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Encyclopedia > Free French Forces
République française
Gouvernement de la France libre

French Republic
Free French Government
Government in exile

1940 – 1944

Flag of France A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Free_France_1940-1944. ...


Flag The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ...

De Jure territory
Capital Paris
Capital-in-exile London, Algiers
Government Republic
Leader Charles de Gaulle
Historical era World War II
 - de Gaulle's appeal June 18, 1940
 - Liberation of Paris August, 1944

The Free French Forces (French: Forces Françaises Libres, FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to continue fighting against Axis forces after the surrender of France and subsequent German occupation. The FFL responded to the call of the de jure French government-in-exile ("Free French Government" or "Fighting France"). Gaullist mythology claimed they had responded to General Charles de Gaulle's Appeal of 18 June in 1940, but historians later showed that the call had been heard by a small group of people. De Gaulle's 22 June speech on the BBC was much more widely heard.[1] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... “Alger” redirects here. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Leader in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC on 18 June 1940 The Appeal of 18th June was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Liberation of Paris in World War II took place in late August 1944 after the battle of Normandy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Second Armistice at Compiègne, France was signed on June 22, 18:50, 1940, between Nazi Germany and France. ... The German occupation of France in World War II occurred during the period between May of 1940 to December of 1944. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... Gaullism is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC on 18 June 1940 The Appeal of 18th June was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Definition

In many sources, Free French is used to describe any French individual or unit that fought against Axis forces after the June 1940 armistice. The reality is more complex as some French forces did take part in the fight against the Axis, for example in Tunisia in early 1943, without having any relationship yet with De Gaulle's organisation. The word axis has several meanings: In mathematics, axis can mean: A straight line around which a geometric figure can be rotated. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Historically, an individual became Free French after he or she enlisted De Gaulle's Free French organisation located in London. Free French units are units formed by these people. De Gaulle's organisation stopped accepting members in mid-1943 as Free French forces were merging with the French forces in North Africa, and a temporary government-in-exile called the Comité français de libération nationale was set up in Algiers. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... “Alger” redirects here. ...


Postwar, to settle disputes over the Free French heritage, the French government issued an official definition of the term. Under this "ministerial instruction of July 1953" (instruction ministérielle du 29 juillet 1953), only those who served with the Allies after the Franco-German armistice in 1940 and before 1 August 1943 may correctly be called "Free French"[2]. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


French forces after July 1943 are therefore correctly designated as the "forces of Liberation". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This article temporarily includes the activities of French forces after 1942, in order to maintain continuity. Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History

Prelude

General De Gaulle
General De Gaulle

In 1940, General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French cabinet during the Battle of France. As French defence forces were increasingly overwhelmed, De Gaulle found himself part of a small group of politicians who argued against a negotiated surrender to Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. As these views were shared by the President of the Council, Paul Reynaud, De Gaulle was sent as an emissary to the United Kingdom, where he was when the French government collapsed. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... French government ministers are members of the Prime Ministers cabinet, although in French the term cabinet is rarely used to describe the gouvernement, even in translation (as it is used in French to mean a ministers private office, composed of politically-appointed aides). ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Paul Reynaud (October 15, 1878 - September 21, 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany. ...


On 16 June, the new French President of the Council, Philippe Pétain, began negotiations with Axis officials. On 18 June, De Gaulle spoke to the French people via BBC radio. He asked French soldiers, sailors and airmen to join in the fight against the Nazis. In France, De Gaulle's "Appeal of the 18th of June" (Appel du 18 juin) was not widely heard, but subsequent discourse by De Gaulle could be heard nationwide. Some of the British Cabinet had attempted to block the speech, but were over-ruled by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. To this day, the Appeal of 18 June remains one of the most famous speeches in French history. Nevertheless, on 22 June, Pétain signed the surrender and became leader of the puppet regime known as Vichy France. (Vichy is the French town where the government was based.) is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC on 18 June 1940 The Appeal of 18th June was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... “Churchill” redirects here. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ...


De Gaulle was tried in absentia in Vichy France and sentenced to death for treason; he, on the other hand, regarded himself as the last remaining member of the legitimate Reynaud government able to exercise power, seeing the rise to power of Pétain as an unconstitutional coup.


