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Encyclopedia > Frederick I of Sweden
Frederick IKing of Sweden
Frederick I
King of Sweden
  Swedish Royalty
  House of Hesse

Frederick I
Children
   Frederick William
   Charles
   Hedwig Amalia

Frederick I (Fredrik I) (April 23, 1676March 25, 1751), was King of Sweden from 1720 and (as Friedrich I von Hessen-Kassel) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730 until his death. Image File history File links Fredrik_I.jpg From swedish wiki File links The following pages link to this file: Frederick I of Sweden ... Image File history File links Fredrik_I.jpg From swedish wiki File links The following pages link to this file: Frederick I of Sweden ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Hesse. ... Prince Fredrik Vilhelm von Hessenstein (1735-1808), Swedish soldier and statesman. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count or an earl. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ...

Contents

Ancestry

Frederick was the son of the great Hessian ruler Karl I von Hessen-Kassel (16541730) and Marie Amalie Kettler, Princess of Courland (16531711). His maternal grandparents were Jacob Kettler, Duke of Courland (16101682) and Louise Charlotte, Princess of Brandenburg. Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: Kurzeme, German: Kurland, Polish: Kurlandia, Latin: Curonia / Couronia) is a historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... // Events February 24 - The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage. ... Jacob Kettler (28 October 1610 - 1 January 1682, German: Jakob von Kettler), Courland. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ...


Louise Charlotte was daughter of Georg Wilhelm Hohenzollern, elector of Brandenburg, Duke of Prussia and Charlotte von der Pfalz (15971660). Charlotte was daughter of Frederick IV, Elector Palatine (15741610) and Louise Juliana von Orange-Nassau. Her brother became Frederick V, Elector Palatine. Georg Wilhelm Hohenzollern, elector of Brandenburg, duke of Prussia, was born 1595 in Berlin. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine (March 5, 1574-September 19, 1610), only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine, called Frederick the Righteous (in German, Friedrich Der Aufrichtige; in French Frédéric IV le juste). ... Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch Oranje-Nassau), is a family that has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of the Fatherland) organised the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after... Frederick is also called the Winter King of Bohemia because he reigned for less than three winter months in 1620 after he was installed by a rebellious Protestant faction. ...


Louise Juliana was daughter of William I of Orange and Charlotte de Bourbon-Monpensier. William I (William the Silent) William I, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584) was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. ...


Marriage

He married his first wife, Luise Dorothee Sophie of Prussia (1680-1705), on May 31, 1700. His second wife, whom he married in 1715, was Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (16881741), daughter of Charles XI of Sweden (16551697) and of Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark (16561693). Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... Ulrika Eleonora (February 23, 1688 – November 24, 1741) was Queen regnant of Sweden from November 30, 1718, to February 29, 1720, and then Queen consort until her death. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Ulrike Eleonora (1656 - 1693), was the daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ...


King of Sweden

Although a very active and dynamic king during the beginning of his 31-year reign, Frederick I became not so much powerless as disinterested in the affairs of the state after the aristocracy had again taken over the power during the wars with Russia. During that time, he devoted most of his time to hunting and love affairs. He had several children by his mistress Hedvig Taube, his marriage to Queen Ulrika Eleonora being childless. [1]


Some historians have suggested that Frederick's aide fired the shot generally claimed to have been a stray bullet, that caused the death of his brother-in-law Charles XII of Sweden in 1718. After his authoritarian brother-in-law, one of the reason the Swedish Estates elected Frederick was because he was taken to be fairly weak, which indeed he turned out to be. He also had to oversee the loss of Sweden's position as a European power as a result of the wars Charles XII had suffered; in the Treaty of Nystad, he was forced to cede Estonia and Livonia to Russia, in 1721. In the year 1723 he rewarded the military inventor Sven Åderman with a gift of the estate of Halltorps on the island of Öland, for advancing the firing frequency of the musket. Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day... View across alvar plain of historic Halltorps estate Sven Ã…derman is a Swedish inventor who created a musket capable of firing more rapidly than conventional weaponry of the late 17th century. ... Part of the historic Halltorps estate, Borgholm Castle ruin Halltorps is one of the earliest manor houses on the island of Öland, Sweden, dating from the 11th century AD. In early documents it is known as Hauldtorp, and it is cited as one of the early Viking settlements of Öland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ...


Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

Frederick became Landgrave of Hesse only in 1730, ten years after becoming King of Sweden. He immediately appointed his younger brother William governor of Hesse. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ...


As Landgrave, Frederick is generally not seen as a success. Indeed, he did concentrate more on Sweden, and due to the negotiated, compromise-like ascension to the Stockholm throne, he and the court had a very low apanage. The money for the very expensive court, then, came since the 1730s from wealthy Hesse, and this means that Frederick essentially behaved like an absentee landlord. Also, Frederick's father, Charles II of Hesse-Kassel, had been the state's most successful ruler, rebuilding the state over his decades-long rule by means of economic and infrastructure measures and state reform, as well as tolerance, such as attracting, for economic purposes, the French Huguenots. His brother the governor, who would succeed Frederick as Landgrave William VIII of Hesse-Kassel, though by background a distinguished soldier, was likewise a great success locally. There are very few physical remainders of Frederick in Hesse today; one of them is his large Royal Swedish paraphe (FR) over the old door of the University of Marburg's former riding hall, now the Institute of Physical Education. The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... Absentee landlord is an economic term for a person who owns and rents out a profit-earning property, but does not live within the propertys local economic region. ... The cross of the war memorial and a menorah for Hanukkah coexist in Oxford. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... The University of Marburg, officially called Philipps-Universität Marburg after its founder, the Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse (usually called the Magnanimous), was founded in 1527 and is the worlds first and oldest Protestant university. ...


Illegitimate children

Frederick I had three illegitimate children with his mistress Hedvig Taube: Countess Hedvig Taube (1714-1744) was a Swedish noblewoman, mistress to King Frederick I of Sweden and mother of Fredrik Vilhelm von Hessenstein. ...

Thus, the Hessian line in Sweden ended with him and was followed by that of Holstein-Gottorp. In Hesse-Cassel, he was succeeded by his younger brother William VIII, a famous general. Prince Fredrik Vilhelm von Hessenstein (1735-1808), Swedish soldier and statesman. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Frederick I of Sweden
Preceded by:
Ulrika Eleonora
Queen of Sweden
King of Sweden
1720–1751
Succeeded by:
Adolf Frederick
Preceded by:
Karl
Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
1730–1751
Succeeded by:
Wilhelm VIII

 
 

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