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Encyclopedia > Frederick III of Denmark
King Frederick III
King Frederick III

Frederick III (March 28, 1609February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ImageMetadata File history File links Frederik_3. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Frederik_3. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ...

Contents


Before becoming king

Frederick was born at Haderslev in Schleswig, the son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg. His position as a younger son profoundly influenced his future career. In his youth and early manhood, there was no prospect of his ascending the Danish throne, and he consequently became the instrument of his father's schemes of aggrandizement in Germany. While still a lad, he became successively bishop of Bremen, bishop of Verden, and coadjutor of Halberstadt. At the age of eighteen, he was the chief commandant of the fortress of Stade. Thus, from an early age, he had considerable experience as an administrator, while his general education was very careful and thorough. He had always a pronounced liking for literary and scientific studies. Haderslev (German: Hadersleben) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in South Jutland County on the Jutland peninsula in south Denmark. ... The region of Schleswig (Former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland, Low Saxon: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 30 km north and 40 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... King Christian IV. Christian IV (1588–1648), king of Denmark and Norway, the son of Frederick II, king of Denmark and Norway, and Sophia of Mecklenburg, was born at Frederiksborg castle in 1577, and succeeded to the throne on the death of his father (April 4, 1588), attaining his majority... Bremen lies in North Germany 50km South of the North Sea. ... Verden is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Liebfrauenkirche Halberstadt is a city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... View of the old harbor of Stade in 1987. ...


On October 1, 1643 Frederick wed Sophia Amelia of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose energetic, passionate, and ambitious character was profoundly to affect not only Frederick's destiny, but the destiny of Denmark. October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ...


During the disastrous Swedish War of 16431645, Frederick was appointed commander of the duchies by his father, but the laurels he won were scanty, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille, who commanded the Danish forces. This was Frederick's first collision with the Danish nobility, who ever afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust. // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... // English Title of Nobility (footnotes at bottom of entry) From the beginning, English law hardly knew anything of a noble or a gentle class. ...


The death of his elder brother Christian in June 1647 first opened to him the prospect of succeeding to the Danish throne, but the question was still unsettled when Christian IV died on February 28, 1648. Not until July 6 did Frederick III receive the homage of his subjects, and only after he had signed a Haandfæstning or charter, by which the already diminished royal prerogative was still further curtailed. It had been doubtful at first whether he would be allowed to inherit his ancestral throne at all, but Frederick removed the last scruples of the Rigsraad by unhesitatingly accepting the conditions imposed upon him. // Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... Haandfæstning (or hÃ¥ndfæstning, Danish pluralis: hÃ¥ndfæstninger) was the name for the Danish charters which was signed by Danish (and some of the time also the Swedish) kings from the 13th to the 17th century. ... The Council of State (Statsrådet) The Council of State (Statsrådet) is the Danish Privy Council. ...


The new monarch was a reserved, enigmatic prince, who seldom laughed, spoke little, and wrote less; a striking contrast to Christian IV. But if he lacked the brilliant qualities of his impulsive, jovial father, he possessed in a high degree the compensating virtues of moderation, sobriety, and self-control. He was an enthusiastic collector of books and founded the Royal Library in Copenhagen around 1648. King Christian IV. Christian IV (1588–1648), king of Denmark and Norway, the son of Frederick II, king of Denmark and Norway, and Sophia of Mecklenburg, was born at Frederiksborg castle in 1577, and succeeded to the throne on the death of his father (April 4, 1588), attaining his majority... The Royal Library in Copenhagen (Danish: Det Kongelige Bibliotek) is the national library of Denmark and the largest and most important library of Scandinavia. ...


The first years of his reign was marked by his secret resistance against the two mightiest men of the kingdom, his brothers-in-law Korfits Ulfeldt and Hannibal Sehested who were both removed from office 1651. Ulfeld went into exile in Sweden where he became a traitor while Sehested was restored to favour 1660. Disambiguation Corfitz Ulfeldt (1559 - 1614), buyer of Selsø castle. ... Hannibal Sehested may be either of two Danish notables: Hannibal Sehested (1609-1666) Hannibal Sehested (1842-1924) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ...


Defeated by Sweden

With all his good qualities, Frederick was not the man to take a clear view of the political horizon, or even to recognize his own and his country's limitations. He rightly regarded the accession of Charles X of Sweden on June 6, 1654 as a source of danger to Denmark. He felt that temperament and policy would combine to make Charles an aggressive warrior-king: the only uncertainty was in which direction he would turn his arms first. Charles X or Karl X Gustav (1622 – 1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, Margrave of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at the Castle of Nyköping on November 8, 1622. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Charles' invasion of Poland in July of 1654 came as a distinct relief to the Danes, though even the Polish War was full of latent peril to Denmark. Frederick was resolved upon a rupture with Sweden at the first convenient opportunity. The Rigsdag which assembled on February 23, 1657 willingly granted considerable subsidies for mobilization and other military expenses. On April 23, he received, the assent of the majority of the Rigsraad to attack Sweden's German Dominions. In the beginning of May, the still pending negotiations with that power were broken off, and on June 1 Frederick signed the manifesto justifying a war, which was never formally declared. King Charles X of Sweden The Northern Wars (1655-1661) is a name sometimes used for the series of conflicts between Sweden and its adversaries Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (The Deluge, 1655-1660), Russia (1656-1661), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Holy Roman Empire (1657-60) and Denmark (1657-1658, 1658... The Rigsdag was the name of the Parliament of Denmark from 1849 to 1953. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ...