Cross of Lorraine

The capitaine de corvette Thierry d'Argenlieu suggested the adoption of the Cross of Lorraine as symbol of the Free French, both to recall the perseverance of Joan of Arc, whose symbol it had been, and as an answer to the Nazi swastika. The rank insignia of the French Navy are worn on epaulettes of shirts and white jackets, and on sleeves for navy jackets and mantels. ... Georges Thierry dArgenlieu (right) with Brigadier General Alexander M. Patch. ... Cross of Lorraine The Cross of Lorraine, ‡, is a heraldic cross. ... Image of Joan of Arc, painted between 1450 and 1500 (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490). ... This article is about the symbol. ...


In his general order n° 2 of 3 July 1940, Vice Admiral Émile Muselier, two days after assuming the post of chief of the naval and air forces of the Free French, created the bow flag displaying the French colours with a red cross of Lorraine, and a cocarde also featuring the cross of Lorraine. is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emile Henry Muselier (Marseilles, 17 April 1882 - Toulon, 2 September 1965) was a French admiral who led the naval forces of the Free French Forces during World War II. He was responsible for the idea of distinguishing his fleet from that of Vichy France by adopting the Cross of Lorraine... A cockade is a knot of ribbons, or other symbol of distinctive colours which is usually worn on a hat. ...


Following repeated broadcasts, by the end of July that year, 7,000 people had volunteered to join the Free French forces. The Free French Navy had fifty ships and some 3,700 men operating as an auxiliary force to the British Royal Navy. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


A monument on Lyle Hill in Greenock in western Scotland, in the shape of the Cross of Lorraine combined with an anchor, was raised by subscription as a memorial to the Free French naval vessels which sailed from the Firth of Clyde to take part in the Battle of the Atlantic, and is also locally associated with the memory of the loss of the Maillé Brézé which exploded at the Tail of the Bank. For other uses, see Greenock (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Map of the Firth of Clyde and area The Firth of Clyde forms a large area of coastal water, sheltered from the Atlantic ocean by the Kintyre peninsula which encloses the outer firth in Argyll and Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... Looking north from Greenock over the Tail of the Bank today, the cranes of the container terminal can be seen to the right, while on the other side of the Firth of Clyde the waters of the Gare Loch are just visible beyond the tail of the Rosneath peninsula. ...

Mers El Kébir

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill deemed that, in German or Italian hands, the French fleet would have been a grave threat to the Allies. He ordered the French ships to rejoin the Allies and agree to be put out of use in a British, French, or neutral port. As a last resort, Churchill indicated that the French fleet would be destroyed by British attack. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... “Churchill” redirects here. ... “Churchill” redirects here. ...


The Royal Navy attempted to persuade the French Navy to agree to these terms. But, when that failed, they attacked the French Navy at Mers El Kébir in Algeria. This attack on 3 July 1940 caused bitterness and division in France (over 1,000 sailors had been killed), particularly in the Navy, and discouraged many French soldiers from joining the Free French forces in Britain and elsewhere. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 1 aircraft carrier 3 battleships 2 light cruisers 11 destroyers 4 battleships 6 destroyers 1 seaplane tender Casualties 3 Blackburn Skua 3 Fairey Swordfish 2 dead 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships heavily damaged 1 destroyer damaged 1,297 dead... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some French warships did remain on the Allied side and others re-joined later after the Axis occupation of Vichy France (codenamed Case Anton) and the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon. Those ships flew a separate flag, the Free French Naval Ensign, which is still in use as a mark of honour by ships that continue to use the name of a Free French ship. Case (or operation) Anton was the code-name for the Nazi-German occupation of Vichy France during World War II. Anton was invoked at Hitlers order after the allied landings in French Morocco (Operation Torch) in November 1942. ... Combatants Vichy France Germany Commanders Jean de Laborde André Marquis Johannes Blaskowitz Casualties whole fleet scuttled ; 12 killed ; 26 wounded. ...


