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Encyclopedia > Frederick II of Prussia
Frederick II
King of Prussia, Elector of Brandenburg
Frederick II, aged 68, by Anton Graff
Reign 1740 - 1786
Titles Frederick II of Prussia
Frederick IV of Brandenburg
Born January 24, 1712(1712-01-24)
Berlin, Prussia
Died August 17, 1786 (aged 74)
Potsdam, Prussia
Buried Sanssouci, Potsdam
Predecessor Frederick William I
Successor Frederick William II
Consort Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern
Royal House House of Hohenzollern
Father Frederick William I
Mother Sophia Dorothea of Hanover

Frederick II (German: Friedrich II.; January 24, 1712August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty.[1] In his role as a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, he was Frederick IV (Friedrich IV.) of Brandenburg. He became known as Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Große) and was nicknamed der alte Fritz ("Old Fritz"). The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... The Margrave of Brandenburg was one of the seven Electors of the Holy Roman Empire created by the Golden Bull of 1356. ... Image File history File links Fryderyk_2. ... Anton Graff (born November 18, 1736 in Winterthur, died June 22, 1813 in Dresden) was a famous portrait artist. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... This article is about the German palace. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744 – November 16, 1797) was the fourth king of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Elizabeth Christine by Antoine Pesne, 1739. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (March 16, 1687 – June 28, 1757) was a Princess of Hanover, being the daughter of Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later George I of Great Britain) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Fritz was originally a German nickname for Friedrich, or Frederick (der alte Fritz, a nickname for King Frederick II of Prussia). ...


Interested primarily in the arts during his youth, Frederick unsuccessfully attempted to flee from his authoritarian father, the "Soldier-King" Frederick William I, after which he was forced to watch the execution of a childhood friend. Upon ascending to the Prussian throne, he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia. Near the end of his life, Frederick united most of his disconnected realm through the First Partition of Poland. Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. For years he was a correspondent of Voltaire, with whom the king had a turbulent friendship. He modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and promoted religious toleration throughout his realm. Frederick patronized the arts and philosophers. Frederick is buried at his favorite residence, Sanssouci in Potsdam. He was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II of Prussia. enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the German palace. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744 – November 16, 1797) was the fourth king of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ...

Contents

Early years

Frederick was born in Berlin, the son of King Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. The so-called "Soldier-King", Frederick William had developed a formidable army and encouraged centralization, but was also known for his authoritarianism and temper. He would strike men in the face with his cane and kick women in the street, justifying his outbursts as religious righteousness. In contrast, Sophia was well-mannered and well-educated. Her father, George, Elector of Hanover, was the heir of Queen Anne of Great Britain. George succeeded as King George I of Great Britain in 1714. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (March 16, 1687 – June 28, 1757) was a Princess of Hanover, being the daughter of Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later George I of Great Britain) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. ... A standard of the Prussian Army. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III and Mary... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ...


At the time of Frederick's birth, the Houses of Brandenburg and Hanover were enjoying great prosperity; the birth of Frederick was welcomed by his grandfather with more than usual pleasure, as two of his grandsons had already died at an early age. Frederick William wished his sons and daughters to be educated not as royalty, but as simple folk. He had been educated by a Frenchwoman, Madame de Montbail, who later became Madame de Rocoulle, and he wished that she should educate his children. Frederick was brought up by Huguenot governesses and tutors and learned French and German simultaneously. Hohenzollern redirects here. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... For a specific analysis of the population of France, see Demographics of France. ... She was a French woman, who was the educator of Frederick II of Prussia. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... A governess is a female employee from outside of the family who teaches children within the family circle. ... In British, Australian, New Zealand, and some Canadian universities, a tutor is often but not always a postgraduate student or a lecturer assigned to conduct a seminar for undergraduate students, often known as a tutorial. ...


Although Frederick William was raised a devout Calvinist, he feared he was not of the elect. To avoid the possibility of Frederick having the same fears, the king ordered that his heir not be taught about predestination. Although he was largely irreligious, Frederick adopted this tenet of Calvinism, despite the king's efforts. It is unknown if the crown prince did this to spite his father or out of genuine religious belief.[2] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... The Calvinist doctrine of predestination, is the religious doctrine of double predestination, particular to Calvinism. ... Predestination and foreordination are religious concepts, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ...


Youth

Frederick as King of Prussia
Frederick as King of Prussia

In early 1730, Queen Sophia Dorothea attempted to orchestrate a dual marriage of Frederick and his sister Wilhelmina with Amelia and Frederick, the children of King George II of Great Britain. Fearing an alliance between Prussia and Great Britain, Field Marshal von Seckendorff, the Austrian ambassador in Berlin, bribed Field Marshal von Grumbkow and Benjamin Reichenbach, the Prussian Minister of War and Prussian ambassador in London, respectively. The pair discreetly slandered the British and Prussian courts in the eyes of the two kings. Angered by the idea of the effete Frederick ascending the British throne, Frederick William presented impossible demands to the British, such as Prussia acquiring Jülich and Berg, leading to the collapse of the marriage proposal.[3] Download high resolution version (498x640, 28 KB) SOURCE: http://lcweb2. ... Download high resolution version (498x640, 28 KB) SOURCE: http://lcweb2. ... Friederike Sophie Wilhelmine, Princess of Prussia (Berlin, July 3, 1709 - Bayreuth, October 14, 1758), was a daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia. ... For other persons known as Princess Amelia, see Princess Amelia The Princess Amelia Sophie (10 July 1711 – 31 October 1786), was a member of the British Royal Family, the second daughter of King George II. // Early Life Princess Amelia was born in Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover, Germany. ... Frederick, Prince of Wales, by Jacopo Amigoni, 1735 His Royal Highness The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis) (February 1, 1707 - March 31, 1751) was the only man of that name ever to hold the title Prince of Wales, and is best remembered as the father of King George... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... The Duchy of Jülich was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (part of Limburg). ... Map of the duchies of Jülich, Cleves, and Berg circa 1477. ...


