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Encyclopedia > Free throw
Main article: Basketball moves
Wally Szczerbiak shoots a free throw.
Wally Szczerbiak shoots a free throw.
Players waiting on the side during a free throw at a Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets vs Centenary Gentlemen college basketball game.

In basketball, free throws or foul shots are unopposed attempts to score points from a restricted area on the court (the free throw line; informally known as the "charity stripe" or foul line), and are generally awarded after a foul by the opposing team. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Free throw. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Free_throw. ... Image File history File links Free_throw. ... Walter Robert Wally Szczerbiak (born March 5, 1977 in Madrid, Spain) is an American basketball player for the Boston Celtics. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 559 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2156 × 2312 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 559 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2156 × 2312 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Yellow Jackets is the name used for all of the intercollegiate athletic teams that play for the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia. ... The Centenary Gentlemen Basketball team is the basketball team that represent Centenary College in Shreveport, Louisiana. ... College basketball most often refers to the American basketball competitive governance structure established by the National Collegiate Athletic Association, or NCAA. Game between Illinois State Redbirds & Ball State Cardinals, February 17, 2007 in an ESPN Bracketbuster contest. ... Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by throwing a ball through a 10-foot high hoop (the basket) under organized rules. ... In basketball, a personal foul is a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. ...


Each free throw is worth one point, and normally more than one is awarded. The importance of free throws is nevertheless sometimes underestimated; games have been known to be decided on them, especially if the score was close. Teams who could have sealed the game on free throws can finish with a narrow win or even a loss because of failure behind the line.


Free throws normally can be made at a high percentage. In the NBA, most players make between 70% and 80% of their attempts. Some good shooters (such as Reggie Miller, Mark Price, Steve Nash, Dirk Nowitzki, Ray Allen, Kyle Korver),Yao Ming can make as many as 90%-92%, while notoriously poor shooters (e.g. Shaquille O'Neal, Ben Wallace, Adonal Foyle) may struggle to make 50% of them. “NBA” redirects here. ... Reginald Wayne Miller (born August 24, 1965, in Riverside, California) is a retired American professional basketball player. ... Mark Price moves the ball during a game. ... Steven John Nash[1], OBC (born February 7, 1974), is a Canadian professional basketball player. ... Dirk Werner Nowitzki (IPA pronuncation: ) (born June 19, 1978 in Würzburg, West Germany) is a German basketball player for the United States National Basketball Associations (NBA) Dallas Mavericks. ... Walter Ray Allen (born July 20, 1975) is an American professional basketball player for the NBAs Boston Celtics, for whom he plays shooting guard. ... Kyle Elliot Korver[1] (born March 17, 1981 in Lakewood, California) is an American basketball player with the Philadelphia 76ers. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yao Yao Ming (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (born September 12, 1980, in Shanghai, China) is a Chinese professional basketball player and one of the premier centers in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Shaquille Rashaun ONeal (born March 6, 1972 in Newark, New Jersey), frequently referred to simply as Shaq (pronounced shack), is an American professional basketball player, generally regarded as one of the most dominant in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... For the British MP, see Ben Wallace (UK politician). ... Adonal David Foyle (born March 9, 1975 in Canouan, St. ...


