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Encyclopedia > Free software

Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. In practice, for software to be distributed as free software, the human readable form of the program (the "source code") must be made available to the recipient along with a notice granting the above permissions. Such a notice is a "free software licence", or, in theory, could be a notice saying that the source code is released into the public domain. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... A free software licence is a software licence which grants recipients rights to modify and redistribute the software which would otherwise be prohibited by copyright law. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


The free software movement was launched in 1983 to make these freedoms available to every computer user.[1] From the late 1990s onward, alternative terms for free software came into use. "Open source software" is the most common such alternative term. Others include "software libre", "free, libre and open-source software" ("FOSS", or, with "libre", "FLOSS"). The antonym of free software is "proprietary software" or non-free software. The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ... From the early 90s onward, alternative terms for free software have come into common use, with much debate in the free software community. ... ... Gratis versus Libre is the distinction between zero price and freedom. ... FOSS is an acronym for free and open source software that is most often used in English-speaking military software communities. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...


Free software is distinct from "freeware" which is proprietary software made available free of charge. Users usually cannot study, modify, or redistribute freeware. The only permission freeware has in common with free software is the permission to use the software. The term Freeware refers to gratis proprietary software with closed source. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...


Since free software may be freely redistributed, it generally is available at little or no cost. Free software business models are usually based on adding value such as support, training, customization, integration, or certification. At the same time, some business models which work with proprietary software are not compatible with free software, such as those that depend on a user having no choice but to pay for a licence in order to lawfully use a software product. Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...

Contents

History

In the 50s, 60s, and 70s, it was normal for computer users to have the freedoms provided by free software. Software was commonly shared by individuals who used computers and by hardware manufacturers who were glad that people were making software that made their hardware useful. In the 70s and early 80s, the software industry began to apply copyright law, and began using technical measures such as only distributing binary copies, to prevent computer users from being able to study and modify the software.[2] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1983, Richard Stallman launched the GNU project after becoming frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and users. Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded in October 1985. He introduced a free software definition and "copyleft", designed to ensure software freedom for all. Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... GNU is a free software operating system. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ...


Free software is a huge international effort, producing software used by individuals, large organizations, and governmental administrations. Free software has a very high market penetration in server-side Internet applications such as the Apache web server, MySQL database, and PHP scripting language. Completely free computing environments are available as large packages of basic system software such as the many Linux distributions and FreeBSD. Free software developers have also created free versions of almost all commonly used desktop applications such as web browsers, office productivity suites, and multimedia players. It is important to note, however, that in many categories, free software for individual workstation or home users has only a fraction of the market share of their proprietary competitors. Most free software is distributed online without charge, or off-line at the marginal cost of distribution, but this is not required, and people may sell copies for any price. Apache HTTP Server is an open source HTTP web server for Unix platforms (BSD, Linux, and UNIX systems), Microsoft Windows, and other platforms. ... MySQL (pronounced (IPA) , my S-Q-L[1]) is a multithreaded, multi-user SQL database management system (DBMS)[2] which has, according to MySQL AB, more than 10 million installations. ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Online means being connected to the Internet or another similar electronic network, like a bulletin board system. ... In telecommunication, the term off-line has the following meanings: 1. ... In economics and finance, marginal cost is the change in total cost that arises when the quantity produced changes by one unit. ...


The economic viability of free software has been recognised by large corporations such as IBM, Red Hat, and Sun Microsystems. Many companies whose core business is not in the IT sector choose free software for their Internet information and sales sites, due to the lower initial capital investment and ability to freely customize the application packages. Also, some non-software industries are beginning to use techniques similar to those used in free software development for their research and development: scientists, for example, are looking towards more open development processes, and hardware such as microchips are beginning to be developed with specifications released under copyleft licenses (see the OpenCores project, for instance). Creative Commons and the free culture movement have also been largely influenced by the free software movement. For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... For other uses, see Red Hat (disambiguation). ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... OpenCores is a loose community of people who are interested in developing open source hardware (digital hardware) through electronic design automation, with a similar ethos to the free software movement. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ... The Free Culture Movement is a student led movement that supports freedom of speech on the Internet and objects to overly restrictive copyright laws, which, members of the movement argue, hinders creativity. ...


Naming

The FSF recommends using the term "free software" and never "open source software" because that term and the associated marketing campaign focuses on technical issues and avoids talking about the value of freedom.[3] "Libre" is used to avoid the ambiguity of the word "free". However, libre is mostly used within the free software movement. Gratis versus Libre is the distinction between no cost and freedom, a distiction not made by the word free. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ...