Frederick found an ally in his sister, Wilhelmina, with whom he remained close for life. At age 16, Frederick had formed an attachment to the king's 17-year-old page, Peter Karl Christoph Keith. Wilhelmina recorded that the two "soon became inseparable. Keith was intelligent, but without education. He served my brother from feelings of real devotion, and kept him informed of all the king's actions."[4]


When he was 18, Frederick plotted to flee to England with Hans Hermann von Katte and other junior army officers. While the royal retinue was near Mannheim in the Electoral Palatinate, Robert Keith, Peter's brother, had an attack of conscience when the conspirators were preparing to escape and begged Frederick William for forgiveness on August 5, 1730;[5] Frederick and Katte were subsequently arrested and imprisoned in Küstrin. Because they were army officers who had tried to flee Prussia for Great Britain, Frederick William leveled an accusation of treason against the pair. The king threatened the crown prince with the death penalty, then considered forcing Frederick to renounce the succession in favor of his brother, Augustus William, although either option would have been difficult to justify to the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire.[6] The king forced Frederick to watch the decapitation of his friend Katte at Küstrin on November 6. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Hans Hermann von Katte Hans Hermann von Katte (February 28, 1704 – November 6, 1730) was a Lieutnant of the Prussian Army and a close friend of Frederick II of Prussia. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Kostrzyn nad OdrÄ… (German: ) is a town in western Poland, about 40 km west of Gorzów Wielkopolski, at the confluence of the Oder and Warta rivers, on the border with Germany. ... Augustus William (German: August Wilhelm; 9 August 1722, Berlin – 12 June 1758, Oranienburg), Prince of Prussia, was the second son of King Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Frederick was granted a royal pardon and released from his cell on November 18, although he remained stripped of his military rank.[7] Instead of returning to Berlin, however, he was forced to remain in Küstrin and began rigorous schooling in statecraft and administration for the War and Estates Departments on November 20. Tensions eased slightly when Frederick William visited Küstrin a year later, and Frederick was allowed to visit Berlin on the occasion of his sister Wilhelmina's marriage to Margrave Frederick of Bayreuth on November 20, 1731. The crown prince returned to Berlin after finally being released from his tutelage at Küstrin on 26 February 1732. is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Friederike Sophie Wilhelmine, Princess of Prussia (Berlin, July 3, 1709 - Bayreuth, October 14, 1758), was a daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia. ... The Principality of Bayreuth (German: ) or Brandenburg-Bayreuth was a reichsfrei principality in the Holy Roman Empire centered on the Bavarian city of Bayreuth. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ...


Frederick William considered marrying Frederick to Elisabeth of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the niece of Empress Anna of Russia, but this plan was ardently opposed by Prince Eugene of Savoy. Frederick himself proposed marrying Maria Theresa of Austria in return for renouncing the succession. Instead, Eugene persuaded Frederick William, through Seckendorff, that the crown prince should marry Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern, a Protestant relative of the Imperial Habsburgs.[8] Although Frederick wrote to his sister that, "There can be neither love nor friendship between us,"[4] and he considered suicide, he went along with the wedding on June 12, 1733. Once Frederick secured the throne in 1740, he prevented Elisabeth from visiting his court in Potsdam, granting her instead Schönhausen Palace and apartments at the Berliner Stadtschloss. Frederick bestowed the title of the heir to the throne, "Prince of Prussia", on his brother Augustus William; despite this, his wife remained devoted to him.[9] Anna Leopoldovna (А́нна Леопо́льдовна) (1718 - 18 March 1746), also known as Anna Karlovna (А́нна Ка́рловна), regent of Russia for a few months... H.I.M. Anna Ioannovna, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias, Duchess of Courland Anna Ioannovna (In Russian: Анна Иоанновна) (February 7, 1693 - October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, Archduchess of Austria, (German: , Hungarian: , Romanian: , Slovak: , Czech: ; May 13, 1717–November 29, 1780) was (reigning) Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. ... Elizabeth Christine by Antoine Pesne, 1739. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Schönhausen Palace in Berlin Schönhausen Palace is a baroque palace in Berlins borough of Niederschönhausen in the administrative district of Pankow. ... The Berlin City Palace (German: Berliner Stadtschloss) was a palace in central Berlin, on Schlossplatz, next to Alexanderplatz. ... Augustus William (German: August Wilhelm; 9 August 1722, Berlin – 12 June 1758, Oranienburg), Prince of Prussia, was the second son of King Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. ...


Frederick was restored to the Prussian Army as Colonel of the Regiment von der Goltz, stationed near Nauen and Neuruppin. When Prussia provided a contingent of troops to aid Austria during the War of the Polish Succession, Frederick studied under Prince Eugene of Savoy during the campaign against France on the Rhine.[10] Frederick William, weakened by gout brought about by the campaign, granted Frederick Schloss Rheinsberg in Rheinsberg, north of Neuruppin. In Rheinsberg, Frederick assembled a small number of musicians, actors and other artists. He spent his time reading, watching dramatic plays, making and listening to music, and regarded this time as one of the happiest of his life. A standard of the Prussian Army. ... Nauen is a German town west of Berlin. ... Neuruppin is a town in Brandenburg, Germany. ... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Rheinsberg is a town and a municipality in the Ostprignitz-Ruppin district, in Brandenburg, Germany. ...


The works of Niccolò Machiavelli, such as The Prince, were considered a guideline for the behavior of a king in Frederick's age. In 1739, Frederick finished his Anti-Machiavel — an idealistic writing in which he opposes Machiavelli. It was published anonymously in 1740, but Voltaire distributed it in Amsterdam to great popularity.[11] Frederick's years dedicated to the arts instead of politics ended upon the death of Frederick William and his inheritance of the Kingdom of Prussia. Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. ... Anti-Machiavel is an 18th century essay by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire, rebutting The Prince, the 16th century book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ...


Kingship

Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia (1600-1795).

Before his accession, Frederick was told by D'Alembert, "The philosophers and the men of letters in every land have long looked upon you, Sire, as their leader and model." Such devotion, however, had to be tempered by political realities. When Frederick ascended the throne as "King in Prussia" in 1740, Prussia consisted of scattered territories, including Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg in the west of the Holy Roman Empire; Brandenburg, Vorpommern, and Hinterpommern in the east of the Empire; and Prussia outside of the Empire bordering the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de la Tour Jean Le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... County of Mark in 1477. ... Ravensberg, historical county in eastern Westphalia, Germany. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Vorpommern (Polish: Pomorze Przednie) - in English sometimes also called West, Upper, or Hither Pomerania - is a region of Pomerania west of the River Oder in north-eastern Germany, including the island of Rügen but excluding the city of Szczecin (former Stettin). ... Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) in yellow. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Warfare

Battle of Hohenfriedberg, Attack of the Prussian Infantry, by Carl Röchling. Oil on canvas.
Battle of Hohenfriedberg, Attack of the Prussian Infantry, by Carl Röchling. Oil on canvas.