The Swedish king confounded all the plans of his enemies by crossing the frozen Little and Great Belts, in January and February 1658 (see Charles X of Sweden). The effect of this unheard-of achievement on the Danish government was crushing. Frederick III at once sued for peace. Yielding to the persuasions of the English and French ministers, Charles finally agreed to be content with mutilating, instead of annihilating, the Danish monarchy. The Treaty of Taastrup was signed on February 18 and the Treaty of Roskilde on February 26, 1658. Categories: Straits of Europe | Stub ... The Great Belt (Danish:Storebælt) is a strait between the main Danish islands of Zealand and Funen. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Charles X or Karl X Gustav (1622 – 1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, Margrave of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at the Castle of Nyköping on November 8, 1622. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


The conclusion of peace was followed by a remarkable episode. Frederick expressed the desire to make the personal acquaintance of his conqueror, and Charles X consented to be his guest for three days, March 3 to March 5, at the castle of Fredriksborg. Splendid banquets lasting far into the night, private and intimate conversations between the princes who had only just emerged from a mortal struggle, seemed to point to nothing but peace and friendship in the future.


Siege of Copenhagen repelled

But Charles's insatiable lust for conquest and his ineradicable suspicion of Denmark induced him to endeavour to despatch an inconvenient neighbour without any reasonable cause, without a declaration of war, in defiance of all international equity.


Terror was the first feeling produced at Copenhagen by the landing of the main Swedish army at Korsør on Zealand on July 17. None had anticipated the possibility of such a sudden and brutal attack, and everyone knew that the Danish capital was very inadequately fortified and garrisoned. Copenhagen (Danish: København) is the capital and largest city of Denmark, and the name of the municipality (Danish, kommune) in which it resides. ... Swedish Army - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Korsør is a Danish city and port located out to the Great Belt on the Zealand side. ... Zealand (Danish: Sjælland) is the largest island of Denmark. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ...


Fortunately, Frederick had never been deficient in courage. "I will die in my nest", were the memorable words with which he rebuked those counsellors who advised him to seek safety in flight. On August 8, representatives from every class in the capital urged the necessity of a vigorous resistance, and the citizens of Copenhagen, headed by the great Mayor Hans Nansen, protested their unshakable loyalty to the king and their determination to defend Copenhagen to the uttermost. The Danes had only three days' warning of the approaching danger, and the vast and dilapidated line of defence had at first only 2000 regular defenders. But the government and the people displayed a memorable and exemplary energy under the constant supervision of the king and queen and mayor Nansen. By the beginning of September, all the breaches were repaired, the walls bristled with cannons, and 7000 men were under arms. Hans Nansen (November 28, 1598 - November 12, 1667), was a Danish statesman. ...


So strong was the city by this time that Charles X, abandoning his original intention of carrying the place by assault, began a regular siege. This he also was forced to abandon when an auxiliary Dutch fleet reinforced and reprovisioned the garrison and defeated him on October 29 in the Battle of the Sound. The Dutch then assisted in the liberation of the Danish Isles in 1659. Thus, the Danish capital had saved the Danish monarchy. Battle of the Sound 1658 The naval battle of The Sound took place on 29 October 1658 just south of København. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ...


Absolute monarch

But it was Frederick III who profited most by his spirited defence of the common interests of the country and the dynasty. The traditional loyalty of the Danish middle classes was transformed into a boundless enthusiasm for the king personally, and for a brief period Frederick found himself the most popular man in his kingdom. He made use of his popularity by realizing the dream of a lifetime and converting an elective into an absolute monarchy by the Revolution of 1660, the same year Charles X died. Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ...


The last ten years of his reign the king again took a relative obscure position while the new monarchy was built up and the country tried to recover after the wars. The administration was changed and new men came into government that was marked by a rivalry between the ministers and councillors like Hannibal Sehested and Kristoffer Gabel. During this period Kongeloven (Lex Regis), the “constitution” of Danish absolute monarchy was written 1665. Copenhagen was made a city of garrisons and the defence of the country was strengthened as far as allowed by the poverty. Kristoffer Gabel (January 6, 1617 - October 13, 1673) was a Danish statesman. ...


In 1665 Frederick had the opportunity to return the favour to the Dutch by preventing the British to take the Spice Fleet from the East Indies having sought refuge in Norway, while the British tried to seduce him to take the fleet himself pointing out it was more valuable than the whole of his kingdom. Events March 4 - Start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Frederick III died at the castle of Copenhagen and is interred in Roskilde Cathedral. Roskilde Cathedral Roskilde Cathedral (Danish: Roskilde Domkirke), in the city of Roskilde on the Island of Zealand (Sjaelland) in eastern Denmark was the first Gothic cathedral to be built of brick and its construction encouraged the spread of this Brick Gothic style throughout Northern Europe. ...



Preceded by:
Christian IV
King of Denmark
16481670
Succeeded by:
Christian V
King of Norway
16481670


King Christian IV. Christian IV (1588–1648), king of Denmark and Norway, the son of Frederick II, king of Denmark and Norway, and Sophia of Mecklenburg, was born at Frederiksborg castle in 1577, and succeeded to the throne on the death of his father (April 4, 1588), attaining his majority... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Christian V Christian V (April 15, 1646 - August 25, 1699), was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670-1699. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ...


This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Frederick III of Denmark - LoveToKnow 1911 (1070 words)
During the disastrous Swedish War of 1643-1645 Frederick was appointed generalissimo of the duchies by his father, but the laurels he won were scanty, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille, who commanded the Danish forces.
Frederick was resolved upon a rupture with Sweden at the first convenient opportunity.
Frederick expressed the desire to make the personal acquaintance of his conqueror; and Charles X. consented to be his guest for three days (March 3-5) at the castle of Fredriksborg.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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