The struggle for control of French colonies

The fall of Damascus to the Allies, late June 1941. A car carrying Free French commanders General Georges Catroux and General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme enters the city, escorted by French Circassian cavalry (Gardes Tcherkess).
The fall of Damascus to the Allies, late June 1941. A car carrying Free French commanders General Georges Catroux and General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme enters the city, escorted by French Circassian cavalry (Gardes Tcherkess).

In the autumn of 1940, the French colonies of Cameroon, Chad, Moyen-Congo (Middle Congo), Oubangui-Chari and French Equatorial Africa joined the Free French side. With the addition of French African colonies came a large number of African colonial troops. The French South Pacific colonies of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and the New Hebrides joined the Free French later. Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (near Canada) joined the Free French after an "invasion" on 24 December 1941. The South Pacific colonies would become vital Allied bases in the Pacific Ocean. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... London, October 1940. ... Paul Legentilhomme (Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme) (born 1884; died 1975) was an officer in the French Army during World War I and World War II. After the fall of France in 1940, he joined the forces of the Free French. ... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... Motto Unité, Travail, Progrès(French) Unity, Work, Progress Anthem La Congolaise Capital (and largest city) Brazzaville Official languages French Government Republic  -  President Denis Sassou Nguesso  -  Prime Minister Isidore Mvouba Independence from France   -  Date 15 August 1960  Area  -  Total 342,000 km² (64th) 132,047 sq mi   -  Water (%) 3. ... Oubangui-Chari, or Ubangi-Shari, was a French territory in central Africa which later became the independent country of the Central African Republic on August 13, 1960. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... Colonial troops or colonial army refers to various military units usually used as garrison troops in various colonies. ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


From July to November 1940, Free French forces fought French troops loyal to Vichy France during the West African Campaign. The outcome of this campaign was mixed with the Vichy French claiming victory at the Battle of Dakar and the Free French claiming victory at the Battle of Gabon. The French West African colonies remained Vichy French and the French Equatorial African colonies remained Free French. The French West African colonies did join Free France in November 1942 after Operation Torch. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Free France Netherlands Vichy France Commanders Andrew Cunningham Charles De Gaulle Pierre François Boisson Strength 2 battleships, 1 aircraft carrier, 4 cruisers, 10 destroyers 1 battleship, 2 cruisers, destroyers, coastal emplacements Casualties 2 battleships and 2 cruisers damaged >2 destroyers damaged, 2 submarines sunk The... Combatants United Kingdom Free France Vichy France Commanders Andrew Cunningham Charles De Gaulle Pierre Koenig Marcel Tetu Casualties Unknown 1 cruiser, 1 submarine The Battle of Gabon or the Battle of Libreville was part of the West African Campaign of World War II fought in November 1940. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in...


French Indochina was invaded by Japan in September 1940, although the colony remained under nominal Vichy control. On 9 March 1945, the Japanese took full control of Indochina and launched the Second French Indochina Campaign. By the end of September 1945, with the assistance of British and Commonwealth forces, the Free French occupied the colony. Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Combatants Empire of Japan France Strength 55,000 Casualties  ? 2,129 Europeans killed (military & civil) The Second French Indochina Campaign also known as the Japanese coup of March 1945, was a Japanese military operation in all Vietnam, then a French colony. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


During 1941, Free French units fought with the British Commonwealth army against Italian troops in Ethiopia and Eritrea during the East African Campaign. Afterwards, again fighting alongside British Commonwealth forces in Syria and Lebanon, Free French forces once more faced French troops loyal to Vichy France during the Syria-Lebanon campaign. By July 1941, the Vichy forces of General Henri Dentz were defeated and Free French General Georges Catroux was appointed High Commissioner of the Levant. From this point, Free France controlled both Syria and Lebanon. For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa Eritrea Ethiopia Italian Somaliland German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke... Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Mandate of Syria Mandate of Lebanon Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Henri Fernand Dentz (16 Dec 1881, Roanne, Loire, France - 13 Dec 1945, Fresnes, Val-de-Marne) was a General for Vichy France during WW II. He was charged with the defence of the (Vichy) Syrian protectorate, and commanded an army of approximately 45,000 men. ... London, October 1940. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


In September 1941, De Gaulle created the French National Committee (Comité National Français, or CNF), the Free French government-in-exile. On 24 November that year, the United States granted Lend-Lease support to the CNF. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ...


