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Encyclopedia > Fredriksten
Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway - seen from the city's harbor
Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway - seen from the city's harbor

Fredriksten is a fortress in the city of Halden in Norway. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 346 KB) Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway as seen from the citys harbor. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 346 KB) Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway as seen from the citys harbor. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Halden, formerly Fredrikshald, is a town and municipality in the county of Østfold, Norway. ...

Contents


History

This Norwegian fortress was constructed in the 17th century as a replacement for the border fortress at Bohus, which had been lost when the province of Bahusia (or Bohuslån) was ceded to Sweden by the terms of the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. The fortress was named after King Fredrik III of Denmark and Norway, and the town of Halden was also originally named after him, having been known as Fredrikshald between 1665 and 1928. Norwegian Fortresses A Historical Context for Norwegian Fortresses Most Norwegian fortresses were constructed in the period of intense competition among the Baltic powers (Denmark-Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland and the German states) for northern supremacy. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Bohus Fortress, or Bohus Fästning, is a fortress from the 14th century at Kungälv in Sweden. ... Bahusia, or Bohuslän, is a historical Sweden. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who has plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross from Sweden to Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by Thomas Browne September... Frederick III (March 28, 1609 – February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ... Events March 4 - Start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War March 6 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society begins publication March 16 - Bucharest allows Jews to settle in the city in exchange of annual tax of 16 guilders June 3 - The Duke of York defeats the Dutch Fleet off the... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Northern War (1655 - 1661)

At the close of the Northern War Charles X, having negotiated the Treaty of Roskilde in bad faith, invested Copenhagen in August of 1658. Under his orders, in September the new Swedish governor of Bohuslån invaded Norway with 1,500 men and attempted to invest Halden. The inhabitants put up a vigorous defense and the Swedish forces retreated to Bohuslån. Northern War and Norway (1655 to 1658) From 1655 onward, Charles X of Sweden’s reign was expansionistic and is a history of war. ...


Five months later in February of 1659 the Swedes again attacked. Since their first attack, the garrison had been strengthened. Under the leadership of Tønne Huitfeldt the Norwegian forces again repulsed the Swedish forces. Concurrently, Huitfeldt began construction of fortifications. Cretzenstein, later to be renamed Fredriksten, was the citadel of the new fortification system.


In early January of 1660, the Swedish forces attacked Halden for the third time; it was to serve as the base for their advance on Akershus in Christiania. Huitfeldt responded to their demand that they surrender, that the 2,100 man garrison would defend Halden to the last man. After the attempt to storm the fortifications was unsuccessful, the Swedes prepared a regular investment. Under heavy bombardment the inhabitants requested the commandant surrender, but putting his faith in his garrison, Huitfeldt held on. On February 22, 1660 the Swedes again were forced to retreat to Bohuslån. There they learned Charles X had died. Akershus is a county in Norway, bordering Hedmark, Oppland, Buskerud, Oslo and Østfold. ... County Oslo NO-03 Landscape Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ...


Peace negotiations were reopened. Although Sweden demanded that Norway vacate all land to the river Glomma, which was to serve as the new border, with the intercession of Hannibal Sehested, a separate Scandinavian treaty was negotiated which improved on the terms of the Treaty of Roskilde, returning Trøndelag to Norwegian control. Glomma, pronounced and written Glåma in northern regions of the river, is the longest river in Norway, 598 kilometers long. ... Hannibal Sehested may be either of two Danish notables: Hannibal Sehested (1609-1666) Hannibal Sehested (1842-1924) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ... Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the middle of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. ...


Fortification Upgrades (1673 – 1675)

The existing star shaped fortress complex was upgraded during the period of peace between 1661-1675. In 1673 Denmark dispatched Gyldenløve as statholder to Norway to organize the military forces and strengthen the defenses of the kingdom. After a tour of facilities, he recommended further upgrades to both the fortress and the military forces. In the summer of 1675, 1800 men were kept at work on the fortresses at Akershus, Fredrikstad, and Fredrikshald. Gyldenløve (golden lion) is an important surname in Danish and Norwegian history. ... Akershus is a county in Norway, bordering Hedmark, Oppland, Buskerud, Oslo and Østfold. ... Fredrikstad (previously Frederiksstad) is a town and municipality in the county of Østfold, Norway. ...


Gyldenløve War (1675 - 1679)

At the outbreak of the Gyldenløve War in 1675 a large contingent (4000 men) were concentrated at Fredrikshald under General Russenstein. In 1676 Norwegian troops reoccupied Bohuslån. In July of 1677 Gyldenløve captured the fortress at Marstrand and joined General Løvenhjelm, who marched into Bohuslån with the main Norwegian army and defeated an army of 8000 Swedes under General de la Gardie. A Norwegian force also retook Jemtland, but withdrew again as ordered by the King. No major defensive activities were needed at Fredriksten as no Swedish forces crossed the frontier. Gyldenløve War (1675 to 1679) Denmark initiated the Gyldenløve War, in Danish history referred to as the The SkÃ¥nian War, by marching a Danish army of 16,000 men into Mecklenburg in an effort to redress the losses of the pervious years. ... Halden, formerly Fredrikshald, is a town and municipality in the county of Østfold, Norway. ... Bahusia, or Bohuslän, is a historical Sweden. ... Gyldenløve (golden lion) is an important surname in Danish and Norwegian history. ... Marstrand is a seaside town in the municipality of Kungälv, Sweden. ... Jemtia, or Jämtland (or simply Jamtland as it is known by its local dialect), is a historical Province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ...

Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway - view of the city of Halden from the top of the fortress
Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway - view of the city of Halden from the top of the fortress

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 355 KB) Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 355 KB) Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway. ...

Fortification Upgrades (1679 – 1700)

Fredriksten was expanded from 1682-1701. It now included three outer fortifications: Gyldenløve, Overberget and Stortårnet.


Great Northern War (1700 - 1721)

At the close of the Great Northern War, the Norwegian Army had been weakened in early 1716 by withdrawal of 5000 of the best troops to Denmark. When rumors reached Christiania that Charles XII was preparing to invade, all remaining troops in Østerdal and Gudbrandsdal were ordered to the border at Halden and Fredrickstad. The Norwegians anticipated attack from Sweden at Kongsvinger, Basmo and Halden. It was Basmo where Charles XII struck, crossing the border in March 8, 1716. The Norwegian scorched earth policy and guerrilla raid interdiction of supply chains by the residents of Bohuslån deprived Charles of supplies while the Norwegian occupied fortresses behind his lines threatened his supply chain and his retreat if seriously weakened in combat. Charles took Christiania (now Oslo), but without heavy siege artillery, was unable to take Akershus. The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Denmark-Norway, Russia and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) on one side and Sweden on the other side from 1700 to 1721. ... The upper river valleys of Norwegian rivers have distinctive names which are vestiges of earlier cultural distinctions such as building styles, traditional clothing or bunad and domestic crafts. ... The Gudbrandsdal valley is a valley in the Norwegian fylke of Oppland. ... Kongsvinger is a town and municipality in the county of Hedmark, Norway, and has 17,382 inhabitants as of January 1, 2004. ...


After a brief occupation, Charles retraced his steps to the Norwegian fortresses in southeastern Norway with the objective of capturing Fredericksten. This would remove the threat at his back, were to serve as the base for his offensive later that year, and capture the harbours at mouth of the Glomma river would allow him to land the necessary provisions for a successful siege of Akershus. Norwegian Fortresses A Historical Context for Norwegian Fortresses Most Norwegian fortresses were constructed in the period of intense competition among the Baltic powers (Denmark-Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland and the German states) for northern supremacy. ... Glomma, pronounced and written Glåma in northern regions of the river, is the longest river in Norway, 598 kilometers long. ...


Charles' troops attempted to take Fredericksten by storm on July 4th. His troops took the town after fierce fighting, but the citizens set fire to their homes and Charles, unable to take the fortress, was forced to retreat and await the heavy guns from Dynekilen. Fortunately the Norwegian, captain Peter Wessel, led a daring cutting-out raid which captured or destroyed the entire Swedish transport fleet, and, more importantly, the Swedish supplies at Dynekilen in Bohuslån. Running low on supplies, Charles retreated hastily across the Svinesund and burned his bridges behind him. By July 12, 1716 not a Swedish soldier remained in front of Fredriksten. Svinesund is a strait separating the Swedish province of Bohuslän from the Norwegian province of Östfold. ...

Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway - detail towards the city
Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway - detail towards the city

In the Autumn of 1718 Charles again attacked Norway with the intent of first occupying Halden to support his later investment of Akershus. He intended to assure that no pressure could be broought to the rear of his forces in the future. The 1,400 strong garrison of Fredericksten defended herioically, but on December 8th, at significant loss to the Swedish forces, Fort Gyldenløve fell. The Swedish trenches had almost reached the main fortification walls when on the evening of December 11, 1718, a bullet struck and killed Charles XII while he inspected the work. The death of the king effectively ended attack on Fredriksten and the war. A memorial is located in the park named in his memory where he fell, just in front of the fortress. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 512 KB) Detail of Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 512 KB) Detail of Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway. ...


1788

The fortress served as a staging area for the mock attack on Sweden.


1814

The fortress was bombarded but not captured. It was turned over to Sweden after the Convention of Moss. The Moss Ironworks main office - where the Convention of Moss was negotiated and signed Following a brief war between Sweden and Norway about Norways claim to sovereignty, the Convention of Moss was a cease fire agreement, signed August 14, 1814, between the Swedish King and the Norwegian Storting. ...


References

History of the Norwegian People, by Knut Gjerset, MacMillan, 1915


The Struggle for Supremacy in the Baltic: 1600-1725 by Jill Lisk; Funk & Wagnalls, New York, 1967


East Norway and its Frontier by Frank Noel Stagg, Geroge Allen & Unwin, Ltd., London, 1956


External links

  • Fredriksten Fortress - Halden Tourist Service

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fredriksten at AllExperts (1221 words)
Fredriksten is a fortress in the city of Halden in Norway.
This Norwegian fortress was constructed in the 17th century as a replacement for the border fortress at Bohus, which had been lost when the province of Bahusia (or Bohuslån) was ceded to Sweden by the terms of the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658.
In early January of 1660, the Swedish forces attacked Halden for the third time; it was to serve as the base for their advance on Akershus fortress in Christiania.
GoNorway - Fredriksten Fortress (352 words)
Fredriksten Fortress is the most conspicuous part of the town´s scenery where it looms proudly above the town and gives Halden its characteristic appearance.
There are a number of monuments at Fredriksten, including one that marks the spot where the Swedish King Karl Xll was shot during the siege of 1718.
There are also several museums at the fortress with extensive collections of historical military and civilian objects Fredriksten is an imposing structure with a total wall surface of 2.000 m2.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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