FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Free City of Danzig
Flag of Danzig
Flag of Danzig

The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as Gdańsk (German: Danzig). Image File history File links Gdansk_flag. ... Image File history File links Gdansk_flag. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... GdaÅ„sk (IPA: ; German: , Kashubian: , Late Latin: ; older English Dantzig; also other languages) is Polands sixth-largest city, and also her principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

Contents

Napoleonic-era Danzig (1807-1815)

19th century map showing the Duchy of Warsaw with the Free City of Danzig to the north
19th century map showing the Duchy of Warsaw with the Free City of Danzig to the north

The Free City of Danzig, sometimes referred to as the Republic of Danzig, was a semi-independent state established by Napoleon on September 9, 1807, during the time of the Napoleonic Wars. This territory was carved out from lands that made up part of the Kingdom of Prussia, consisting of the city of Danzig along with its rural possessions on the mouth of Vistula, together with the Hel Peninsula and the southern half of the Vistula Spit. The state came to an end on January 22, 1813. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (770x724, 160 KB) Licensed for use in accordance with the GFDL. At my talk page the uploader, User:Cautious in responce to my enquiry about the source wrote (translated from Polish): Hopefully this will help with assigning the right tag, unfortunately... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (770x724, 160 KB) Licensed for use in accordance with the GFDL. At my talk page the uploader, User:Cautious in responce to my enquiry about the source wrote (translated from Polish): Hopefully this will help with assigning the right tag, unfortunately... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A map is a simplified depiction of a space which highlights relations between components (objects, regions) of that space. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Austrian Empire[1] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Prussia[1] Russian Empire[2] Kingdom of Spain[3] Kingdom of Sweden United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[4] French Empire - Kingdom of Holland - Kingdom of Italy - Kingdom of Naples - Duchy of Warsaw - Kingdom of Bavaria[5] - Kingdom of... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is the longest river in Poland. ... Hel Peninsula as seen from Landsat satellite in 2000 Kitesurfing, Hel Peninsula Hel Peninsula (Polish Mierzeja Helska, Kashubian Hélskô Sztremlëzna, German Halbinsel Hela) is a 35-km-long sand bar peninsula in northern Poland separating the Bay of Puck from the open Baltic Sea. ... Landsat photo Vistula Spit The Vistula Spit (Polish: Mierzeja WiÅ›lana, Russian: :Балтийская коса, German: Frische Nehrung) is a peninsular stretch of land cutting Vistula Lagoon off from Gdansk Bay. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


After the Congress of Vienna of 1815, Danzig was reincorporated into Prussia. Although made the capital of a district and the province of West Prussia, the traditional autonomy of the city was significantly reduced. The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ...


Danzig between the World Wars (1920-1939)

A 20 Danzig gulden note
A 20 Danzig gulden note

The Free City of Danzig (German: Freie Stadt Danzig; Polish: Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was an autonomous city-state established on January 10, 1920. It was established in accordance with the terms of Section XI of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, which placed the city under League of Nations protection, with special economic-related rights reserved for Poland. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1452x843, 560 KB) 20 guldens of the w:Free City of Danzig, source: Polish Wiki , note: zeskanowane przez tsca - scanned by tsca. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1452x843, 560 KB) 20 guldens of the w:Free City of Danzig, source: Polish Wiki , note: zeskanowane przez tsca - scanned by tsca. ... The gulden was the currency of Danzig (now Gdansk) between 1923 and 1939. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ...


Territory

The Free City of Danzig included the major city of Danzig (Gdańsk) as well as Zoppot (Sopot), Tiegenhof (Nowy Dwór Gdański), Neuteich (Nowy Staw) and some 252 villages and 63 hamlets. Covering a total area of 1,966 square kilometers (754 sq mi), the territory was roughly twice the size of the Napoleonic statelet. Sopot (pronounce: [sÉ”pÉ”t]; German: ; Kashubian: Sopòt) is a seaside town in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000. ... Nowy Dwór GdaÅ„ski is a town in Poland, capital of Nowy Dwor Gdanski County, located in Pomeranian Voivodship, with 10,200 inhabitants (1994). ... Nowy Staw is a small town in northern Poland on the ÅšwiÄ™ta river in the Å»uÅ‚awy region, with 3 896 inhabitants (2004). ... A hamlet is (usually — see below) a small settlement, too small or unimportant to be considered a village. ...


Population

The Free City had a population of 357,000 (1919), most of whom (about 90%) were German-speakers, with the rest mainly speaking either Kashubian or Polish. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ...


The Treaty of Versailles, which had severed Danzig and surrounding villages from Germany, now required that the newly formed state had its own citizenship, based on residency. German inhabitants lost their German nationality with the creation of the Free City, but were given the right within the first two years of the state's existence to re-obtain it; however, if they did so they were required to make their residence outside of Danzig in the remaining part of Germany. The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ...