Definition

The first formal definition of free software was published by FSF in February 1986.[4] That definition, written by Richard Stallman, is still maintained today and states that software is free software if people who receive a copy of the software have the following four freedoms: The Free Software Definition is a definition published by Free Software Foundation (FSF) for what constitutes free software. ... The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) are a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in the main, free software distribution of Debian. ... The Open Source Definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether or not a software license can be considered open source. ...

  • Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose.
  • Freedom 1: The freedom to study and modify the program.
  • Freedom 2: The freedom to copy the program so you can help your neighbor.
  • Freedom 3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits.

Freedoms 1 and 3 require source code to be available because studying and modifying software without its source code is highly impractical. Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


Thus, free software means that computer users have the freedom to cooperate with whom they choose, and to control the software they use. To summarize this into a remark distinguishing libre (freedom) software from gratis (zero price) software, Richard Stallman has long said: "Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in 'free speech', not as in 'free beer'".[5] User in a computing context refers to one who uses a computer system. ... Gratis versus Libre is the distinction between zero price and freedom. ... Gratis versus Libre is the distinction between zero price and freedom. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


In the late 90s, other groups published their own definitions which describe an almost identical set of software. The most notable are Debian Free Software Guidelines published in 1997,[6] and the Open Source Definition, published in 1998. The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) are a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in the main, free software distribution of Debian. ... The Open Source Definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether or not a software license can be considered open source. ...


The BSD-based operating systems, such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD, do not have their own formal definitions of free software but users of these systems generally find the same set of software to be acceptable. However, rather than advocate the use of copyleft free software licenses, they see copyleft as being merely tolerable. Instead, they advocate permissive free software licenses which allow others to make software based on their source code and then not, in turn, also distribute the source. Their view is that this permissive approach is more free. The Kerberos, X.org, and Apache software licenses are substantially similar in intent and implementation. All of these software packages originated in academic institutions interested in the widest possible technology transfer (University of California, MIT, and UIUC). FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... Permissive free software licences are free software licences for a copyrighted work that offer many of the same freedoms as releasing a work to the public domain. ... Kerberos can refer to different things: Kerberos (mythology), the hound of Hades. ... The X.Org logo The X.Org Foundation is the consortium holding the stewardship for the development of the X Window System. ... The Apache License (Apache Software License previous to version 2. ...


Examples of free software

Main articles: List of open source software packages, Portal:Free software/Categories, and :Category:Free software
Free software badge

Notable free software: This is a list of open-source software packages: computer software licensed under an open-source license. ... Image File history File links Free-software-badge. ... Image File history File links Free-software-badge. ...

The Free Software Directory is a free software project that maintains a large database of free software packages. This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... BSD redirects here. ... Darwin is a free and open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. ... OpenSolaris is an open source project created by Sun Microsystems to build a developer community around Solaris Operating System technology. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... The GNU Debugger, usually called just GDB, is the standard debugger for the GNU software system. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain, previously: Berkeley Internet Name Daemon) is the most commonly used DNS server on the Internet, especially on Unix-like systems, where it is a de facto standard. ... Sendmail is a mail transfer agent (MTA) that is a well known project of the open source, free software and Unix communities, which is distributed both as free software and proprietary software. ... The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to simply as Apache, is a web server notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. ... Samba logo. ... A relational database is a database that conforms to the relational model, and refers to a databases data and schema (the databases structure of how that data is arranged). ... MySQL (pronounced (IPA) , my S-Q-L[1]) is a multithreaded, multi-user SQL database management system (DBMS)[2] which has, according to MySQL AB, more than 10 million installations. ... PostgreSQL is a free software object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), released under a BSD-style license. ... Java language redirects here. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... Python is a high-level programming language first released by Guido van Rossum in 1991. ... In computing, the Lua (pronounced LOO-ah) programming language is a lightweight, reflective, imperative and procedural language, designed as a scripting language with extensible semantics as a primary goal. ... Ruby is a reflective, object-oriented programming language. ... Tcl (originally from Tool Command Language, but nonetheless conventionally rendered as Tcl rather than TCL; and pronounced tickle) is a scripting language created by John Ousterhout. ... GUI redirects here. ... “X11” redirects here. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... For the NYSE stock ticker symbol KDE, see 4Kids Entertainment. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. Its configuration is entirely mouse-driven and the configuration files are hidden from the casual user. ... OpenOffice. ... The Mozilla Application Suite (originally known as Mozilla, marketed as the Mozilla Suite, and code named Seamonkey) is a free, cross-platform internet suite, whose components include a web browser, an e-mail and news client, an HTML editor, and an IRC client. ... Firefox redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gimp (disambiguation). ... TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... This page is about the audio compression codec. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ... vi editing a temporary, empty file. ... This article is about the text editor. ... The Free Software Directory is a project of the Free Software Foundation (FSF) and United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). ...


