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Encyclopedia > Frederick III, Elector of Saxony
Frederick in an engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1524
Frederick in an engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1524

Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (January 17, 1463May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. Frederick was the son of Ernest, Elector of Saxony and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Albert III, Duke of Bavaria. He is notable as being one of the most powerful early defenders of Martin Luther, Lutheranism, and the Protestant Reformation. He is commemorated as a Christian ruler in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod on May 5. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (606x903, 102 KB)Albrecht Dürer, Frederick III, elector of Saxony, engraving 1524 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (606x903, 102 KB)Albrecht Dürer, Frederick III, elector of Saxony, engraving 1524 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... The Wettin dynasty of German counts, dukes, Prince Electors (Kurfürsten) and kings ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding for a time the kingship of Poland. ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... Ernest, Elector Of Saxony (1441 at Altenburg-1486) founder of the Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of Prince Consort. ... Albert III, Duke of Bavaria. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ... The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by the Lutheran Church. ... LCMS redirects here. ...

Contents

Biography

Born in Torgau, he succeeded his father as elector in 1486; in 1502, he founded the University of Wittenberg, where Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon taught. Torgau is a town on the banks of the Elbe in northwestern Saxony, Germany. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg is located in the German cities of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt and Wittenberg. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ...


Frederick was among the princes who pressed the need of reform upon Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and in 1500 he became president of the newly-formed council of regency (Reichsregiment).


Frederick was Pope Leo X's candidate for Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 — the pope had awarded him the Golden Rose of virtue on September 3, 1518 —, but he helped secure the election of Charles V. Frederick ensured Luther (see Relations with Luther section) would be heard before the Diet of Worms in 1521, and subsequently secured an exemption from the Edict of Worms for Saxony. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Golden Rose of Minucchio da Siena (1330), given by Pope John XXII to Rudolph III of Nidau, Earl of Neuchâtel The Golden Rose is a precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes of the Roman Catholic Church have been accustomed for centuries... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... Frederick in an engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1524 Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (January 17, 1463 – May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... Luther Before the Diet of Worms, photogravure after the historicist painting by Anton von Werner (1843–1915) in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart The Diet of Worms (Reichstag zu Worms) was a general assembly (a Diet) of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, a small town... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... This article or section should be merged with Diet of Worms The Edict of Worms was issued by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor on May 25, 1521 at Worms, at the end of the Diet of Worms. ...

Silver Saxony coin of Frederick III, known as a Groschen, minted ca. 1507–25. Both the obverse and the reverse bear a coat of arms.
Silver Saxony coin of Frederick III, known as a Groschen, minted ca. 1507–25. Both the obverse and the reverse bear a coat of arms.

He protected Martin Luther from the pope's enforcement of the edict by taking him into custody at Wartburg Castle following the Diet of Worms. The emperor did not pursue the issue because his attention became focused upon other issues of the time. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Groschen (Latin: , German: , Italian: , Czech: , Polish: , Hungarian: , Romanian: ) was the (sometimes colloquial) name for a coin used in various German-speaking states as well as some non-German-speaking countries of Central Europe (Bohemia, Poland), The Romanian Principalities. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Wartburg in Eisenach Wartburg Castle is situated on a 1230-foot (410 m) precipitous hill to the southwest of and overlooking the town of Eisenach in Thuringia. ...


In 1523, he consented to make an end of the worship of relics in the Catholic Church. Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ...


Frederick died unmarried at Langau, near Annaberg, in 1525 and was buried in the Schlosskirche at Wittenberg with a grave by Peter Vischer the Younger. He was succeeded by his brother Duke John the Constant as Elector of Saxony. Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Peter Vischer the Younger (1487 - 1528) was a German sculptor who lived in Nürnberg. ... John of Saxony in the Speyer Memorial Church. ...


Relations with Luther

Part of the series on
Lutheranism
Luther's Seal
Beginnings

Christianity
Protestant Reformation
Roman Catholicism
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... lutheran seal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Luther seal or Luther rose is a widely-recognised symbol for Lutheranism. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic...

People

Martin Luther
Philipp Melanchthon
Frederick the Wise
Martin Chemnitz
Johann Sebastian Bach
Henry Melchior Muhlenberg
Lars Levi Læstadius
C. F. W. Walther
Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Martin Chemnitz (1522-1586) was an eminent Lutheran theologian, churchman, and confessor, born in Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg on November 9, 1522, the day before Martin Luther had been born in 1483. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it... Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (September 6, 1711, Einbeck, Germany – October 7, 1787, Trappe, Pennsylvania), originally Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg, was a Lutheran clergyman who is viewed as the founder of the Lutheran Church in the United States. ... Lars Levi Laestadius (1800-1861) Lars Levi Læstadius (October 1, 1800 - February 21, 1861) was a Swedish Lutheran pastor of Sami ancestry. ... Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm (C.F.W.) Walther (October 25, 1811 - May 17, 1887), was the first President of the Lutheran Church _ Missouri Synod. ...