Tall players often shoot free throws poorly; one explanation for this is that the high release point of their shots can cause them to stand overly erect.[1] Basketball Hall of Fame member Wilt Chamberlain made just 51.1% of his free-throw attempts, one of the lowest percentages of all time[2], and the poor free throw shooting of 7'1" Shaquille O'Neal, 6'9" Ben Wallace, and 7'0" Tim Duncan, have led to the infamous Hack-a-Shaq and other intentional fouling tactics, which made them a liability to their teams in endgame situations where the score was close. On the other hand, there have also been big men who have been prolific scorers from free throws: Yao Ming (7' 6"), Vlade Divac (7' 1"), Pau Gasol, Hakeem Olajuwon, Dirk Nowitzki (7' 0"), Rasheed Wallace, Kevin Garnett, Mehmet Okur, Jermaine O'Neal (6' 11"), Amare Stoudemire, Chris Bosh,and Peja Stojakovic (6' 10") are all 70% or better from the stripe. The more likely explanation is that many big men are guilty of concentrating more on post moves, rebounding, shot-blocking, and screening, instead of working to develop a balanced game, and neglected to master the mechanics of free-throw shooting. Wilton Norman Wilt Chamberlain (August 21, 1936–October 12, 1999), nicknamed Wilt the Stilt and The Big Dipper, was an American professional National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball player for the Philadelphia / San Francisco Warriors, the Philadelphia 76ers and the Los Angeles Lakers; and also played for the Harlem Globetrotters. ... Timothy Tim Theodore Duncan[1] (born April 25, 1976 in Christiansted, St. ... Hack-a-Shaq is the name commonly ascribed to a basketball defensive strategy initially instituted in the National Basketball Association (NBA) by former Dallas Mavericks coach Don Nelson to hinder the scoring ability of the Chicago Bulls. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yao Yao Ming (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (born September 12, 1980, in Shanghai, China) is a Chinese professional basketball player and one of the premier centers in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Vlade Divac [pronounced VLAH-de DEE-vahts] (born 3 February 1968) (Serbian: Владе Дивац) is a former NBA player. ... Pau Gasol Sáez (born July 6, 1980, in Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona province,Catalonia, Spain) is a 70 (2. ... Hakeem Abdul Olajuwon (born Akeem Abdul Olajuwon on January 21, 1963) is a retired American professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Dirk Werner Nowitzki (IPA pronuncation: ) (born June 19, 1978 in Würzburg, West Germany) is a German basketball player for the United States National Basketball Associations (NBA) Dallas Mavericks. ... Rasheed Abdul Wallace (born September 17, 1974, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an American professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association. ... Kevin Garnett (born May 19, 1976)) is an American professional basketball player for the NBAs Minnesota Timberwolves. ... Mehmet Okur (born May 26, 1979 in Yalova, Turkey) is a Turkish professional basketball player who currently plays for the Utah Jazz of the NBA. He is married to former Miss Turkey and model Yeliz Caliskan, and they have a daughter, Melisa, born on March 21, 2007. ... Jermaine L. ONeal (born October 13, 1978, in Columbia, South Carolina) is an American National Basketball Association player who currently plays for the Indiana Pacers. ... Amare Carsares Stoudemire (born November 16, 1982 in Lake Wales, Florida) is an American All-Star professional basketball player for the NBAs Atlanta Hawks and the USA National Team. ... Christopher Wesson Bosh (born March 24, 1984) is an American professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association who plays for the Toronto Raptors. ... Stojakovic playing for the Kings Predrag Peđa Stojaković (born June 9, 1977) is a basketball star for the NBAs Sacramento Kings. ...

Contents

When free throws are awarded

There are several situations when free throws can be awarded:


The first and most common is when a player is fouled while in the act of shooting. If the foul causes the player to miss the shot, the player receives two or three free throws depending on whether the shot was taken in front or behind the three-point line. If, despite the foul, the player still makes the attempted shot, the number of free throws is reduced to one, and the basket counts. This is known as a three-point or four-point play, depending on the value of the made basket, and happens more frequently (though still uncommonly as a whole) during a drive to the basket. Commentators sometimes refer to a successful three-point play as "an old-fashioned three-point play" because before the advent of the three-point shot, this was the only way to earn three points on one play. It is uncommon for a player to be fouled while shooting a three-point shot, as because most teams take great care to avoid doing so.


The second is when the fouling team is in the team foul penalty situation. This happens when, in a single period, a team commits more than a set number of fouls (four in international and NBA). Even if a player is not in the act of shooting, two free throws are awarded no matter when or where the foul occurs. An exception is when the foul occurs while the offensive player is shooting, in which case it is treated like a normal shooting foul. In law, an offense is a violation of the penal law. ...