Free French soldiers participated in the Allied North African campaign, in Libya and Egypt. General Marie Pierre Koenig and his unit, the 1st Free French Brigade, fought well against the Afrika Korps at the Battle of Bir Hakeim in June 1942, although eventually obliged to withdraw. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Marie Pierre Koenig (October 10, 1898 – September 2, 1970) was a French general. ... The seal of the Deutsches Afrikakorps. ... Combatants Free French Forces Afrika Korps Commanders Marie Pierre Koenig Erwin Rommel Strength 3703  ? Casualties 140 Dead, 229 Wounded, 814 Captured 3300 Dead and Wounded, 277 Captured The Battle of Bir Hakeim (May 26, 1942 - June 11, 1942) is a World War II battle following the Afrika Korps 1942 campaign. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In late 1942, after the Battle of Madagascar, the Vichy French forces under Governor-General Armand Léon Annet were defeated and Free French General Paul Legentilhomme was appointed High Commissioner for Madagascar. On 28 December, after a prolonged blockade, the Vichy forces in French Somaliland surrendered and Free French forces occupied the colony. Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  Rhodesia British East African colonies South Africa  Australia (naval only) Vichy France Japan (naval only) Commanders Robert Sturges Armand Léon Annet Strength 10,000-15,000 (land forces) 8,000 (land forces)[1] Casualties 107 killed in action; 280 wounded;[2] 620 casualties in total (including... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Armand Léon Annet (born 5 June 1888; died 25 April 1973) was a Governor for various colonies in French Colonial Empire. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Paul Legentilhomme (Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme) (born 1884; died 1975) was an officer in the French Army during World War I and World War II. After the fall of France in 1940, he joined the forces of the Free French. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ...


During Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of Vichy-controlled French North Africa in November 1942, many Vichy troops surrendered and joined the Free French cause. Vichy coastal defences were captured by the French Resistance. Vichy General Henri Giraud rejoined the Allies, but he lacked the authority that was required and De Gaulle kept his leadership of the Free French, despite American objections. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roosevelt and Henri Giraud in Casablanca, 19 January 1943 Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 13 March 1949) was a French general who fought in the First and Second World Wars. ...


The Nazis suspected Vichy determination after Torch and they occupied Vichy France in November 1942 (Case Anton). In response, the 60,000-strong Vichy forces in French North Africa — the Army of Africa — joined the Allied side as the French XIX Corps within the British 1st Army, which also included the U.S. II Corps and two British corps. They fought in Tunisia for six months until April 1943. Using antiquated equipment, they took heavy casualties—16,000—against modern armour and a desperate German enemy. Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Case (or operation) Anton was the code-name for the Nazi-German occupation of Vichy France during World War II. Anton was invoked at Hitlers order after the allied landings in French Morocco (Operation Torch) in November 1942. ... The Army of Africa (French: ) was an unofficial but commonly used term for those portions of the French Army recruited from or normally stationed in French North Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) from 1830 until the end of the Algerian War in 1962. ... The French XIX Corps was formed in late 1942 from the Army of Africa (Fr: Armée dAfrique), when French Vichy forces in north-west Africa joined the Allies after the German oocupation of Vichy France. ... The British First Army was a field army that existed during the First and Second World Wars. ... The US II Corps was a corps of the United States Army and the first American formation of any size to see combat in Europe or Africa during World War II. It came to prominence in the Battle of Kasserine Pass when Field Marshal Erwin Rommel defeated the formation. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1943, Colonel (later General) Philippe Leclerc and Lieutenant-Colonel Camille d'Ornano led a column of 16,500 colonial troops from Chad to attack Italian forces in southern Libya and to occupy Kufra in the Fezzan region. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Philippe de Hauteclocque, often known by his French resistance alias Leclerc (November 22, 1902 - November 28, 1947), was a Marshal of France. ... Lieutenant Colonel (Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grades spelling) is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine corps and air forces of the world, typically ranking above a Major and below a Colonel. ... Camille dOrnano was a Lieutenant Colonel in the French Army leading up to the Second World War. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ...