Frederick's goal was to modernize and unite his vulnerably disconnected lands; toward this end, he fought wars mainly against Austria, whose Habsburg dynasty reigned as Holy Roman Emperors almost continuously from the 15th century until 1806. Frederick established Prussia as the fifth and smallest European great power by using the resources his frugal father had cultivated. Image File history File links Hohenfriedeberg. ... Image File history File links Hohenfriedeberg. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony Prussia Commanders Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine Frederick the Great Strength 58,700[1] 122 guns 58,500 192 guns Casualties 8,650 dead or wounded, 5,080 captured 4,800 War of the Austrian Succession Mollwitz – Chotusitz – Dettingen – Toulon – Pfaffenhofen – Fontenoy – Hohenfriedberg – Soor – Hennersdorf – Kesselsdorf – Rocoux... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ...


Desiring the prosperous Austrian province of Silesia, Frederick declined to endorse the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a legal mechanism to ensure the inheritance of the Habsburg domains by Maria Theresa of Austria. He was also worried that Frederick Augustus II, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, would seek to connect his own disparate lands through Silesia. The Prussian king thus invaded Silesia the same year he took power, using as justification an obscure treaty from 1537 between the Hohenzollerns and the Piast dynasty of Brieg (Brzeg). The ensuing First Silesian War (1740–1742), part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), resulted in Frederick conquering the province (with the exception of Austrian Silesia). Austria attempted to recover Silesia in the Second Silesian War (1744–1745), but Frederick was victorious again and forced Austria to adhere to the previous peace terms. Prussian possession of Silesia gave the kingdom control over the Oder River. Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... The Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a legal mechanism designed to ensure that the Austrian throne and Habsburg lands would be inherited by Emperor Charles VIs daughter, Maria Theresa. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, Archduchess of Austria, (German: , Hungarian: , Romanian: , Slovak: , Czech: ; May 13, 1717–November 29, 1780) was (reigning) Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article is about a Polish dynasty. ... Brzeg (German: ) is a town in southwestern Poland with 42,00 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Opole Voivodship. ... The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ... Combatants Prussia Spain France Electorate of Bavaria Kingdom of Naples Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic Electorate of Saxony Sardinia Russian Empire Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles Emmanuel III Empress Maria... ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ...

Battle of Rossbach, a tactical victory for Frederick.

Habsburg Austria and Bourbon France, traditional enemies, allied together in the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756. As neighboring countries began conspiring against him, Frederick determined to strike first. On August 29, 1756 his well-prepared army crossed the frontier and preemptively invaded Saxony, thus beginning the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). Facing a coalition which included Austria, France, Russia, Saxony, and Sweden, and having only Great Britain and Hanover as his allies, Frederick narrowly kept Prussia in the war despite having his territories frequently invaded. The sudden death of Empress Elizabeth of Russia, an event dubbed the miracle of the House of Brandenburg, led to the collapse of the anti-Prussian coalition. Although Frederick did not gain any territory in the ensuing Treaty of Hubertusburg, his ability to retain Silesia during the Silesian Wars made him and Prussia popular throughout many German-speaking territories. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 771 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (921 × 716 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/gif) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 771 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (921 × 716 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/gif) http://www. ... Combatants Prussia France Holy Roman / Austrian Empire Commanders Frederick II Charles, prince de Soubise Joseph Frederick William, duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen Strength 22,000 79 guns 42,000 45 guns Casualties 169 dead, 379 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Rossbach (November 5, 1757... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The Diplomatic Revolution refers to the alliances formed in 1756 as a result of the outbreak of the Seven Years War. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... Charles van Loo. ... The miracle of the House of Brandenburg refers to the death of Russias Empress Elizabeth at the beginning of 1762. ... The Treaty of Hubertusburg, signed on 15 February 1763, together with the Treaty of Paris signed on 10 February 1763, marked the end of the French and Indian War and of the Seven Years War. ...


Late in his life Frederick also involved Prussia in the low-scale War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778, in which he stifled Austrian attempts to exchange the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria. When Emperor Joseph II tried the scheme again in 1784, Frederick created the Fürstenbund, allowing himself to be seen as a defender of German liberties, in contrast to his earlier role of attacking the imperial Habsburgs. The War of the Bavarian Succession was a war that occurred in 1778 and 1779. ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Frederick the Great created the Fürstenbund in Germany in 1785 to resist the encroachments of Austria. ...


Frederick frequently led his military forces personally and had six horses shot from under him during battle. Frederick is often admired as one of the greatest tactical geniuses of all time, especially for his usage of the oblique order of battle. Even more important were his operational successes, especially preventing the unification of numerically superior opposing armies and being at the right place at the right time to keep enemy armies out of Prussian core territory. In a letter to his mother Maria Theresa, the Austrian co-ruler Emperor Joseph II wrote, Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... The Oblique Order (or declined or refused flank) is a military tactic where an attacking army focuses its forces to attack a single enemy flank. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ...

When the King of Prussia speaks on problems connected with the art of war, which he has studied intensively and on which he has read every conceivable book, then everything is taut, solid and uncommonly instructive. There are no circumlocutions, he gives factual and historical proof of the assertions he makes, for he is well versed in history… A genius and a man who talks admirably. But everything he says betrays the knave."[12]

An example of the place that Frederick holds in history as a ruler is seen in Napoleon Bonaparte, who saw the Prussian king as the greatest tactical genius of all time;[13] after Napoleon's defeat of the Fourth Coalition in 1807, he visited Frederick's tomb in Potsdam and remarked to his officers, "Gentlemen, if this man were still alive I would not be here".[14] Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... In the Napoleonic Wars, the Fourth Coalition was an alliance organized against Napoleons French Empire in 1806–1807. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ...