Free software licenses

All free software licenses must grant people all the freedoms discussed above. However, unless the applications' licenses are compatible, combining programs by mixing source code or directly linking binaries is problematic, because of license technicalities. Programs indirectly connected together may avoid this problem. This article is about Free Software as defined by the sociopolitical Free Software movement; for information on software distributed without charge, see freeware. ...


Most free software uses a small set of licenses. The most popular of these are:

Free Software Foundation and Open Source Initiative both publish lists of licenses that they find to comply with their definition of free software and open-source software respectively. GPL redirects here. ... The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... In computing, the Mozilla Public License (MPL) is an open source and free software license. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ... The Apache License (Apache Software License previous to version 2. ...

  • List of FSF approved software licenses
  • List of OSI approved software licenses

These lists are necessarily incomplete, because a license need not be known by either organization in order to provide these freedoms. The following is a list of software licences which Free Software Foundation has approved as complying with their Free Software Definition. ...


Apart from these two organizations, the Debian project is seen by some to provide useful advice on whether particular licenses comply with their Debian Free Software Guidelines. Debian doesn't publish a list of approved licenses, so its judgments have to be tracked by checking what software they have allowed into their software archives. That is summarized at the Debian web site.[7] Debian is a free operating system. ... The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) are a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in the main, free software distribution of Debian. ...


However, it is rare that a license is announced as being in-compliance by FSF or OSI and not the other (the Netscape Public License used for early versions of Mozilla being an exception), so exact definitions of the terms have not become hot issues. The Netscape Public License (NPL) is a free software license, the license under which Netscape Communications Corporation originally released Mozilla. ...


Permissive and copyleft licenses

The FSF categorizes licenses in the following ways:

  • Copyleft licenses, the GNU General Public License being the most prominent. The author retains copyright and permits redistribution and modification under terms to ensure that all modified versions remain free for as long as the author wishes.
  • BSD-style licenses, so called because they are applied to much of the software distributed with the BSD operating systems. The author retains copyright protection solely to disclaim warranty and require proper attribution of modified works, but permits redistribution and modification in any work, even proprietary ones, again, for as long as the author wishes.
  • Public domain software - the author has abandoned the copyright. Since public-domain software lacks copyright protection, it may be freely incorporated into any work, whether proprietary or free. Importantly, software released thus goes completely out of control of the author, who, even if he subsequently so desires, cannot impose any restriction on its use.

The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... GPL redirects here. ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... BSD redirects here. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Security and reliability

There is debate over the security of free software in comparison to proprietary software, with a major issue being security through obscurity. A popular quantitative test in computer security is using relative counting of known unpatched security flaws. Generally, users of this method advise avoiding products which lack fixes for known security flaws, at least until a fix is available. Some claim that method counts more vulnerabilities for the free software, since their source code is accessible and their community is more forthcoming about what problems exist.[8] This article describes how security can be achieved through design and engineering. ... In cryptography and computer security, security through obscurity (sometimes security by obscurity) is to some a controversial principle in security engineering, which attempts to use secrecy (of design, implementation, etc. ...


Free software advocates rebut that proprietary software do not have published flaws, but flaws could exist and are possibly already known to malicious users. The ability to view and modify the software provides many more people who can analyse the code, and possibly have a higher rate of finding bugs and flaws than an average corporation. Having access to the source code also makes creating spyware far more difficult.[9] A large number of toolbars, some added by spyware, overwhelm an Internet Explorer session. ...


David A. Wheeler has published research concluding that free software is quantatively more reliable than proprietary software.[10] Categories: People stubs | 1965 births | Wikipedians with article ...


