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Encyclopedia > Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle
Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle

Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa ("Frederick Redbeard") was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. He was also Duke of Swabia (1147-1152, as Frederick III) and King of Italy (1154-1186). As son of Duke Frederick II of Swabia (German Schwaben) and Judith of Bavaria, from the rival House of Guelph (or Welf), Frederick descended from Germany's two leading principal families, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's princely electors as heir to royal crown. Download high resolution version (591x800, 188 KB)emperor frederick i barbarossa source: http://crusades. ... Download high resolution version (591x800, 188 KB)emperor frederick i barbarossa source: http://crusades. ... The Hohenstaufen were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Events Resolution of Investiture Controversy in the Concordat of Worms Pierre Ab̩lard writes Sic et Non Births Ben Lancaster, Gradutate, Dynamite dancer. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Meanings of Barbarossa (Italian: Red Beard): Barbarossa was the nickname of two famous people in history: Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Khair ad Din, Barbary pirate and Ottoman admiral. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ... The following is a list of Dukes of Swabia, including the several holders of the title who were also Holy Roman Emperors. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (1090 Р1147) was duke of Swabia, succeeding his father, duke Frederick I in 1105. ... The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ...

Contents


Life and reign

In 1147 Frederick became duke of Swabia and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanying his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade. The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that he, rather than his own six-year-old son, the future Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, should succeed him as king. The kingdom's princely electors were persuaded by this account and by Barbarossa's energetic pursuit of the crown and he was chosen as the next German king at Frankfurt on the 4th of March and crowned at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) several days later. Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ... Conrad III (1093-1152), the first German king of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia. ... The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. ... Bamberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany. ... Frederick IV of Hohenstaufen (1145 – 1167) was duke of Swabia, succeeding his cousin, Frederick Brabarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1152. ... An elector can be: In the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, the collegiate of seven Electors (eight since 1648) (Kurfürsten) consisted of those lay or clerical princes who had the right to vote in the election of the king or Holy Roman Emperor; see prince-elector. ... (?) [ˈfraÅ‹kfÊŠrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. ... Aachen Cathedral Printen Figurine at Aachen Cathedral Top Floor of Aachen Cathedral Tree-lined boulevard in Aachen Typical Aachen street with early 20th century Gründerzeit houses Aachen (French Aix-la-Chapelle, Dutch Aken, Latin Aquisgranum, Ripuarian Oche) is a spa city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border...


The new king was anxious to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, and saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he was prodigal in his concessions to the nobles. Abroad, Frederick intervened in the Danish civil war between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark, and negotiations were begun with the East Roman emperor, Manuel I Comnenus. It was probably about this time that the king obtained a papal assent for the annulment of his childless marriage with Adela (Adelheid) of Vohburg (through whom he had gained ownership of much of Alsace), on the somewhat far-fetched grounds of consanguinity (his great-great-grandfather was a brother of Adela's great-great-great-grandmother), and made a vain effort to obtain a bride from the court of Constantinople. On his accession Frederick had communicated the news of his election to Pope Eugenius III, but had neglected to ask for the papal confirmation. Eager to make amends with the Papacy, Frederick concluded a treaty with Rome in March 1153, by which he promised in return for his coronation to defend the papacy and make no peace with king Roger II of Sicily, or other enemies of the Church, without the consent of Eugenius. Charlemagne (ca. ... Otto I at his victory over Berengar of Friuli Grave of Otto I in Magdeburg Otto I the Great ( November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the... Sven III Grathe (11XX - 1157) was the king of Denmark between 1146 and 1157. ... Valdemar I the Great (1131-1182) was King of Denmark from 1157 until 1182. ... Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? – September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. ... Adela was the daughter of William I of England, and mother of Stephen of England. ... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... The Blessed Eugenius III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ... Roger II. - from „Liber ad honorem Augusti“ of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196 Roger II (1093–February 26, 1154), son and successor of Roger I, began his rule in 1112. ...


He undertook six expeditions into Italy, in the first of which he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome by Pope Adrian IV, following the suppression by Imperial forces of the republican city commune led by Arnold of Brescia. He left Italy in the autumn of 1155 to prepare for a new and more formidable campaign. Disorder was again rampant in Germany, especially in Bavaria, but general peace was restored by Frederick's vigorous measures. The duchy of Bavaria was transferred from Henry II Jasomirgott, margrave of Austria, who became duke of Austria in compensation, to Frederick's formidable younger cousin Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, of the House of Guelph, whose father had already held both duchies. On June 9, 1156 at Würzburg, Frederick married Beatrice of Burgundy, daughter and heiress of Renaud III, becoming King of Burgundy and adding the sizeable realm of the County of Burgundy, then stretching from Besançon (Bisanz) to the Mediterranean, to his possessions. Adrian IV or Hadrian IV, né Nicholas Breakspear (ca. ... Arnold of Brescia, (1090-1155), was a monk from Italy who participated in the Commune of Rome and started the subsequent rebellion. ... Heinrich (Henry) II, (born 1107, died January 13, 1177), Count Palatine of the Rhine 1140-1141, Margrave of Austria from 1141 to 1156, Duke of Bavaria from 1143 to 1156, Duke of Austria 1156-1177, was a prince from the dynasty of Babenberg. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Henry the Lion (face of statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral) Henry the Lion (1129 - August 6, 1195; in German, Heinrich der Löwe) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony as Henry III since... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ... The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Events Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi in Finland. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where that letter is unavailable or undesired, the name may be represented as Wurzburg or Wuerzburg. ... Beatrice of Burgundy (died November 15, 1184) was the daughter and heiress of Renaud III, Count of Burgundy, and the second wife and Empress of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Renaud III (~1093 - 1148), son of Etienne I (Tete-hardi) and Beatrix of Lorraine was count of Burgundy between 1127 and 1148. ... The County of Burgundy was a medieval county, within the traditional province and modern French region Franche-Comté, whose very name is reminiscent of the unusual title of its count : Freigraf (free count, or franc comte in french, hence the term franc(he) comté for his feudal principiality). ... Location within France Besançon is a French city in the département of Doubs, of which it is the préfecture. ...