Frederick the Great's most notable and decisive military victories on the battlefield were the Battles of Hohenfriedberg, Rossbach, and Leuthen. Combatants Austria, Saxony Prussia Commanders Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine Frederick the Great Strength 58,700[1] 122 guns 58,500 192 guns Casualties 8,650 dead or wounded, 5,080 captured 4,800 War of the Austrian Succession Mollwitz – Chotusitz – Dettingen – Toulon – Pfaffenhofen – Fontenoy – Hohenfriedberg – Soor – Hennersdorf – Kesselsdorf – Rocoux... Combatants Prussia France Holy Roman / Austrian Empire Commanders Frederick II Charles, prince de Soubise Joseph Frederick William, duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen Strength 22,000 79 guns 42,000 45 guns Casualties 169 dead, 379 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Rossbach (November 5, 1757... Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Frederick the Great Charles of Lorraine Strength 39,000 167 guns 58,500 210 guns Casualties 1,141 dead 5118 wounded 85 captured 3000 dead 7,000 wounded 12,000 captured 51 flags 116 cannons The Battle of Leuthen was a battle fought on December 5...


First Partition -o- Poland

The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the First Partition (1772)
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the First Partition (1772)

Empress Catherine II took the Imperial Russian throne in 1762 after the murder of Elisabeth's successor, Peter III. Catherine was staunchly opposed to Prussia, while Frederick disapproved of Russia, whose troops had been allowed to freely cross the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Seven Years' War. Despite the two monarchs' dislike of each other, Frederick and Catherine signed a defensive alliance on April 11, 1764 which guaranteed Prussian control of Silesia in return for Prussian support for Russia against Austria or the Ottoman Empire. Catherine's candidate for the Polish throne, Stanisław August Poniatowski, was then elected King of Poland in September of that year. Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 268 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 268 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Catherine the Great” redirects here. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Grand Duke Peter, 1753, by Alexei Antropov Peter III (February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Федорович or Pyotr III Fyodorovitch) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ...


Frederick became concerned, however, after Russia gained significant influence over Poland in the Repnin Sejm of 1767, an act which also threatened Austria and the Ottoman Turks. In the ensuing Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Frederick reluctantly supported Catherine with a subsidy of 300,000 roubles, as he did not want Russia to become even stronger through the acquisitions of Ottoman territory. The Prussian king successfully achieved a rapprochement with Emperor Joseph and the Austrian chancellor Kaunitz. As early as 1731 Frederick had suggested in a letter to Field Marshal Dubislav Gneomar von Natzmer that the country would be well-served by annexing Polish Prussia in order to unite the eastern territories of the Kingdom of Prussia.[15] Repnin Sejm (Polish: ) was a Sejm (session of the Polish parliament) that took place from 1767 to 1768 in Warsaw, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The French for bring together. Used in English to describe the theory (that) says that children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. See Attachment theory This article is a stub. ... Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz (Count Anton von Kaunitz), (Václav Antonín hrabě Kounic-Rietberg) (February 2, 1711 - June 27, 1794), born into old Bohemian noble family settled in Moravia, was an Austrian statesman. ...


Frederick's brother Henry spent the winter of 1770–1771 as a representative of the Prussian court at St. Petersburg. As Austria had annexed 13 towns in the Szepes region in 1769, Catherine and her advisor General Ivan Chernyshyov suggested to Henry that Prussia claim some Polish land, such as Warmia (Ermeland). After Henry informed him of the proposal, Frederick suggested a partition of the Polish borderlands by Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Kaunitz counter-proposed that Prussia take lands from Poland in return for relinquishing Silesia to Austria, but this plan was rejected by Frederick. This page refers to Prince Henry of Prussia (1726-1802); for Prince Henry of Prussia (1862-1929), see Albert Wilhelm Heinrich of Prussia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Szepes (Slovak: SpiÅ¡; Latin: Scepusium, Polish: Spisz, German: Zips) is the name of a historic administrative county of the Kingdom of Hungary, wich is now lying in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland. ... Count Ivan Grigoryevich Chernyshyov (or Tchernyshov) (1726 - 1797) was a Russian Field Marshal. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ...


After Russia occupied the Danubian Principalities, Henry convinced Frederick and Maria Theresa that the balance of power would be maintained by a tripartite division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth instead of Russia taking land from the Ottomans. In the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Frederick claimed most of the Polish province of Royal Prussia. Prussia annexed 20,000 mi² and 600,000 inhabitants, the least of the partitioning powers.[16] However, the new West Prussia united East Prussia with Brandenburg and Hinterpommern and granted Prussia control of the mouth of the Vistula River. Although Maria Theresa had reluctantly agreed to the partition, Frederick commented, "she cries, but she takes".[17] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Balance of power in international relations is a central concept in realist theory. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Vistula river basin Vistula (Polish Wisła), is the longest river in Poland. ...


Frederick quickly began improving the infrastructure of the new territory. The Polish administrative and legal code was replaced by the Prussian system, and education improved; 750 schools were built from 1772-1775.[18] Both Protestant and Roman Catholic teachers taught in West Prussia, and teachers and administrators were encouraged to be able to speak both German and Polish. He also advised his successors to learn Polish, a policy followed by the Hohenzollern dynasty until Frederick III decided not to let William II learn the language.[18] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German...


However, Frederick looked upon many of his new citizens with scorn. He had nothing but contempt for the szlachta, the numerous Polish nobility, and wrote that Poland had "the worst government in Europe with the exception of Turkey".[17] He considered West Prussia as uncivilized as Colonial Canada[19] and compared the Poles to the Iroquois.[17] In a letter to Henry, Frederick wrote about the province that "it is a very good and advantageous acquisition, both from a financial and a political point of view. In order to excite less jealousy I tell everyone that on my travels I have seen just sand, pine trees, heath land and Jews. Despite that there is a lot of work to be done; there is no order, and no planning and the towns are in a lamentable condition."[20] Frederick invited German immigrants to redevelop the province,[18] also hoping they would displace the Poles.[21] Many German officials also regarded the Poles with contempt.[19] Frederick did befriend some Poles, such as Ignacy Krasicki, whom he asked to consecrate St. Hedwig's Cathedral in 1773. Stanisław Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... // Main article: Province of Quebec (1763-1791) In North America, Seven Years War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763. ... Languages Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora, English, French Religions Christianity, Longhouse religion The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power; the Five Nations; the Six Nations; or the People of the Long house) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... St. ...


Modernization

Frederick the Great during the Seven Years' War, painting by Richard Knötel.
Frederick the Great during the Seven Years' War, painting by Richard Knötel.