In November 1943, the French forces received enough military equipment through Lend-Lease to re-equip eight divisions and allow the return of borrowed British equipment. At this point, the Free French and ex-Vichy French Corps were merged. Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies, as well as French Guiana on the northern coast of South America, joined Free France in 1943. The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The air war

Main article: Free French Air Force

There were sufficient Free French pilots, mainly from African colonial bases, to man several squadrons based in Britain and North Africa. They were initially equipped with a mixture of British, French and American aircraft. They had mixed success at first, and French army-air cooperation was often poor. Free French Air Forces Logo The Free French Air Force (French: ) were the air arm of Free French Forces during the Second World War. ...


At De Gaulle's initiative, the Groupe de Chasse 3 Normandie was formed on 1 September 1942, for service on the Eastern Front. It served with distinction and was awarded the supplementary title Niemen by Stalin. The Normandie-Niemen squadron (Нормандия-Неман in Russian) is a fighter squadron of the French Air Force. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky...


The war at sea

Main article: Free French Naval Forces

The Free French Navy, commanded by Admiral Emile Muselier, played a role in the occupation of French colonies in Africa, in supporting the French Resistance, in D-Day (Operation Neptune), and the Pacific War. Les Forces Navales Françaises Libres (Free French Naval Forces) were the naval arm of the Free French Forces during the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Emile Henry Muselier (Marseilles, 17 April 1882 - Toulon, 2 September 1965) was a French admiral who led the Forces navales françaises libres during World War II. He was responsible for the idea of distinguishing his fleet from that of Vichy France by adopting the Cross of Lorraine, which later... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Operation Neptune refers to the landing phase of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...


The Forces Françaises Combattantes and National Council of the Resistance

The French Resistance gradually grew in strength. Charles De Gaulle set a plan to bring together the different groups under his leadership. He changed the name of his movement to "Fighting French Forces" (Forces Françaises Combattantes) and sent Jean Moulin back to France to unite the eight major French Resistance groups into one organisation. Moulin got their agreement to form the "National Council of the Resistance" (Conseil National de la Résistance). Moulin was eventually captured, and died under brutal torture by the Gestapo. The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Jean Moulins most famous depiction Jean Moulin (June 20, 1899–July 8, 1943) was a high-profile member of the French Resistance during World War II. He is remembered today as an emblem of the Resistance primarily due to his courage and death at the hands of the Germans. ... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... The Conseil National de la Résistance (CNR) or the National Council of the Resistance is the body that directed and coordinated the different movements of the French Resistance - the press, trade unions, and members of political parties hostile to the Vichy regime, starting from mid-1943. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


Later, the resistance was more formally referred to as the "French Forces of the Interior" (Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur, or FFI). From October 1944 to March 1945, many FFI units were amalgamated into the French Army in order to regularize the units. The French Forces of the Interior (Fr. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Liberation of France

FFF leaders General Giraud and General de Gaulle in front of Roosevelt and Churchill at the Casablanca Conference, 14 January 1943.

During the Italian Campaign of 1943 and 1944, 100,000 Free French soldiers fought on the Allied side, notably in the fighting on the Winter Line and Gustav Line. By the time of the Normandy Invasion, the Free French forces numbered more than 400,000 strong. The Free French 2nd Armoured Division, under General Leclerc, landed at Normandy and eventually led the drive towards Paris, whilst the divisions which had been fighting in Italy became part of the French First Army, under General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, and joined the U.S. 7th Army in Operation Dragoon. This operation was the Allied invasion of southern France. The Allied forces advanced up the line of the Rhône River to liberate the Vosges and southern Alsace. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Roosevelt and Henri Giraud in Casablanca, 19 January 1943 Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 13 March 1949) was a French general who fought in the First and Second World Wars. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (  listen?) (November 22, 1890 – November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as le général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Artillery being landed during the invasion of mainland Italy at Salerno, September 1943. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... The Winter Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland New Zealand Canada Free France India and others Germany Commanders Harold Alexander Mark Clark Oliver Leese Albert Kesselring Heinrich von Vietinghoff Frido von Senger Strength 105,000 80,000 Casualties 54,000 20,000 The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Arms of the , the Second Armoured Division commanded by Lerclerc. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... French First Army was a field army that fought during World War I and World War II. At the beginning of WWI the First Army was put in charge of General Auguste Dubail and took part, along with the French Second Army, in the Invasion of Lorraine. ... Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (February 2, 1889 - January 11, 1952) was a French military hero of World War II. Born at Mouilleron-en-Pareds (during the time of Georges Clemenceau, who was also born there), he graduated from school in 1911, and fought in World War I. He specialized... The Seventh United States Army, also known as USAREUR, is the main American force in Europe. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... Vosges is a French department, named after the Vosges mountain range. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...

