- * THE BEER-WARE LICENSE (Revision 42): * <phk@FreeBSD.org> wrote this file. ... Robert Watson is a FreeBSD core team developer, and founder of the TrustedBSD Project. ... This is an alphabetical list of operating systems with a sharp security focus. ...

References

  1. ^ FreeBSD/xbox Project. The FreeBSD Project. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  2. ^ Frequently asked questions. Netcraft. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  3. ^ Sites with longest running systems by average uptime in the last 7 days. Netcraft. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  4. ^ Final result for the FreeBSD logo design competition. The FreeBSD Project (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  5. ^ Saers, Niklas (2002). A project model for the FreeBSD Project. The FreeBSD Project. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  6. ^ FreeBSD 8.0 has been branched on October 11th, 2007. Additonal information posted on the FreeBSD-current mailing list.
  7. ^ FreeBSD Handbook. Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
  8. ^ Tiemann, Brian (2006). "How FreeBSD Compares to Other Operating Systems", FreeBSD 6 Unleashed. ISBN 0672328755. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Netcraft is an Internet monitoring company based in Bath, England (recently having relocated from Bradford on Avon). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Absolute FreeBSD, 2nd Edition: The Complete Guide to FreeBSD. Michael Lucas. No Starch Press, November 2007. 744pp. ISBN-10 1-59327-151-4.
  • BSD Hacks, 100 Industrial-Strength tips for BSD users and administrators. Dru Lavigne. O'Reilly, May 2004. ISBN 0-596-00679-9.
  • Building an Internet Server with FreeBSD 6: Installing open source server software. Bryan Hong. Lulu Press, May 2006. ISBN 1-4116-9574-7.
  • FreeBSD 6 Unleashed. Brian Tiemann, Michael Urban. Sams, Paperback, Bk&DVD edition, Published June 2006, 912 pages, ISBN 0-672-32875-5.
  • Mastering FreeBSD and OpenBSD Security. Yanek Korff, Paco Hope, Bruce Potter. O'Reilly, March 2005. ISBN 0-596-00626-8.
  • The Complete FreeBSD, 4th Edition, Documentation from the Source. Greg Lehey. O'Reilly, April 2003. ISBN 0-596-00516-4.
  • The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System. Marshall Kirk McKusick and George V. Neville-Neil, Addison Wesley Professional, August, 2004. ISBN 0-201-70245-2.
  • The FreeBSD Corporate Networkers Guide. Ted Mittelstaedt. Addison-Wesley, December 2000. Paperback, book & CD edition, 401 pages. ISBN 0-201-70481-1.
  • The FreeBSD Handbook, Volume 1 : User Guide, 3rd Edition. FreeBSD Documentation Project. FreeBSD Mall, Inc. November, 2003. ISBN 1-57176-327-9.
  • The FreeBSD Handbook, Volume 2 : Admin Guide, 3rd Edition. FreeBSD Documentation Project. FreeBSD Mall, Inc. September, 2004. ISBN 1-57176-328-7.

No Starch Press is a publishing company specializing in computer books for the technically savvy, or geek entertainment as they term it. ... Marshall Kirk McKusick (b. ...

External links

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The FreeBSD Project (118 words)
FreeBSD® is an advanced operating system for x86 compatible (including Pentium® and Athlon™), amd64 compatible (including Opteron™, Athlon™64, and EM64T), UltraSPARC®, IA-64, PC-98 and ARM architectures.
It is derived from BSD, the version of UNIX® developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
The mark FreeBSD is a registered trademark of The FreeBSD Foundation and is used by The FreeBSD Project with the permission of
FreeBSD - definition of FreeBSD in Encyclopedia (832 words)
FreeBSD is a free, open source Unix-like operating system descended from Unix via the BSD branch through 386BSD and 4.4BSD.
FreeBSD is released under the BSD License, which allows everyone to use and redistribute FreeBSD as they wish, as long as they do not remove the copyright notice and the BSD license itself (which does not prohibit re-distribution under another license).
DragonFly BSD is a fork from FreeBSD 4.8 that is intended to be the logical continuation of the FreeBSD 4 series.
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