FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger

Born August 13, 1918 (1918-08-13) (age 89)
Gloucestershire, England
Nationality  United Kingdom
Field biochemistry
Institutions MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
Alma mater St John's College, Cambridge
Notable prizes Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1958)
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1980)

Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (born 13 August 1918) is an English biochemist and a two time Nobel laureate in chemistry. He is the fourth person in the world to have been awarded two Nobel Prizes. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (973x1200, 127 KB) Frederick Sanger, source: http://www. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... College name The College of Saint John the Evangelist of the University of Cambridge Motto Souvent me Souvient (Latin: I often remember) Named after The Hospital of Saint John the Evangelist Established 1511 Location St. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ...

Contents

Biography

Sanger was born in Gloucestershire, England, and educated at Bryanston School and then did his Bachelor of Arts in Natural Sciences at St John's College, Cambridge. He originally intended to study medicine, but became interested in biochemistry as some of the leading biochemists in the world were at Cambridge at the time. He obtained his PhD in 1943. He discovered the structure of proteins, most famously that of insulin. He also contributed to the determination of base sequences in DNA. Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Bryanston School is an independent public school in Blandford, north Dorset, near the village of Bryanston. ... For other degrees, see Academic degree. ... College name The College of Saint John the Evangelist of the University of Cambridge Motto Souvent me Souvient (Latin: I often remember) Named after The Hospital of Saint John the Evangelist Established 1511 Location St. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Career

Sanger determined the complete amino acid sequence of insulin in 1955. In doing so, he proved that proteins have definite structures. He began by degrading insulin into short fragments by mixing the trypsin enzyme (that hydrolyses the peptide/amide bonds between amino acids that make up the primary structure of proteins) with an insulin solution. He then undertook a form of chromatography on the mixture by applying a small sample of the mixture to one end of a sheet of filter paper. He passed a solvent through the filter paper in one direction, and passed an electric current through the paper in the opposite direction. Depending on their solubility and charge, the different fragments of insulin moved to different positions on the paper, creating a distinct pattern. Sanger called these patterns “fingerprints”. Like human fingerprints, these patterns were characteristic for each protein, and reproducible. He reassembled the short fragments into longer sequences to deduce the complete structure of insulin. Sanger concluded that the protein insulin had a precise amino acid sequence. It was this achievement that earned him his first Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1958. Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Peptide sequence or amino acid sequence is the order in which amino acid residues, connected by peptide bonds, lie in the chain. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Trypsin (EC 3. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... A macro shot of a palm and the base of several fingers; as seen here, debris can gather between the ridges. ... Peptide sequence or amino acid sequence is the order in which amino acid residues, connected by peptide bonds, lie in the chain. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


In 1975, he developed the chain termination method of DNA sequencing, also known as the Dideoxy termination method or the Sanger method.[1] Two years later he used his technique to successfully sequence the genome of the Phage Φ-X174; the first fully sequenced DNA-based genome. He did this entirely by hand. This has been of key importance in such projects as the Human Genome Project and earned him his second Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1980, together with Walter Gilbert. The only other laureates to have done so were Marie Curie, Linus Pauling and John Bardeen. He is only person to receive both prizes in chemistry. In 1979, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Walter Gilbert co-winner of 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The chain termination or Sanger or dideoxy method is a process used to sequence (read the bases of) DNA. It is named after Frederick Sanger who developed the process in 1975. ... The chain termination or Sanger or dideoxy method is a process used to sequence (read the bases of) DNA. It is named after Frederick Sanger who developed the process in 1975. ... The Phi-X174 phage was the first organism to have its genome sequenced. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project undertaken with a goal to understand the genetic make-up of the human species by determining the DNA sequence of the human genome and the genome of a few model organisms. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert (born March 21, 1932) is an American physicist, biochemist,and molecular biology pioneer. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer. ... Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for Biology or Biochemistry is an annual prize awarded by Columbia University to a researcher or group of researchers that have made an outstanding contribution in basic research in the fields of biology or biochemistry. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert (born March 21, 1932) is an American physicist, biochemist,and molecular biology pioneer. ...


Later in life

Frederick Sanger retired in 1982. In 1992, the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council founded the Sanger Centre (now the Sanger Institute), named after him. The Sanger Institute, located near Cambridge, England, is one of the world's most important centers for genome research and played a prominent role in sequencing the human genome. The Wellcome Trusts Gibbs Building on Euston Road The Wellcome Trust is a United Kingdom-based charity established in 1936 to administer the fortune of the American-born pharmaceutical magnate Sir Henry Wellcome. ... Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation... The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (formally the Sanger Centre) is a genome research centre in Cambridgeshire, England. ... This article is about Cambridge, England; see also other places called Cambridge. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ...


In 2007 the British Biochemical Society was given a grant by the Wellcome Trust to catalog and preserve the 35 laboratory notebooks in which Sanger recorded his remarkable research from 1944 to 1981. In reporting this matter, Science magazine noted that Sanger, "the most self-effacing person you could hope to meet," now was spending his time gardening at his Cambridgeshire home.[2] A science magazine is a periodical publication with news, opinions and reports about science for a non-expert audience. ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ...


Awards and honours

  • Frederick Sanger, Esq. (13 August 1918-1943)
  • Dr Frederick Sanger (1943-18 March 1954)
  • Dr Frederick Sanger, FRS (18 March 1954-1963)
  • Dr Frederick Sanger, CBE, FRS (1963-1981)
  • Dr Frederick Sanger, CH, CBE, FRS (1981-11 February 1986)
  • Dr Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (11 February 1986-present)
  • 1958 Nobel Prize for "work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"
  • 1980 Nobel Prize for "contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"


Dr Fredrick Sanger won Bronze in the 1984 Olympics Games for Javelin. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This article is about the title. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ...


References

  1. ^ Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR., DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463-7
  2. ^ "A Life in Science" from the "Newsmakers" page edited by Yudhijit Bhattachjee, Science 317: 879, 2007

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Frederick Sanger - Biography (426 words)
Frederick Sanger was born on August 13, 1918, at Rendcombe in Gloucestershire, the second son of Frederick Sanger, M.D., a medical practitioner and his wife Cicely.
Sanger was awarded the Corday-Morgan Medal and Prize of the Chemical Society in 1951.
Frederick Sanger received a second Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980.
Frederick Sanger Winner of the 1958 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (105 words)
Frederick Sanger – Biography (submitted by Chinnappan Baskar)
Frederick Sanger – Nobel Lecture (1958) (submitted by Chinnappan Baskar)
Frederick Sanger – Banquet Speech (submitted by Stefany)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m