The team foul penalty situation is slightly different in U.S. collegiate basketball. Once a team has committed its seventh foul of a half, the fouled player shoots a one-and-one, in which the player must make the first free throw in order to get a chance to shoot a second. Beginning with the tenth foul of the half, two free throws are awarded. Free throws are not awarded for offensive fouls (most often charging fouls), even if the team fouled is in the bonus. The number of fouls that triggers a penalty is higher in college basketball because the game is divided into two 20-minute halves, as opposed to quarters of 10 minutes in FIBA play or 12 minutes in the NBA. As in professional play, a foul in the act of shooting is a two-shot foul. In basketball, a personal foul is a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. ...


If a player is injured upon being fouled and cannot shoot free throws, the offensive team may designate any player from the bench to shoot in the place of the injured player in college; in the NBA, the opposing team designates the player to shoot. In all other circumstances, the fouled player must shoot his or her own foul shots. Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... Look up bench in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


If a player, coach, or team staff (e.g. doctor, statistician) shows poor sportsmanship, which may include arguing with a referee, that person may get charged with a technical foul. In the NBA, a technical foul results in one free throw attempt for the other team. In FIBA play, a technical foul results in one free throw if the offending individual is playing on the court, and two free throws if he or she is on the bench. In NCAA basketball, technical fouls result in two free throws in all situations. At both levels, the opposing team may choose any player who is currently on the court to shoot the free throws, and is then awarded possession of the ball after the free throws. Since there is no opportunity for a rebound, these free throws are shot with no players on the lane. A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many sports. ... In basketball, a technical foul is an infraction of the rules usually concerning unsportsmanlike non-contact behavior. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often said NC-Double-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletics programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... A rebound in basketball is the act of successfully gaining possession of the basketball after a missed field goal or free throw. ...


Finally, if a referee deems a foul extremely aggressive, or that it did not show an attempt to play the ball, the referee can call a more severe foul, known as an unsportsmanlike foul in international play, a flagrant foul in the NBA, or an intentional foul in NCAA basketball. This foul is charged against the player, and the opponent gets two free throws and possession of the ball afterwards. Unlike technical fouls, the player fouled must shoot the awarded free throws. A flagrant foul is a more serious contact foul involving excessive contact in a National Basketball Association game. ...


Fouls "away from the ball" (fouls that do not occur on the shooter or near the ball) are handled like the second case above in most situations. Many times defenders hold their opponent to avoid them from catching an in-bound pass or fight through screens and thus are called for fouls. These fouls are almost always treated as normal personal fouls. In the NBA, when there are only two minutes left on the clock of either half, off-ball fouls when the fouling team is over the limit are rewarded with one free throw and possession of the ball. It is therefore common for a losing team to deliberately foul players such as Ben Wallace or Shaquille O'Neal, a dominant player but a terrible foul shooter, up until the two-minute mark, and then play intense defense for the rest of the game (see Hack-a-Shaq). It is believed that this rule was instituted because of Wilt Chamberlain[citation needed]. Previously teams had been allowed to foul any player on the court regardless of whether that player had possession of the ball, with only two free throws awarded to the fouled player. This motivated teams to chase poor free-throw shooters, such as Chamberlain, around the court in attempt to foul him in an effort to extend the game. To discourage this practice, the NBA changed the rule to award one free throw and possession of the ball to a player who is fouled in the last two minutes of the fourth quarter. This rule does not apply in international play. For the British MP, see Ben Wallace (UK politician). ... Shaquille Rashaun ONeal (born March 6, 1972 in Newark, New Jersey), frequently referred to simply as Shaq (pronounced shack), is an American professional basketball player, generally regarded as one of the most dominant in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Hack-a-Shaq is the name commonly ascribed to a basketball defensive strategy initially instituted in the National Basketball Association (NBA) by former Dallas Mavericks coach Don Nelson to hinder the scoring ability of the Chicago Bulls. ... Wilton Norman Wilt Chamberlain (August 21, 1936–October 12, 1999), nicknamed Wilt the Stilt and The Big Dipper, was an American professional National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball player for the Philadelphia / San Francisco Warriors, the Philadelphia 76ers and the Los Angeles Lakers; and also played for the Harlem Globetrotters. ...