Book of Concord

Augsburg Confession
Apology of the Augsburg Confession
Smalcald Articles
Treatise on the Power and
Primacy of the Pope

Luther's Large Catechism
Luther's Small Catechism
Formula of Concord
95 Theses
The Book of Concord or Concordia is a compilation of the major theological documents of early Lutheranism. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... The Apology of the Augsburg Confession was formulated by Philip Melanchthon as the response to the Roman Confutation against the Augsburg Confession. ... The Smalcald Articles are a summary of Lutheran doctrines, written by Martin Luther, which declared the positions on which Lutherans could not concede. ... The Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope is a treatise written by Philip Melanchthon that denotes the Lutheran position regarding the Papal abuses of authority. ... Luthers Large Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in April of 1529. ... Luthers Small Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in 1529 for the training of children. ... (1577). ... The 95 Theses. ...

Theology and Sacraments

Sacramental union
Law and Gospel
Sola scriptura
Sola gratia
Sola fide
The Eucharist
Holy Baptism
Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... The relationship between Gods Law and the Gospel is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... Sola gratia, one of the five solas propounded to summarise the Reformers basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation, it is a Latin term meaning grace alone. ... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...

Liturgy and Worship

Divine Service
Lutheran Liturgical Calendar
The Divine Service (German: Gottesdienst) is the liturgy of the Lutheran Church which is used during the celebration of the Eucharist. ... The Lutheran liturgical calendar is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by various Lutheran churches. ...

Denominations

Lutheran World Federation
International Lutheran Council
Evangelical Lutheran Free Church
Confessional Evangelical Conference
Laestadianism
List of Lutheran Denominations
LWF logo The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) is a global association of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The International Lutheran Council is a worldwide association of confessional Lutheran denominations. ... Evangelical Lutheran Free Church (UAC) Evangelical Lutheran Free Church (Germany) Evangelical Lutheran Free Church of Norway Evangelical Lutheran Free Church of Denmark Free Evangelical Lutheran Synod in South Africa Categories: | | ... The Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference (CELC) is the successor to the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America except that it is international in scope rather than restricted to North America. ... The Laestadian movement (lestadiolaisuus in Finnish and Laestadianismen in Swedish) are a conservative Christian revival movement prominent mostly in Finland, Sweden, Norway and North America. ... This is a list of Lutheran denominations grouped by affiliation with international Lutheran bodies. ...

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Frederick probably heard of Luther for the first time in 1512 when Johann von Staupitz, the general vicar of the Augustinians, asked him to defray the expenses of promotion for the poor but promising monk. It seems to have been Staupitz also who directed the attention of the elector to the study of the Bible as the only certain source of salvation; and he became an earnest student of Scripture. It might be supposed that Luther's theses concerning indulgences were likely to bring out the anger of the elector, devoted as he was to the practise and to the worship of saints. But he was too large-hearted and possessed too noble a nature. Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Engraving of Johann Von Staupitz, 1889. ... In the broadest sense, a vicar (from the Latin vicarius) is anyone acting as a substitute or agent for a superior (compare vicarious). In this sense, the title is comparable to lieutenant. ... Detail of St. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


The attitude of the elector was due rather to his love of justice, which could not endure that Luther should be delivered to his enemies without having been convicted, and to his wish to save him for his university, as long as possible. Luther was one of its most celebrated teachers, as it may be plainly seen from his letter to Staupitz from April 8, 1518. Because he shrank from interfering with the will of God, it was the policy of the elector neither to approve nor disapprove of Luther's actions, but to let him fight out his own convictions. He himself, however, clung to his saints and relics; in 1520 the number of the latter had increased to 19,013. April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ...


Then followed the great events of 1520, the bull of excommunication against Luther, the publication of his great reformatory writings, the appeal to a council, the burning of the papal bull, etc. Without misjudging the seriousness of the condition, Frederick did not recede from his course, repeating his demand that Luther's cause should be entrusted to learned and unprejudiced judges. As an obedient and faithful son of the Church, however, the thought never entered his mind to defend Luther's doctrine; as a layman, he did not pretend to understand anything of it. He followed the same policy at the Diet of Worms. Luther Before the Diet of Worms, photogravure after the historicist painting by Anton von Werner (1843–1915) in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart The Diet of Worms (Reichstag zu Worms) was a general assembly (a Diet) of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, a small town...

Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, c. 1500.
Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, c. 1500.

Luther, he insisted, should be convicted of heresy only according to the established principles and forms of law. In confidential letters he showed a cordial interest in the persecuted monk, but at the diet he took great pains not to show it and to avoid all intercourse with him. It was undoubtedly due to the influence of his brother, John of Saxony, who was a devoted Lutheran, that Frederick protected Luther after the diet. He probably gave his councilors an order in a general way to guard Luther, without definite directions, since for a long time neither the elector nor his brother knew that Luther was in the Wartburg. At any rate, it was not the intention of Frederick to protect the cause of Luther, but only his person. He soon perceived, however, that his action had furthered the cause in the most powerful way. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2649, 565 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Friedrich des Weisen, Kurfürst von Sachsen Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 76 × 57 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Gemäldegalerie Other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2649, 565 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Friedrich des Weisen, Kurfürst von Sachsen Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 76 × 57 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Gemäldegalerie Other... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wartburg 311: in production between 1956 and 1965 Wartburg 312: in production in 1965. ...


Attitude toward the Wittenberg Reforms

Now the hardest and most troublesome years of his life began. No prince ever faced a more difficult and responsible task than Frederick before the disturbances and innovations in Wittenberg; but seldom has a prince practised greater self-renunciation. Everything that he loved so dearly was gradually deprived of its value, and although he always counseled moderation, he was not willing to stem the tide because he did not wish to act against the word of God, and the new movement might perhaps be his will. As a layman he tolerated everything in religion as long as the public order was not disturbed. Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ...


But his opponents did not acknowledge the justness of this standpoint and made him responsible for everything that happened in the Saxon churches. The abolition of the mass must have cut deeply into his heart, but his opposition was of no avail. He could not be induced, however, to advocate himself the introduction of reforms.


Ancestors

Frederick III's ancestors in three generations
Frederick III, Elector of Saxony Father:
Ernest, Elector of Saxony
Paternal Grandfather:
Frederick II, Elector of Saxony
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick I, Elector of Saxony
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Catherine of Brunswick
Paternal Grandmother:
Margarete of Austria
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Ernest, Duke of Austria
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Cymburgis of Masovia
Mother:
Elisabeth of Bavaria
Maternal Grandfather:
Albert III, Duke of Bavaria
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Ernest, Duke of Bavaria
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Elisabetta Visconti
Maternal Grandmother:
Anna of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen-Einbeck
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Agnes of Braunschweig
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Friedrich III. (Sachsen)

Ernest, Elector Of Saxony (1441 at Altenburg-1486) founder of the Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of Prince Consort. ... Frederick II, the Gentle and Elector of Saxony (1428 — 1464), was an Elector of Saxony. ... Frederick I, the Belligerent Frederick IV, the Belligerent (11 April 1370 – 4 January 1428, Altenburg), son of Friedrich III, Landgraf of Thuringia and Katharina von Henneberg. ... Ernest the Iron, officially Ernest, Duke of Inner Austria (German: Ernst der Eiserne) (born 1377 in Bruck an der Mur; died June 10, 1424 in the same place) was from the Habsburg dynasty, and as a member of the Leopoldian line, whose head of the family he was 1411-24... Cymburgis, also Cimburgis, Zimburga, Cimburga or Cymbarka of Masovia (Warsaw, 1394 or 1397 – September 28, 1429 in Türnitz, Lower Austria) daughter of Siemowit IV and Alexandra, was the wife of Ernest the Iron and thus a Duchess of Austria from of the Styrian-Inner Austrian line. ... Albert III, Duke of Bavaria. ... Duke Ernest of Bavaria-Munich (* 1373 in Munich; † 2. ... Albert (Latin Albertus, German Albrecht; 1236 – 1279), called the Tall (Latin Longus), was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  • This article includes content derived from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1914, which is in the public domain.
Preceded by
Ernest
Elector of Saxony
14861525
Succeeded by
John

  Results from FactBites:
 
John, Elector of Saxony - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (241 words)
John, Elector of Saxony, known as John the Steadfast or John the Constant (born 1468 at Schweinitz Castle - August 16, 1532) was Elector of Saxony from 1525 until 1532 (from the House of Wettin).
He was the son of Ernest, Elector of Saxony, and followed his brother Frederick the Wise as ruler.
In 1527 the Lutheran Church was established as the state church in Ernestine Saxony, with the Elector as Chief Bishop.
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