Total population by language, November 1, 1923
Nationality Total German German and Polish Polish, Kashub, Masurian Russian, Ukrainian Hebrew, Yiddish Unclassified
Danzig 335,921 327,827 1,108 6,788 99 22 77
Non-Danzig 30,809 20,666 521 5,239 2,529 580 1,274
Total 366,730 348,493 1,629 12,027 2,628 602 1,351
Percent 100.00% 95.03% 0.44% 3.28% 0.72% 0.16% 0.37%

November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Masurian is a dialect of Polish from Masovia and Masuria. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish (Yid. ...

Polish rights

The opening of the Polish Post Office on January 5, 1925
The opening of the Polish Post Office on January 5, 1925

The Free City was represented abroad by Poland and was in a customs union with it. The railway line that connected the Free City with Poland was administered by Poland. Similarly, the separated military post within the city's harbour, the Westerplatte (formerly a city beach), was also given to Poland. There were also two post-offices, one municipal, the other Polish-run. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x800, 93 KB) Otwarcie 5 I 1925 r. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x800, 93 KB) Otwarcie 5 I 1925 r. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Henryk Sucharski (nominal only), Franciszek DÄ…browski Strength 205 2,600 Casualties 14 killed, 53 wounded 300-400 killed and wounded (est. ...


Politics

"Come, lovely May, and free us from the Jews"
"Come, lovely May, and free us from the Jews"

In May 1933, the Nazi Party won the local election in the city. However, they received 57 percent of the vote, less than the two thirds required by the League of Nations to change the Constitution of Free City of Danzig. The government introduced anti-Semitic and anti-Catholic laws, the latter primarily being directed against the Poles and Kashubian inhabitants. The city also served as a training point for members of the German minority within Poland that, recruited by organisations such as the Jungdeutsche Partei ("Young German Party") and the Deutsche Vereinigung ("German Union") that would form the leading cadres of Selbstschutz, an organisation involved with murder and atrocities during the German invasion of Poland in 1939.[citation needed] As throughout Germany, Jews were increasingly persecuted, the Danzig Great Synagogue was taken over and demolished by the local authorities in 1939. Image File history File links SynagogeDanzig04. ... Image File history File links SynagogeDanzig04. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Nazi Party, (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kashubians, Kassubians, or Cassubians (Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... Selbstschutz (German: ) was a name used by a number of paramilitary organisations created out of ethnic Germans in Central Europe. ... The Great Synagogue (Polish: , German: ), was a synagogue in the city of Danzig, Germany (later Free City of Danzig, now Gdańsk, Poland). ...


In 1939, as tensions peaked between Poland and Germany, the Free City's Nazi government engaged in persecutions of Polish Danzigers (Gdańszczanie), including the expulsion to Poland of all Polish students from the Danzig Technical University. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Second World War and aftermath

The Nazi government voted for re-unification with Germany on September 2, 1939, the day after the German invasion of Poland began. Although illegal under the terms of the city's constitution, the state was nevertheless formally incorporated by Germany into the newly-formed Reichsgau of Danzig-West Prussia. Polish civilian Post Office employees had been trained and had a cache of weapons, mostly pistols, three light machine guns and some hand grenades, when they defended the Polish Post Office for 15 hours. They were executed upon their surrender, against the international law. The Polish military forces in the city held out until the 7th at the fortified Westerplatte. About 10 thousand members of Polish intellgentsia were executed within the first week of German invasion. September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Reichsgau was a province within the Greater Germany of 1938 to 1945 (from the start of territorial annexation to the fall of the Third Reich). ... The Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia (Danzig-Westpreussen) was a German administrative unit created in 1939 from Freie Stadt Danzig and Polish Pomerania. ... The Defense of the Polish Post Office in Danzig (today Gdańsk) was one of the first battles of the Polish September Campaign, and of the World War II in Europe. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Henryk Sucharski (nominal only), Franciszek Dąbrowski Strength 205 2,600 Casualties 14 killed, 53 wounded 300-400 killed and wounded (est. ... Polish Defensive War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign or Defensive War of 1939 (Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku) was the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany, the Soviet...


Around 90% of the city was reduced to ruins towards the end of the Second World War. On March 30, 1945 the city was taken by the Red Army. It is estimated that more than 90% of the pre-war population were either dead or had fled by 1945. A number of inhabitants of the city perished in the sinking of a ship assisting evacuation, the Wilhelm Gustloff. It had up to 10,000 refugees on board at the time, including about 1,000 soldiers and sailors. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in a leap year). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... The Wilhelm Gustloff slides into the water during launch ceremonies. ...


The Allied Powers agreed at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences that the city should become part of Poland. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ...


By 1950, around 285,000 former inhabitants of the Free City were living in an Allied-occupied Germany. It is estimated that 100,000 Danzigers lost their lives in the war or its immediate aftermath.[citation needed]


External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Free City of Danzig - definition of Free City of Danzig in Encyclopedia (425 words)
It consisted of the city of Danzig (Gdansk) with all its rural possessions in the mouth of Vistula river and the Hel peninsula.
The Free City of Danzig (German: Freie Stadt Danzig; Polish: Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a separate state established in 1919, a territory that included the city of Danzig plus the surrounding territory, which was previously (from 1815) a part of Prussia (itself since 1871 a part of the German Empire).
At the Potsdam Conference (1945) the territory of the Free City was awarded to Poland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m