Leclerc's 2nd Armoured Division parading after the battle for Paris (August 1944)
Leclerc's 2nd Armoured Division parading after the battle for Paris (August 1944)

Fearing the Germans would destroy Paris if attacked by a frontal assault, General Dwight Eisenhower ordered his forces to cease their advance and reconnoitre the situation. At this time, Parisians rose up in full-scale revolt. As the Allied forces waited near Paris, General Eisenhower acceded to pressure from de Gaulle and his Free French Forces. De Gaulle was furious about the delay and was unwilling to allow the people of Paris to be slaughtered as had happened in the Polish capital of Warsaw during the Warsaw Uprising. De Gaulle threatened to attack single-handedly. In response, General Eisenhower granted the Free French forces the honour of spearheading the Allied assault and liberating the capital city of France. Thus, on 24 August 1944, units of the Free French 2nd Armoured Division entered the city first during the Liberation of Paris. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 769 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2338 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 769 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2338 pixel, file size: 2. ... Arms of the , the Second Armoured Division commanded by Lerclerc. ... Combatants Armée de la Libération, United States, French Forces of the Interior Germany Commanders Henri Rol-Tanguy, Jacques Chaban-Delmas, Philippe Leclerc Dietrich von Choltitz # Strength 2nd Armoured Division, Unknown French resistance, U.S. 28th Infantry Division (After the liberation) 20,000 Casualties 1,500 dead French resistance... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Arms of the , the Second Armoured Division commanded by Lerclerc. ... The Liberation of Paris in World War II took place in late August 1944 after the battle of Normandy. ...


End of the war

By September 1944, the Free French forces stood at 560,000. This number rose to 1 million by the end of the year. French forces were fighting in Alsace, the Alps, and Brittany. In May 1945, by the end of the war in Europe, the Free French forces comprised 1,250,000, personnel and included seven infantry divisions and three armoured divisions fighting in Germany. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ...


Order of Battle on 8 May 1945

  • French First Army
  • Atlantic Army Detachment
  • Alpine Army Detachment
    • I Army Corps
    • II Army Corps
    • III Army Corps [3]
      • 1st Free French Division [4]
      • 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division
      • 3rd Algerian Infantry Division
      • 4th Moroccan Mountain Division
      • 9th Colonial Infantry Division
      • 27th Alpine Infantry Division [5]
      • 1st Armoured Division
      • 2nd Armoured Division [4]
      • 3rd Armoured Division [3] [5]
      • 5th Armoured Division
      • 1st Infantry Division[3] [5]
      • 10th Infantry Division [5]
      • 14th Infantry Division [5]
      • 19th Infantry Division [5]
      • 23rd Infantry Division [5]
      • 25th Infantry Division [5]
      • 36th Infantry Division [3]
      • 1st Far East Colonial Division [3]
      • 2nd Far East Colonial Division [3]