Procedure

Free throws are organized in procession. The shooter takes his place behind the free throw line (15 feet, or roughly 4.5 meters, from the basket). All other players must stand in their correct places until the ball leaves the shooter's hands:


Three people from the defensive team and two people from the shooting team line up along the sides of the restricted area (keyhole, paint, lane). These players are usually the ones that rebound the ball. Three line up on one side and two on the other. A defensive player always takes the place closest to the basket.


The remaining four players, two from each team, must remain behind the three point line and the free throw line extended (an imaginary line extended from the free throw line in both directions to the sidelines).


Leaving their designated places before the ball leaves the shooter's hands, interfering with the ball, and (for the defensive team only) attempting to put off the shooter, are all violations. In addition, the shooter must release the ball within five seconds (ten in the NBA as well as all other levels of basketball in the United States) and must not step on or over the free throw line until the ball touches the ring. A violation by the shooter cancels the free throw; a violation by the defensive team results in a substitute free throw if the shooter missed; a violation by the offensive team or a shot that completely misses the ring results in the loss of possession to the defensive team (only if it is on the last free throw). The National Basketball Association of the United States and Canada, commonly known as the NBA, is the premier professional basketball league in North America. ...


Under FIBA rules, if the shooter does not commit a violation, and the ball goes in the basket, the attempt is automatically successful, regardless of violations committed by the non-shooter.


Free Throws Awarded (NBA)



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Personal Foul
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Offensive
 
 
 
 
 
Loose Ball
 
 
 
 
 
Defensive
 
Clear Path
1 Free throw
and possession2
 
Flagrant
2 Free throws
and possession2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No Penalty1
Loss of possession2
 
Penalty1
2 Free Throws
 
No Penalty1
Loss of possession2
 
Penalty1
2 Free Throws
 
Shooting
 
Non-shooting
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shot made
1 Free Throw
 
Shot missed
 
No Penalty1
Throw-in2
 
Penalty1
2 Free Throws
 
 
 
 
Technical Foul
1 Free Throw
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2 point attempt
2 Free Throws
 
3 point attempt
3 Free Throws


1 Penalty applies to fouls in excess of four in a regulation period or in excess of three in an overtime period. If a team has not committed its foul quota by the two minute mark of a period, it shall be allowed one foul before the penalty applies. Offensive fouls do not count toward this total.
2 Defensive fouls committed during a throw-in prior to the ball being released result in two free throws regardless of the penalty situation.


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07070/768555-291.stm
  2. ^ http://www.nba.com/history/players/chamberlain_summary.html

External links

  • NBA Rule Number 9: Free Throw
  • NBA Rule Number 12: Fouls and Penalties

  Results from FactBites:
 
Free throw - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1019 words)
In basketball, free throws or foul shots are unopposed attempts to score points from a restricted area on the court (the free throw line; informally known as the "charity stripe" or foul line), and are generally awarded after a foul by the opposing team.
The importance of free throws is nevertheless sometimes underestimated; games have been known to be decided on them, especially if the score was close.
Free throws normally can be made at a high percentage.
Basketball.com - NBA (786 words)
When a free throw is awarded, an official shall put the ball in play by placing it at the disposal of the free throw shooter.
During a free throw for a personal foul, each of the spaces nearest the endline must be occupied by an opponent of the free throw shooter.
A free throw attempt, personal or technical, shall neither be legal nor count unless an official handles the ball and is also in the free throw area when the foul try is attempted.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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