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Encyclopedia > Free Territory of Trieste
Territorio libero di Trieste
Svobodno tržaško ozemlje
Slobodni teritorij Trsta

Free Territory of Trieste

City-state


1947 – 1954

Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste
Capital Trieste
Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian
Government Republic
Historical era Cold War
 - Established September 15, 1947
 - Partition October 26, 1954
 - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977
Area
 - 1947 738 km2
285 sq mi
Population
 - 1947 est. 330,000 
     Density 447.2 /km² 
1,158.1 /sq mi
Currency Triestine lira

The Free Territory of Trieste or Free State of Trieste (Italian Territorio libero di Trieste, Slovenian Svobodno tržaško ozemlje, Croatian Slobodni teritorij Trsta, German Freies Territorium Triest) was a City State situated in Central Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia. Italia redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Trieste (It. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - dissolution June 25... Image File history File links Free_Territory_Trieste_Flag. ... Image File history File links Free_Territory_of_Trieste_coat_of_arms. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (511x804, 121 KB) Map of the Free Territory of Trieste (1947-1954), with zone delimitation, in English. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest; Hungarian: Trieszt; Latin: Tergeste; Serbian: Трст or Trst) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Look up partition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the partition of the Free Territory of Trieste (1947-1954) between Italy and Yugoslavia, as fixed by the Treaty of Osimo (1975). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


The Free Territory of Trieste comprised the port city of Trieste with a narrow coastal strip to the north west (zone A) and a small portion of the Istrian peninsula (zone B). Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest; Hungarian: Trieszt; Latin: Tergeste; Serbian: Трст or Trst) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... Coat of arms Istria (Istra, pronounced in Croatian and Slovenian; Istria, pronounced in Italian, Istrien, pronounced in German) is the biggest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ...


The Free State was established in 1947 in order to accommodate an ethnically and culturally mixed population in a neutral country. The intention was also to cool down territorial claims, due to its strategic importance for trade with Central Europe. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


The Free State turned out to be un-governable and was taken over by its two neighbours in 1954 and officially dissolved in 1977. 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...

Contents

Geography

The Free Territory of Trieste comprised an area of 738 km² around the bay of Trieste from Duino/Devin in the north to Civittanova/Novigrad in the south and had approximately 330,000 inhabitants. It bordered Italy to the north and Yugoslavia to the south and east. The rivers of the territory included the Risano/Rižana, the Dragogna/Dragonja, the Timavo/Reka, the Rosandra/Glinščica and the Quieto/Mirna. The Territory's highest point was at Monte Castellaro/Veliko Gradišče (724m). Its most extreme points were near Medeazza/Medjevas at 45° 48’ in the north, at Porto Quieto/Tarski at 45° 18’ in the south, Punta Salvore/Rt Savudrija at 13° 29’ in the west and Grozzana di Pese/Gročana at 13° 55’ in the east. Duino castle Duino (Devin in Slovenian, Tybein in German) in the coastal part of the Municipality of Duino-Aurisina, lies in the region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia in the province of Trieste, in north-east Italy. ... Coat of arms Novigrad is a city on the Adriatic Sea in Croatia. ...


History

For centuries Trieste was part of the Austrian Empire (since 1867 Austria-Hungary) despite its mostly Italian population. According to the 1910 Austrian census the 230,000 Triestians named the following language groups: Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

  • 51.8% as Italian,
  • 25% as Slovenian,
  • 5% as Croatian,
  • 1.2% Others (German, Serbian, Greek etc.), and
  • 16% as aliens from outside the Empire (of which 75% were from Italy)
A poster for the Marshall Plan displaying European national flags, including one for Trieste, erroneously with a blue background instead of red.
A poster for the Marshall Plan displaying European national flags, including one for Trieste, erroneously with a blue background instead of red.

In 1921 (after World War I) Italy formally annexed Trieste, Istria and part of what today is western Slovenia. In 1924 Italy further annexed the Free State of Fiume, now the city of Rijeka in Croatia. Image File history File links One of a number of posters created by the Americans to sell the Marshall Plan in Europe. ... Image File history File links One of a number of posters created by the Americans to sell the Marshall Plan in Europe. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... Coat of arms Istria (Istra, pronounced in Croatian and Slovenian; Istria, pronounced in Italian, Istrien, pronounced in German) is the biggest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Free state of rijeka. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian, Reka in Slovene; Sankt Veit am Flaum in older German; R(ij)eka and Fiume both mean river) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. ...


The rural area was populated by Slovenes in the north and by Croats in the southeast, while Italians constituted the majority of inhabitants in Trieste, Rijeka and the towns of Istria. During the 1920s and 1930s the Slavic population was subjected to Italianization and discrimination under the Italian Fascist regime. They were also exposed to violence, including the burning of the Slovene National Club (Narodni dom) in Trieste on July 13, 1920, as an immediate answer to killing of two Italian sailors by Yugoslav gendarmerie in the course of riots in Split. The 1920s is a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples (Greek: , Latin: , Arabic: ‎ Ṣaqālibä, Old Church Slavonic: , Russian: , Polish: , Serbo-Croatian: ) are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ...