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1684x2140, 558 KB) Photograph by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Military history of France during World War II Philippe Leclerc de Hautecloque French 2nd Division... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1684x2140, 558 KB) Photograph by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Military history of France during World War II Philippe Leclerc de Hautecloque French 2nd Division... Philippe de Hauteclocque, often known by his French resistance alias Leclerc (November 22, 1902 - November 28, 1947), was a Marshal of France. ... Arms of the , the Second Armoured Division commanded by Lerclerc. ... Combatants Armée de la Libération, United States, French Forces of the Interior Germany Commanders Henri Rol-Tanguy, Jacques Chaban-Delmas, Philippe Leclerc Dietrich von Choltitz # Strength 2nd Armoured Division, Unknown French resistance, U.S. 28th Infantry Division (After the liberation) 20,000 Casualties 1,500 dead French resistance... French First Army was a field army that fought during World War I and World War II. At the beginning of WWI the First Army was put in charge of General Auguste Dubail and took part, along with the French Second Army, in the Invasion of Lorraine. ... The I Corps (French: ) was first formed before World War I. During World War II it fought in the Campaign for France in 1940, on the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Elba in 1943 - 1944, and in the campaigns to liberate France in 1944 and invade Germany in 1945. ... The II Corps (French: ) was first formed before World War I. During World War II it fought in the Campaign for France in 1940 and during the 1944-45 campaigns in southern France, the Vosges Mountains, Alsace, and southwestern Germany. ... The 1st Free French Division (French: ) was one of the principal units of the Free French Forces during World War II, and the first Free French unit of divisional size. ... The 3rd Algerian Infantry Division (French: ) was an infantry division of the French Army during the last half of the Second World War. ... M4 Sherman of the 2e DB in Normandy The 2nd Armored Division (French: 2e Division Blindée, 2e DB), commanded by General Leclerc, fought during the final phases of World War II in the Western Front. ... The 5th Armored Division (French: ) was an armored division of the French Army that fought in World War II and the Algerian War. ...

Notable Free French

Henri Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves, hero of the French Resistance.
Henri Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves, hero of the French Resistance.

(More cited on French Resistance) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1409x1578, 155 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Henri Honoré dEstienne dOrves ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1409x1578, 155 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Henri Honoré dEstienne dOrves ... Henri Honoré dEstienne dOrves Henri Honoré dEstienne dOrves (3 June 1901, Verrières-le-Buisson — 29 August 1941, Fort du mont Valérien) was a French Navy officer, reputed first martyr of Free France and one of the major heroes of the French Resistance. ... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... Colonel Dimitri Amilakhvari Prince Dimitri Zedguinidze-Amilakhvari, more commonly known as Dimitri Amilakhvari (Georgian: , French: ) (October 31, 1906 - September 24, 1942) was a French military officer of Georgian extraction who, as a Lieutenant Colonel of the French Foreign Legion, became a hero of the French Resistance during World War II... Georges Thierry dArgenlieu (right) with Brigadier General Alexander M. Patch. ... Georges Bidault, French statesman Georges-Augustin Bidault (October 5, 1899 – January 27, 1983) was a French politician and active in the French Resistance and Organisation de lArmée Secrète (OAS). ... Memorial for Cassin in Forbach/France René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist and judge. ... London, October 1940. ... Andre Dewavrin (June 9, 1911 - December 21, 1998) was a French officer who served with Free French Forces intelligence services during World War II. Andre Dewavrin was born in France, the son of a businessman. ... Félix Éboué - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Joseph Kessel (February 10, 1898 - July 23, 1979) was a French journalist and novelist of Russian origins. ... Marie Pierre Koenig (October 10, 1898 – September 2, 1970) was a French general. ... Edgard de Larminat (November 29, 1895, Alès; July 1, 1962, Paris) was a French general, who fought in two World Wars. ... Philippe de Hauteclocque, often known by his French resistance alias Leclerc (November 22, 1902 - November 28, 1947), was a Marshal of France. ... Paul Legentilhomme (Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme) (born 1884; died 1975) was an officer in the French Army during World War I and World War II. After the fall of France in 1940, he joined the forces of the Free French. ... Anna Marly, (October 30, 1917 – February 15, 2006), was a Russian born French singer-songwriter. ... Pierre Mendès France Pierre Mendès France (Paris, 11 January 1907 - 18 October 1982), French politician, was born in Paris, into a family of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin. ... On May 29, 1974 Jacques Chirac (left) replaced Pierre Messmer (right) as prime minister on the steps of the Hôtel Matignon. ... Jean Moulins most famous depiction Jean Moulin (June 20, 1899–July 8, 1943) was a high-profile member of the French Resistance during World War II. He is remembered today as an emblem of the Resistance primarily due to his courage and death at the hands of the Germans. ... Emile Henry Muselier (Marseilles, 17 April 1882 - Toulon, 2 September 1965) was a French admiral who led the naval forces of the Free French Forces during World War II. He was responsible for the idea of distinguishing his fleet from that of Vichy France by adopting the Cross of Lorraine... Gaston Palewski (20 March 1901 - 3 September 1984) was a French statesman. ... René Pleven, French prime minister René Pleven (April 1901 - January 13, 1993) was a notable French politician of the Fourth Republic. ... Gabriel Brunet de Sairigné, Compagnon de la Libération, was a officer inside the French Foreign Legion. ... Maurice Schumann (1911-1998) was a French politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Georges Pompidou in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Susan Travers (September 23, 1909 - December 18, 2003) was a British citizen and daughter of a Royal Navy admiral who, during World War II, was informally part of the French Légion Étrangère and became the chauffeur for Free French General Pierre Koenig. ... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ...