Frederick managed to transform Prussia from a European backwater to an economically strong and politically reformed state. His acquisition of Silesia was orchestrated so as to provide Prussia's fledgling industries with raw materials, and he protected these industries with high tariffs and minimal restrictions on internal trade. Canals were built, including between the Vistula and the Oder, swamps were drained for agricultural cultivation, and new crops, such as the potato and the turnip, were introduced. Frederick regarded his reclamation of land in the Oderbruch as a province conquered in peace.[19] With the help of French experts, he reorganized the system of indirect taxes, which provided the state with more revenue than direct taxes. Frederick the Great commissioned Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky to promote the trade and put - to take on the competition with France - a silk factory where soon 1,500 persons found employment. Frederick the Great followed his recommendations in the field of toll levies and import restrictions. In 1763 when Gotzkowsky went broke during a financial crisis, which started in Amsterdam, Frederick took over his porcelain factory, known as KPM, but refused to buy more of his paintings. Image File history File links A Knötel print depicting Frederick II the Great during the Seven Years War. ... Image File history File links A Knötel print depicting Frederick II the Great during the Seven Years War. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... A tariff is a tax placed on imported and/or exported goods, sometimes called a customs duty. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... The Oderbruch is a region along the river Oder between the towns Oderberg and Bad Freienwalde in the north and Lebus in the south. ... An indirect tax (such as sales tax, value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST)) is collected from the person who bears the tax by intermediaries and the proceeds passed on to government. ... Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky (Chojnice, 1710 – Berlin, 1775) was a Berlin merchant with a successful trade in trinkets, silk, taft and porcelain. ... KPM is an acronym or abbreviation for: The Kings Police Medal for Gallantry The Knuth-Pratt-Morris algorithm Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur (German, Royal Porcelain Manufacture) A Kelvin probe microscope is an important variety of AFM for surfaces Kodak Picture Maker a self-service digital photo kiosk manufactured by...


During the reign of Frederick, the effects of the Seven Years' War and the gaining of Silesia greatly changed the economy. The circulation of depreciated money kept prices high. To revalue the Thaler, the Mint Edict of May 1763 was proposed. This stabilized the rates of depreciated coins that would be accepted and provided for the payments of taxes in currency of prewar value. This was replaced in northern Germany by the Reichsthaler, worth one-fourth of a Conventionsthaler. Prussia used a Thaler containing one-fourteenth of a Cologne mark of silver. Many other rulers soon followed the steps of Frederick in reforming their own currencies — this resulted in a shortage of ready money.[22] Examples of German and Austrian Thalers compared to a US quarter piece (bottom center) The Thaler (or Taler) was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. ...


Frederick gave his state a modern bureaucracy whose mainstay until 1760 was the able War and Finance Minister Adam Ludwig von Blumenthal, succeeded in 1764 by his nephew Joachim who ran the ministry to the end of the reign and beyond. Prussia's education system was seen as one of the best in Europe. Frederick abolished torture and corporal punishment and generally supported religious toleration, including the retention of Jesuits as teachers in Silesia, Warmia, and the Netze District after their suppression by Pope Clement XIV. He was interested in attracting a diversity of skills to his country, whether from Jesuit teachers, Huguenot citizens, or Jewish merchants and bankers (particularly from Spain.) He wanted development throughout the country, specifically in areas that he judged as needing a particular kind of development. In order to improve his border trade, Frederick wrote in his Testament politique that: The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has... Corporal punishment is forced pain intended to change a persons behaviour or to punish them. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... The Netze District or District of the Netze (German: ; Polish: ) was a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 to 1793. ... Pope Clement XIV, born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli (Sant Arcangelo di Romagna, 31 October 1705 – 22 September 1774 in Rome), was Pope from 1769 to 1774. ...

We have too many Jews in the towns. They are needed on the Polish border because in these areas Hebrews alone perform trade. As soon as you get away from the frontier, the Jews become a disadvantage, they form cliques, they deal in contraband and get up to all manner of rascally tricks which are detrimental to Christian burghers and merchants. I have never persecuted anyone from this or any other sect [sic]; I think, however, it would be prudent to pay attention, so that their numbers do not increase.[23]

Jews on the Polish border were encouraged to perform all the trade they could and received all the protection and support from the king as any other Prussian citizen. The success of Frederick in integrating the Jews into those areas of society that Frederick encouraged them can be seen by the role played by Gerson von Bleichröder in financing Bismarck's efforts to reunite Germany.[24] Gerson von Bleichröder (* 22 December 1822 in Berlin, † 18 February 1893) was a Berlin Banker. ...


Frederick began titling himself "King of Prussia" after the acquisition of Royal Prussia (West Prussia) in 1772; the phrasing "King in Prussia" had been used since the coronation of Frederick I in Königsberg in 1701. Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ...


Architecture

Frederick had famous buildings constructed in his chief residence, Berlin, most of which still exist today, such as the Berlin State Opera, the Royal Library (today the State Library Berlin), St. Hedwig's Cathedral, the French and German Cathedrals on the Gendarmenmarkt, and Prince Henry's Palace (now the site of Humboldt University). However, the king preferred spending his time in his summer residence Potsdam, where he built the palace of Sanssouci, the most important work of Northern German rococo. Sanssouci, which translates from French as "carefree" or "without worry", was a refuge for Frederick. "Frederician Rococo" developed under Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff. Staatsoper Unter den Linden, 2003 Berlin State Opera (in German: Staatsoper Unter den Linden) is a prominent German opera company. ... // Staatsbibliothek The Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin State Library – Prussian Cultural Heritage) Short history: Founded in 1661 During the World War II the entire holdings (at the time some three million books and other materials)were hidden to safety in 30 monasteries, castles and disused mines. ... St. ... The Gendarmenmarkt is a famous square in Berlin, surrounded by the Concert Hall, the French and the German Cathedral. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... This article is about the German palace. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Frederican Rococo is a form of rococo, which developed in Prussia during the reign of Frederick the Great and combined influences from both France and the Netherlands. ... Officer, architect and painter Georg Wenzeslaus Baron von Knobelsdorff in a portrait by Adam Manyoki, a court painter from Dresden Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (Born 17 February 1699 at Kuckädel in what is now Krosno Odrzańskie (Crossen an der Oder); Died 16 September 1753 in Berlin) was a...