Adoption

Free software played a part in the development of the Internet, the World Wide Web and the infrastructure of dot-com companies.[11] [12] Free software allows users to cooperate in enhancing and refining the programs they use; free software is a pure public good rather than a private good. Companies that contribute to free software can increase commercial innovation amidst the void of patent cross licensing lawsuits. (See mpeg2 patent holders) A Dot-com company, or simply a dot-com, was any company that promoted itself as an Internet business during the Dot-com boom. ... In economics, a public good is one that cannot or will not be produced for individual profit, since it is difficult to get people to pay for its large beneficial externalities. ... In economics Private good is an opposite of the public good. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... In patent law, a cross-licensing agreement is an agreement according to which two parties grant a license to each other for the exploitation of the subject-matter claimed in patents. ... MP2, also known as Musicam, is a short form of MPEG-1 Audio Layer 2 (not MPEG-2), and it is also used as a file extension for files containing audio data of this type. ...


Under the free software business model, free software vendors may charge a fee for distribution and offer pay support and software customization services. Proprietary software uses a different business model, where a customer of the proprietary software pays a fee for a license to use the software. This license may grant the customer the ability to configure some or no parts of the software themselves. Often some level of support is included in the purchase of proprietary software, but additional support services (especially for enterprise applications) are usually available for an additional fee. Some proprietary software vendors will also customize software for a fee.


Free software is generally available at little to no cost and can result in permanently lower costs compared to proprietary software. With free software, businesses can fit software to their specific needs by changing the software themselves or by hiring programmers to modify it for them. Free software often has no warranty, and more importantly, generally does not assign legal liability to anyone. However, warranties are permitted between any two parties upon the condition of the software and its usage. Such an agreement is made separately from the free software license. Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...


Controversies

Binary blobs

Main article: Binary blobs

In 2006, OpenBSD started the first campaign against the use of binary blobs, in kernels. Blobs are usually freely distributable device drivers for hardware from vendors that do not reveal driver source code to users or developers. This restricts the users' freedom to effectively modify the software and distribute modified versions. Also, since the blobs are undocumented and may have bugs, they pose a security risk to any operating system whose kernel includes them. The proclaimed aim of the campaign against blobs is to collect hardware documentation that allows developers to write free software drivers for that hardware, ultimately enabling all free operating systems to become or remain blob-free. An object file to be loaded into the kernel space of an open source operating system is called a binary blob if its source code is not publicly available. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... An object file to be loaded into the kernel space of an open source operating system is called a binary blob if its source code is not publicly available. ... Look up Kernel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ... A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working as intended, or produces an incorrect result. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ...


The issue of binary blobs in the Linux kernel and other device drivers motivated some developers in Ireland to launch gNewSense, a Linux distribution with all the binary blobs removed. The project received support from the Free Software Foundation[13] The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... gNewSense (originally called Gnusiance) is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ...


BitKeeper

Main article: BitKeeper#License concerns

Larry McVoy invited high-profile free software projects to use his proprietary versioning system, BitKeeper, free of charge, in order to attract paying users. In 2002, Linux coordinator Linus Torvalds decided to use BitKeeper to develop the Linux kernel, a free software project, claiming no free software alternative met his needs. This controversial decision drew criticism from several sources, including the Free Software Foundation's founder Richard Stallman.[14] BitKeeper is a software tool for revision control (configuration management, SCM, etc. ... Larry McVoy (b. ... Revision control is an aspect of documentation control wherein changes to documents are identified by incrementing an associated number or letter code, termed the revision level, or simply revision. It has been a standard practice in the maintenance of engineering drawings for as long as the generation of such drawings... BitKeeper is a software tool for revision control (configuration management, SCM, etc. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds  ; born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ...


Following the apparent reverse engineering of BitKeeper's protocols, McVoy withdrew permission for gratis use by free software projects, leading the Linux kernel community to develop a free software replacement in Git. Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ... Git is a distributed revision control / software configuration management project created by Linus Torvalds to manage software development of the Linux kernel. ...


Patent deals

In November of 2006, the Microsoft and Novell software corporations announced a controversial partnership involving, among other things, patent protection for some customers of Novell under certain conditions.[15] Opposition to software patents is widespread in the free software community. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... For the road bicycle racing team previously known as Novell, see Rabobank (cycling). ...


See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... Free content is any kind of functional work, artwork, or other creative content upon which no legal restriction has been placed that significantly interferes with peoples freedom to use, understand, redistribute, improve, and share the content. ... // The free software community is also called the open source community or the Linux community. ... A free file format is a file format that is free of any patents or copyright. ... This article is about Free Software as defined by the sociopolitical Free Software movement; for information on software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... The legal aspects of technology involve many different terms. ... The list Free Software packages. ... A list of websites that list free software projects. ... Libre Knowledge is knowledge which may be acquired, interpreted and applied freely, it can be re-formulated according to ones needs, and shared with others for community benefit. ...