Notable French who joined after 1942

Marie Émile Antoine Béthouart (17 December 1889 – 17 October 1982) was a French general who served during World War II. Born in Dôle in the Jura Mountains, Béthouart graduated from Saint-Cyr military academy and served as a platoon leader in the 159th Alpine Infantry Regiment during... Antoine de Saint-Exupéry[1] (pronounced ) (June 29, 1900 – presumably July 31, 1944) was a French writer and aviator. ... Roosevelt and Henri Giraud in Casablanca, 19 January 1943 Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 13 March 1949) was a French general who fought in the First and Second World Wars. ... Alphonse Pierre Juin (16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a Marshal of France. ... Marcel Marceau (born Marcel Mangel, March 22, 1923, died September 24, 2007) was a well-known mime artist, among the most popular representatives of this art form world-wide. ... Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (November 9, 1888 – March 16, 1979) is regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. ... Joseph de Goislard de Monsabert (Libourne 30 September 1887 — Dax, 13 June 1981), was a French general who served during the Second World War. ... Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (February 2, 1889 - January 11, 1952) was a French military hero of World War II. Born at Mouilleron-en-Pareds (during the time of Georges Clemenceau, who was also born there), he graduated from school in 1911, and fought in World War I. He specialized...

References

  1. ^ L'Appel du 18 juin (French)
  2. ^ La France Libre et les Français Libres : éléments de définition
  3. ^ a b c d e f Did not see combat during the Second World War
  4. ^ a b Free French origin
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Formed with FFI personnel.

The French Forces of the Interior (Fr. ...

See also

The French Forces of the Interior (Fr. ... Members of the Maquis in La Tresorerie For other uses, see Maquis. ... The phrase Francs-tireurs was used to describe irregular military formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) and from that usage is is sometimes used to refer more generally to guerrilla fighters who fight outside the laws of war[1]. The term...

External links

[[ro:Forţele Franceze Libere}}


  Results from FactBites:
 
Free French Forces information - Search.com (1451 words)
The French flag with the Cross of Lorraine, emblem of the Free French
As the Allied forces waited near Paris, General Eisenhower acceded to pressure from De Gaulle and his Free French Forces, who, furious about the delay and unwilling to allow the revolters to be slaughtered, as happened in the Polish capital of Warsaw during the Warsaw Uprising, had threatened to attack single-handedly.
By September 1944 the Free French forces stood at 560,000, which rose to 1 million by the end of 1944, and were fighting in Alsace, the Alps and Brittany.
Free French Forces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2464 words)
Free French Forces adrian helmet with the Cross of Lorraine replacing the 1939-1940 French Republic "RF" emblem.
The outcome of this campaign was mixed with the Vichy French claiming victory at the Battle of Dakar and the Free French claiming victory at the Battle of Gabon.
FFF leaders General Giraud and General de Gaulle in front of Roosevelt and Churchill at the Casablanca Conference, 14 January 1943.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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