South or garden facade and corps de logis of Sanssouci.
South or garden facade and corps de logis of Sanssouci.

Download high resolution version (2544x930, 658 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2544x930, 658 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... West facade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) (Pronounced fa-sa-de) is generally the exterior of a building — especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... Blenheim Palace, unscaled plan of the Corps de logis. ... This article is about the German palace. ...

Music, arts, and learning

The Flute Concert of Sanssouci by Adolph von Menzel, 1852, depicts Frederick playing the flute in his music room at Sanssouci.
The Flute Concert of Sanssouci by Adolph von Menzel, 1852, depicts Frederick playing the flute in his music room at Sanssouci.

Frederick was a gifted musician who played the transverse flute. He composed 100 sonatas for the flute as well as four symphonies. The Hohenfriedberger Marsch, a military march, was supposedly written by Frederick to commemorate his victory in the Battle of Hohenfriedberg during the Second Silesian War. His court musicians included C. P. E. Bach, Johann Joachim Quantz, and Franz Benda. A meeting with Johann Sebastian Bach in 1747 in Potsdam led to Bach writing The Musical Offering. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1423, 306 KB) Description: Title: de: Flötenkonzert Friedrichs des Großen in Sanssouci Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 142 × 205 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Alte Nationalgalerie Other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1423, 306 KB) Description: Title: de: Flötenkonzert Friedrichs des Großen in Sanssouci Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 142 × 205 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Alte Nationalgalerie Other... Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel ( 8 December 1815 - 9 February 1905) was a German artist noted for drawings, engravings, and paintings. ... This article is about the German palace. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... March music is a genre of music originally written for and performed by military bands. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony Prussia Commanders Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine Frederick the Great Strength 58,700[1] 122 guns 58,500 192 guns Casualties 8,650 dead or wounded, 5,080 captured 4,800 War of the Austrian Succession Mollwitz – Chotusitz – Dettingen – Toulon – Pfaffenhofen – Fontenoy – Hohenfriedberg – Soor – Hennersdorf – Kesselsdorf – Rocoux... Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (Weimar, March 8, 1714 – December 14, German musician and composer, the second son of Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Johann Joachim Quantz (January 30, 1697–July 12, 1773) was a German flutist, flute maker and composer. ... Franz Benda (born November 25, 1709; died March 7, 1786) was a German violinist and composer. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... The Musical Offering (German title Musikalisches Opfer or Das Musikalische Opfer), BWV 1079, is a collection of canons and fugues and other pieces of music by Johann Sebastian Bach, based on a musical theme by Frederick II of Prussia (Frederick the Great) and dedicated to him. ...


Frederick also aspired to be a philosopher-king like the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. The king joined the Freemasons in 1738 and stood close to the French Enlightenment, admiring above all its greatest thinker, Voltaire, with whom he corresponded frequently. The personal friendship of Frederick and Voltaire came to an unpleasant end after Voltaire's visit to Berlin and Potsdam in 1750–1753, although they reconciled from afar in later years. Philosopher kings are the hypothetical rulers of Platos Utopian Kallipolis. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... “Freemasons” redirects here. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Frederick invited Joseph-Louis Lagrange to succeed Leonhard Euler at the Berlin Academy. Other writers attracted to the philosopher's kingdom were Francesco Algarotti, d'Argens, Julien Offray de La Mettrie, and Pierre Louis Maupertuis. Immanuel Kant published religious writings in Berlin which would have been censored elsewhere in Europe. Joseph Louis Lagrange (January 25, 1736 – April 10, 1813) was an Italian mathematician and astronomer who later lived in France and Prussia. ... Leonhard Paul Euler (pronounced Oiler; IPA ) (April 15, 1707 – September 18 [O.S. September 7] 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist, who spent most of his life in Russia and Germany. ... The Prussian Academy of Sciences (German: ) was an academy established in Berlin on July 11, 1700. ... Count Francesco Algarotti (11 December 1712 – 3 May 1764) was an Italian philosopher and art critic. ... Marquis dArgens Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis dArgens (June 24, 1704, Aix-en-Provence - January 11, 1771, Toulon) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Julien Offray de La Mettrie (December 25, 1709 - November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, the earliest of the materialist writers of the Enlightenment. ... Pierre Louis Maupertuis, here wearing lapmudes or a fur coat from his Lapland expedition. ... “Kant” redirects here. ...


In addition to his native language, German, Frederick spoke French, English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian; he also understood Latin, ancient and modern Greek, and Hebrew. Preferring instead French culture, Frederick disliked the German language, literature, and culture, explaining that German authors "pile parenthesis upon parenthesis, and often you find only at the end of an entire page the verb on which depends the meaning of the whole sentence".[25] His criticism led many German writers to attempt to impress Frederick with their writings in the German language and thus prove its worthiness. Many statesmen, including Baron vom und zum Stein, were also inspired by Frederick's statesmanship. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe gave his opinion of Frederick during a visit to Strasbourg (Strassburg) by writing: Heinrich Friedrich Karl, Baron vom und zum Stein Heinrich Friedrich Karl Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein (Baron vom und zum Stein), October 26, 1757 - June 29, 1831), was a German statesman, of an old Franconian family. ...  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ...

Well we had not much to say in favour of the constitution of the Reich; we admitted that it consisted entirely of lawful misuses, but it rose therefore the higher over the present French constitution which is operating in a maze of lawful misuses, whose government displays its energies in the wrong places and therefore has to face the challenge that a thorough change in the state of affairs is widely prophesied. In contrast when we looked towards the north, from there shone Frederick, the Pole Star, around whom Germany, Europe, even the world seemed to turn…[26] The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... For other uses of the term, see Ancien Régime. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Polaris (α UMi / α Ursae Minoris / Alpha Ursae Minoris), more commonly known as The North Star or simply North Star, is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor. ...