External links

Wikinews
Wikinews has related news:
FLOSS

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... FSF Europes logo The Free Software Foundation Europe (FSF Europe) was founded in 2001 as the sister organisation of the Free Software Foundation (FSF) in the USA to take care of all aspects of Free Software in Europe. ... Categories: People stubs | 1965 births | Wikipedians with article ... Robert (aka Bob) Chassell was one of the founding directors of Free Software Foundation (FSF) in 1985. ...

References

  1. ^ GNU project Initial Announcement.
  2. ^ David A. Wheeler. Appendix "History" of Why OSS/FS, Look at the Numbers!. “However, as years progressed, and especially in the 1970s and 1980s, software developers increasingly closed off their software source code from users.”
  3. ^ Why “Open Source” misses the point of Free Software. “The philosophy of open source, with its purely practical values, impedes understanding of the deeper ideas of free software; it brings many people into our community, but does not teach them to defend it.”
  4. ^ GNU's Bulletin, Volume 1 Number 1, page 8.
  5. ^ Free Software Foundation. The Free Software Definition. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  6. ^ Bruce Perens. Debian's "Social Contract" with the Free Software Community. debian-announce mailing list.
  7. ^ Debian -- License information. Retrieved on 2008-01-08.
  8. ^ Firefox more secure than MSIE after all. News.com.
  9. ^ Transcript where Stallman explains about spyware.
  10. ^ David A. Wheeler. High Assurance (for Security or Safety) and Free-Libre / Open Source Software (FLOSS)... with Lots on Formal Methods.
  11. ^ Netcraft. Web Server Usage Survey.
  12. ^ The Apache Software Foundation. Apache Strategy in the New Economy.
  13. ^ GNU/Linux distributions we know of which consist entirely of free software, and whose main distribution sites distribute only free software.
  14. ^ Richard Stallman thanking Larry McVoy for ending the gratis licenses for BitKeeper. NewsForge.
  15. ^ Ars Technica article on the Microsoft-Novell patent deal.
Categories: People stubs | 1965 births | Wikipedians with article ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... NewsForge is an online newspaper for linux and open source, which is owned by the Open Source Technology Group (the same entity that owns thinkgeek. ... Software redirects here. ... This article is about advertising-supported software. ... Beerware is a term that originally referred to a software license similar to shareware but more layed-back. ... Careware (or charityware, helpware or goodware.) is software distributed in a way that benefits a charity. ... Commercial software is computer software sold for commercial purposes or that serves commercial purposes. ... Crippleware is a form of shareware. ... Demoware is a term of distinction used to differentiate between types of shareware software. ... Donateware (or donationware) is a form of software distribution. ... Foistware is software which is installed with completely unrelated programs. ... Freely redistributable software (FRS) is software that anyone is free to redistribute. ... The term Freeware refers to gratis proprietary software with closed source. ... Nagware is a term of distinction used to differentiate between types of shareware software. ... ... Otherware is a collective term referring to software that is not distributed as freeware, shareware or commercial software. ... Postcardware, also called just cardware, is a style of software distribution similar to shareware, distributed by the author on the condition that users send the author a postcard. ... Ransomware can stand for a type of software distribution licence or a type of hacking exploit. ... Registerware refers to computer software which requires the user to give personal information through registration in order to download or use the program. ... Commercial software is software that is sold for profit, and represented, until recently, the vast majority of all software used. ... Look up shareware in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Free Software - Ciaran O'Riordan (1611 words)
Free software is not always without restriction, but restrictions are only permitted if they are which are trivial or are the minimum necessary to ensure that further recipients also receive these freedoms.
Free software grants these freedoms to recipients by accompanying the software with a licence which grants permission to do these things, and by making the software available in human readable source code form as well as, optionally, in computer readable binary form.
So that code from seperate free software packages could be combined, and to prevent the duplication of work (which leads to flaws), he wrote a free software copyleft-style license for the public which was general enough to be usable for any software project.
Free software - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2778 words)
The usual way for software to be distributed as free software is for the software to be licensed to the recipient with a free software license (or be in the public domain), and the source code of the software to be made available (for a compiled language).
Software that is not free software is known as proprietary software.
Free software is generally available at little to no cost and can result in permanently lower costs compared to proprietary software, evidence by free software becoming popular in third world countries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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