Many Slovenes and Croats emigrated to Yugoslavia, while some joined the TIGR resistance organization, whose methods included more than 100 terrorist actions in Trieste and surroundings during the 1920s and 1930s. TIGR, abbreviation for Trst (Trieste), Istra (Istria), Gorica (Gorizia) and Reka (Rijeka (Fiume)), was the first antifascist national-defensive organization in Europe, consisting of Slovenians in Slovenian region of Primorje (Primorski Slovenci). ... The 1920s is a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ...


Italy fought with the Axis powers in World War II. When the Fascist regime collapsed in 1943 and Italy capitulated, Slovenia and Croatia (that were to become parts of the Yugoslavia) formally annexed the territory, but German forces occupied it. The Yugoslav 4th Army together with the Slovenian 9th Corps captured Trieste on May 1, 1945. The New Zealand army arrived on the next day. The German Army surrendered to New Zealand army. The Yugoslav soldiers left on June 12, 1945, thus keeping to an agremeent between Yugoslavia and the Western Allies reached on May 12. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - dissolution June 25... Image:Wehrmacht 20 April 1939 Birthday Parade. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbian: Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslovenska narodna armija (JHA / JNA); Croatian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija (JNA); Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada (JLA); Macedonian: Jугословенската народна армија (JНA); Albanian: Armata Popullore e Jugosllavisë) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Image:Wehrmacht 20 April 1939 Birthday Parade. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ...


On February 10, 1947, a peace treaty was signed with Italy, establishing the Free Territory of Trieste. The territory was, however, divided into two zones: Zone A, which was 222.5 km² and had 262,406 residents including Trieste, which was administered by British and American forces, and Zone B, which was 515.5 km² with 71,000 residents including north-western Istria, and which was administered by the Yugoslav National Army. The Territory thus never functioned as a real independent state. Even so, its formal status was respected and it issued its own currency and stamps. February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


According to the estimates published by the Allied Military Government, as of 1949 in the A zone there were about 310,000 inhabitants, including 239,200 Italians and 63,000 Slovenes. Contemporary Italian sources give much lower numbers for Slovenes (32,000-40,000).


According to the Yugoslav census of 1945 (considered unreliable by the Western Allies), in the part of Istria which was to become Zone B there were 67,461 inhabitants, including 30,789 Slavs, 29,672 Italians and 7,000 people of unidentified nationality. According to contemporary Italian sources, in zone B there were 36,000-55,000 Italians and 12,000-17,000 Slavs.


In 1954 a Memorandum of Understanding was signed in London. It gave a provisional civil administration of Zone A (with Trieste) to Italy and Zone B to Yugoslavia. In 1975 the Treaty of Osimo was signed in Osimo, definitively dividing the former Free Territory of Trieste between Italy and Yugoslavia. 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest; Hungarian: Trieszt; Latin: Tergeste; Serbian: Трст or Trst) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Map of the partition of the Free Territory of Trieste (1947-1954) between Italy and Yugoslavia, as fixed by the Treaty of Osimo (1975). ... Osimo (anc. ...


Zone A corresponds to the current Italian Province of Trieste, and Zone B is now divided between the Slovenian Littoral and Croatian Istria. Trieste (It. ... The Slovenian Littoral (Slovenian: ; Italian: ; German: ) is a traditional region of Slovenia that itself consists of the regions of Goriška and Slovenian Istria (Slovenska Istra). ... Istria county (Croatian: Istarska županija; Italian: Regione istriana) is the westernmost county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula (2820 out of 3160 km²). Area is called Istra in Croatian and Slovenian, and [[Istria]] in Italian. ...


Demographics

During the late 1940s and in the years following the division of the territory, up to 40,000 people (mostly Italians) chose to leave the Yugoslav B zone and move to the A zone or Italy for various reasons - some were intimidated into leaving and some simply preferred not to live in Yugoslavia. In Yugoslavia, the people who left were called optanti, while they call themselves esuli or exiles. About 14,000 Italians chose to remain in the Yugoslav zone, now part of Slovenia and Croatia. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ...


See also

Communist Party of the Free Territory of Trieste (in Italian: Partito Comunista del Territorio Libero di Trieste, PCTLT, in Slovenian: Komunistični Partiji Svobodnega Tržaškega Ozemlja, KPSTO) was a communist party in the Free Territory of Trieste. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 16, adopted on January 10, 1947, recognized the establishment of the Free Territory of Trieste. ...

External links

  • Statute and Constitution of the FTT
  • Trieste veterans
  • In-official FTT

  Results from FactBites:
 
Free Territory of Trieste (198 words)
Following World War II the city of Trieste and surrounding territory was administered by the British and Americans as the "Free Territory of Trieste.
In 1975 the Treaty of Osimo was signed, definitively dividing the former Free Territory of Trieste between Italy and Yugoslavia.
On the map Trieste and its territory is colored fl and is identified as “Cona, A,” while “Cona B”, shaded with hatching, is the area governed by Yugoslavia, and now by Slovenia.
Free Territory of Trieste (1945-1954) (Italy) (1029 words)
I believe the flag was the flag for the whole territory since the constitution of the Free Territory of Trieste mentionned the flag of the Territory as well as the coat of arms.
The flag was in use as Free Terittory of Trieste flag from 1945 to 5 Octuber 1954.
Since that time, the territory was divided in two parts: the A zone (Trieste and surroundings: Allied Military Government, then Free Territory of Trieste) and B zone (part of Istria, governed by the Yugoslavs).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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