Sexuality

Some historians have speculated that Frederick the Great was gay, bisexual, or asexual. Frederick showed no interest in his wife, and his relationship with Katte was widely speculated in the Prussian court to be romantic. Voltaire inferred that Frederick was homosexual, although he did so at a time when the two friends were estranged. Other historians disagree, saying that Frederick's writings indicate that he simply had greater priorities than women. The French professor Dieudonné Thiébault declared that Frederick had mistresses at Neuruppin. Frederick's physician, Johann Georg Ritter von Zimmermann, claimed that the king let rumors of homosexuality appear to be true in order to avoid the public knowing that his genitalia were harmed by "a cruel surgical operation" to save his life from an unnamed venereal disease.[27] Historian Christopher Clark concludes "it is impossible - and unnecessary - to reconstruct the king's sexual history; he may well have abstained from sexual acts with anyone of either sex after his accession to the throne, and possibly even before. But if he did not do it, he certainly talked about it; the conversation of the inner court circle around him was peppered with homoerotic banter." [28] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... In human sexuality, bisexuality describes a man or woman having a sexual orientation to persons of either or both sexes (a man or woman who sexually likes both sexes; people who are sexually and/or romantically attracted to both males and females). ... This article is about human asexuality; asexual reproduction is a separate topic. ... Hans Hermann von Katte Hans Hermann von Katte (February 28, 1704 – November 6, 1730) was a Lieutnant of the Prussian Army and a close friend of Frederick II of Prussia. ... Christopher Clark (born c. ...


Later years

Near the end of his life Frederick grew increasingly solitary. His circle of friends at Sanssouci gradually died off without replacements, and Frederick became increasingly critical and arbitrary, to the frustration of the civil service and officer corps. The populace of Berlin always cheered the king when he returned to the city from provincial tours or military reviews, but Frederick took no pleasure from his popularity with the common folk, preferring instead the company of his pet greyhounds,[29] whom he referred to as his 'marquises de Pompadour' as a jibe at Madame de Pompadour.[30] Frederick died in an armchair in his study in the palace of Sanssouci on 17 August 1786. The Byzantine civil service in action. ... This article needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Madame de Pompadour, portrait by François Boucher circa 1750 Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721 – April 15, 1764) was a well known courtesan and the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

Grave of Frederick at Sanssouci.
Grave of Frederick at Sanssouci.

Frederick had wished to be buried next to his greyhounds on the vineyard terrace on the side of the corps de logis of Sansscouci. His nephew and successor Frederick William II instead ordered the body to be buried next to the grave of his father in the church of the Potsdam garrison. During World War II, the catafalques of both Frederick and Frederick William I were transferred first to an underground bunker, later to a mineshaft close to the town of Bernrode to protect them from destruction. In 1945 the US Army transported both kings first to the Elisabeth Church (Marburg) and then on to Burg Hohenzollern close to the town of Hechingen. After the German reunification, the body of Frederick William was entombed in the Kaiser Friedrich Mausoleum in Sanssouci's Church of Peace. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2240 × 1680 pixel, file size: 754 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2240 × 1680 pixel, file size: 754 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... This article is about the German palace. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744 – November 16, 1797) was the fourth king of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up catafalque in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... An old painting showing the Elisabeth Church The Elisabeth Church in Marburg was built by the Order of the Teutonic Knights in honor of Elisabeth of Hungary. ... Burg Hohenzollern Burg Hohenzollern is a castle in the rough vicinity of Stuttgart, Germany. ... Burg Hohenzollern Hechingen is a town in the Zollernalbkreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... The Church of Peace The Church of Peace (German: Friedenskirche) is situated in the so-called Marly Gardens on the Green Fence in the palace grounds of Sanssouci in Potsdam. ...


There was an emotional debate in Germany whether the funeral of a former king of Prussia, who was responsible for many wars during his time and who had been exploited as a symbol both by Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic, should be regarded as a public matter or not. Despite numerous protests, on the 205th anniversary of his death, on 17 August 1991, Frederick's casket lay in state in the court of honor of Sanssouci, covered by a Prussian flag and escorted by a Bundeswehr guard of honour. After nightfall, Frederick's body was finally laid to rest on the terrace of the vineyard of Sanssouci, according to his last will without pomp and at night ("... Im übrigen will ich, was meine Person anbetrifft, in Sanssouci beigesetzt werden, ohne Prunk, ohne Pomp und bei Nacht..." (1757)). Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... An open coffin A coffin is a box used for the display and burial or cremation of a dead human body. ... The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the name of the unified armed forces of Germany. ...


Legacy

Frederick remains a controversial figure in Germany and Central Europe. With the rise of German romantic nationalism in the 19th century, he was admired by German nationalists. In the 20th century, Frederick was often cited as a precursor for the Prussian and German militarism that would inspire Otto von Bismarck and Adolf Hitler. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x1183, 288 KB) Beschreibung Description: de: Berlin-Mitte, Unter den Linden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x1183, 288 KB) Beschreibung Description: de: Berlin-Mitte, Unter den Linden. ... Apotheosis of Saint Louis by Charles H. Niehaus In sculpture, an equestrian (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue consisting of a horse with mounted rider. ... A view of Unter den Linden, showing the linden trees for which it is named Unter den Linden (in English: Under the Lindens), is a street in the centre of Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Unlike many of his contemporaries, Frederick did not believe in the Divine Right of Kings and, disregarding the exaggerated French style of the time, often wore old military uniforms; he merely believed the crown was "a hat that let the rain in". He called himself the "first servant of the state", but the Austrian empress Maria Theresa called him "the evil man in Sanssouci." His wars against Austria weakened the Holy Roman Empire, yet gave to Prussia land and prestige that would prove vital for the 19th century unification of Germany. He was both an enlightened ruler and a ruthless despot. Through reform, war, and the First Partition of Poland in 1772, he turned the Kingdom of Prussia into a European great power. The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Portrait of John and Elizabeth Lloyd Caldwater and their Daughter Anne by Charles Willson Peale, Philadelphia, 1772 Fashion in the period 1750-1795 in European and European-influenced countries reached (literal) heights of fantasy and abundant ornamentation, especially among the aristocracy of France, before a long-simmering movement toward simplicity... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, Archduchess of Austria, (German: , Hungarian: , Romanian: , Slovak: , Czech: ; May 13, 1717–November 29, 1780) was (reigning) Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


Regarding Frederick, Lord Macaulay wrote: Thomas Macaulay Thomas Babington (or Babbington) Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC (October 25, 1800 - December 28, 1859) was a nineteenth-century British poet, historian and Whig politician. ...

"If he had not made conquests as vast as those of Alexander, of Caesar, and of Napoleon, if he had not, on fields of battle, enjoyed the constant success of Marlborough and Wellington, he had yet given an example unrivalled in history of what capacity and resolution can effect against the greatest superiority of power and the utmost spite of fortune."[31] For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ...

Ancestry

Frederick William
Elector of Brandenburg
 
Louise Henriette
of Orange-Nassau
 
 
Ernest Augustus
Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 
Sophia
of Hanover
 
 
George William
Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 
Eleonore d'Olbreuse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick I
of Prussia
 
 
 
Sophia Charlotte
of Hanover
 
 
 
George I
of Great Britain
 
 
 
Sophia Dorothea
of Celle
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick William I of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick II of Prussia

Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629, Herzberg – 23 January 1698, Herrenhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg (or Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... George William (German: Georg Wilhelm; 26 January 1624, Herzberg am Harz – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled first over the Calenberg subdivision of the duchy, then over the Lüneburg subdivision. ... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... Sophia Charlotte of Hanover was born on October 30, 1668, at Schloss Iburg near Osnabrück. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea (September 15, 1666 – November 23, 1726), only child of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Huguenot Eleanore dOlbreuse (1639-1722), was the estranged wife of George Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later King George I of Great Britain), . // Marriage George William had undertaken... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (March 16, 1687 – June 28, 1757) was a Princess of Hanover, being the daughter of Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later George I of Great Britain) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Frederick was the third and last "King in Prussia"; beginning in 1772 he used the title "King of Prussia".
  2. ^ MacDonogh, p. 35
  3. ^ Reiners, p. 33
  4. ^ a b Crompton
  5. ^ MacDonogh, p. 63
  6. ^ Reiners, p. 41
  7. ^ Reiners, p. 52
  8. ^ Reiners, p. 63
  9. ^ Reiners, p. 69
  10. ^ Reiners, p. 71
  11. ^ MacDonogh, p. 125
  12. ^ Reiners, pp.247-248
  13. ^ Koch, p. 126
  14. ^ Koch, p. 160
  15. ^ MacDonogh, p. 78
  16. ^ Reiners, p.250
  17. ^ a b c Ritter, p. 192
  18. ^ a b c Koch, p. 136
  19. ^ a b c David Blackbourn. "Conquests from Barbarism": Interpreting Land Reclamation in 18th Century Prussia. Harvard University. Accessed 24 May 2006.
  20. ^ MacDonogh, p. 363
  21. ^ Norbert Finszch and Dietmar Schirmer. Identity and Intolerance: Nationalism, Racism, and Xenophobia in Germany and the United States. Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0521591589
  22. ^ W. O. Henderson. Studies in the economic policy of Frederick the Great. Cass. London, 1963.
  23. ^ MacDonogh, p. 347
  24. ^ Stern, p. 19
  25. ^ MacDonogh, p. 370
  26. ^ Koch, p. 138
  27. ^ Snyder, pp. 132-136
  28. ^ Clark, p. 188
  29. ^ Ritter, p. 200
  30. ^ MacDonogh, p. 366
  31. ^ Essay on Frederic the Great, Essays vol. 5 (1866) Hurd and Houghton

It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Asprey, Robert B. (1986). Frederick the Great: the Magnificent Enigma. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 326. ISBN 0-89919-352-8. 
  • Clark, Christopher (2006). Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia 1600–1947. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard, 776. ISBN 067402385-4. 
  • Crompton, Louis (2003). Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard. ISBN 0-674-01197-X. 
  • Koch, H. W. (1978). A History of Prussia. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 326. ISBN 0-88029-158-3. 
  • Lavisse, Ernest; translated from French by Mary Bushnell Coleman (1892). The Youth of Frederick the Great. Chicago: S.C. Griggs and Company. 
  • MacDonogh, Giles (2001). Frederick the Great: A Life in Deed and Letters. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 436. ISBN 0-312-27266-9. 
  • Mitford, Nancy (1970). Frederick the Great. London: Hamish Hamilton, 264. ISBN 0140036539. 
  • Reiners, Ludwig; Translated and adapted from the German by Lawrence P. R. Wilson (1960). Frederick the Great, a Biography. New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons, 304. 
  • Ritter, Gerhard (1974). Frederick the Great: A Historical Profile. Berkeley: University of California Press, 207. ISBN 0-520-02775-2. 
  • Snyder, Louis (1971). Frederick the Great. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 182. ISBN 0133306054. 
  • Stern, Fritz (1979). Gold and Iron: Bismarck, Bleichröder, and the Building of the German Empire. New York: Vintage Books, 620. ISBN 0-394-74034-3. 

Christopher Clark (born c. ... Ernest Lavisse (December 17, 1842 - August 18, 1922) was a French historian. ... Gerhard Albert Ritter (April 6, 1888-July 1, 1967) was a well-known German conservative historian. ... Louis Leo Snyder (1907-1993) was an American-born German scholar who witnessed the Nazi mass meetings and wrote about them in Hitlerism, the Iron Fist in Germany. ... Fritz Richard Stern (1926- ) is an American historian of German history, Jewish history, and historiography. ...

External links

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The Collection of Friedrich II von Preußen
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Frederick II of Prussia
Frederick II of Prussia
Born: 24 January 1712 Died: 17 August 1786
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Frederick William I
King in Prussia
1740 – 1772
Title dissolved
Change of Title
Elector of Brandenburg
as Frederick IV

1740 – 1786
Succeeded by
Frederick William II
New Title
Change of Title
King of Prussia
1772 – 1786
Preceded by
Charles Edzard
Count of Ostfriesland
1744 – 1786
Persondata
NAME Frederick II of Prussia
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Friedrich II., Frederick the Great, Friedrich der Große
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of Prussia (1740-1786)
DATE OF BIRTH January 24, 1712
PLACE OF BIRTH Berlin, Prussia
DATE OF DEATH August 17, 1786
PLACE OF DEATH Potsdam, Prussia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Frederick II (of Prussia) - MSN Encarta (974 words)
Frederick II (of Prussia), called The Great (1712-1786), king of Prussia (1740-1786); during his reign, he was considered among the most notable of enlightened despots in 18th century Europe.
Frederick was born in Berlin on January 24, 1712, son of King Frederick William I and grandson of Frederick I.
Frederick made an alliance with Catherine II of Russia, in 1764, and by the first partition of Poland in 1772 he received Polish Prussia, exclusive of Gdańsk (Danzig) and Toruń (Thorn), thus uniting the regions of Brandenburg and Pomerania.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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