His uncle, Otto of Freising, wrote an account of Frederick's reign entitled Gesta Friderici I imperatoris (Deeds of the Emperor Frederick). Otto died after finishing the first two books leaving the last two to Rahewin, his provost. Rahewin's description "[Frederick's] character is such that not even those envious of his power can belittle its praise. His person is well-porportioned. He is shorter than very tall men, but taller and more noble than men of medium height. His hair is golden, curling a little above his forehead... His eyes are sharp and piercing, his beard reddish, his lips delicate ... His whole face is bright and cheerful. His teeth are even and snow-white in color... Modesty rather than anger causes him to blush frequently. His shoulders are rather broad, and he is strongly built." is a description of Theodoric II of the Visigoths (453-66) and is from the text Epistles by Apollinaris Sidonius Otto of Freising (c. ...


In June 1158, Frederick set out upon his second Italian expedition, accompanied by Henry the Lion and his fearsome Saxons, which resulted in the establishment of imperial officers in the cities of northern Italy, the revolt and capture of Milan, and the beginning of the long struggle with Pope Alexander III, which resulted in the excommunication of the emperor in 1160. In response, Frederick declared his support for Antipope Victor IV. Returning to Germany towards the close of 1162, Frederick prevented the escalation of conflicts between Henry the Lion of Saxony and a number of his neighbouring princes who were growing weary of Henry's power, influence and territorial gains. He also severely punished the citizens of Mainz for their rebellion against Archbishop Arnold. The next visit to Italy in 1163 saw his plans for the conquest of Sicily ruined by the formation of a powerful league against him, brought together mainly by the taxes collected by the imperial officers. Location within Italy Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese dialect: Milán) is the main city in northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed region in Italy. ... Alexander III, né Orlando Bandinelli (c. ... Excommunication is a religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... This article is about the former Cardinal Octavianus, antipope from 1159 to 1164. ... Mainz (French: Mayence) is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Arnold can refer to any of the following: People Famous people named Arnold (with Arnold being either a first name or a surname): Arnold Schwarzenegger - Austrian-born American actor and Governor of California Arnold Palmer - American golfer Benedict Arnold - American Revolutionary War general Edwin Arnold - English poet and journalist Hap... Sicilian disambiguates here; see also Sicilian language or Sicilian Defence. ...


Frederick then organized the magnificent celebration of the canonization of Charlemagne at Aachen, while restoring the peace in the Rhineland. In October 1166, he went once more on journey to Italy to secure the claim of his Antipope Pascal, and the coronation of his wife Beatrice as Holy Roman Empress. This time, Henry the Lion refused to join Frederick on his Italian trip, tending instead to his own disputes with neighbors and his continuing expansion into Slavic territories in northeastern Germany. Frederick's campaign was stopped by the sudden outbreak of the plague which threatened to destroy the Imperial army and drove the emperor as a fugitive to Germany, where he remained for the ensuing six years. Conflicting claims to various bishoprics were decided and imperial authority was asserted over Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary. Friendly relations were entered into with the East Roman emperor Manuel, and attempts were made to come to a better understanding with Henry II of England and Louis VII of France. Canonization is the process of declaring someone a saint and involves proving that a candidate has lived in such a way that he or she is worthy of sainthood. ... Plague is usually understood as a generic term for Bubonic plague, the mortal disease caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis, which is spread by fleas from rats and some species of mice to human beings. ... Manuel is the name of a number of rulers: Manuel I of Portugal Manuel II of Portugal Manuel I Comnenus Manuel II Palaeologus Manuel I of Trebizond Manuel II of Trebizond Manuel III of Trebizond Manuel Righele, Italian novelist (Malo 1974) Manuel can refer to a place name: Manuel, Spain... Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ...


In 1174, Frederick made his fifth expedition to Italy and, in response, the pro-papal Lombard League was formed to stand against him. With the refusal of Henry the Lion to bring help to Italy, the campaign was a complete failure. Frederick suffered a heavy defeat at the battle of Legnano near Milan, on May 29, 1176, where he was wounded and for some time believed to be dead. He had no choice other than begin negotiations for peace with Alexander III and the Lombard League. In the Peace of Venice, 1177, Frederick and Alexander III reconciled. The Emperor acknowledged the Pope's sovereignty over the Papal States, and in return Alexander acknowledged the Emperor's overlordship of the Imperial Church. The Lombard cities, however, continued to fight until 1183, when, in the Peace of Constance, Frederick conceded their right to freely elect town magistrates. The Lombard League was an alliance formed on December 1, 1167 between 26 (later 30) cities of North Italy, including Cremona, Mantua, Bergamo, Brescia, Milan, Bologna, Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, Verona, Lodi, and Parma. ... The Battle of Legnano, fought in 1176, marked the culmination of the futile attempts of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa to dominate the Italian city states of Lombardia. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel...


Frederick did not forgive Henry the Lion for his refusal to come to his aid in 1174. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia by a court of bishops and princes in 1180, declared that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, and had Henry stripped of his lands and declared an outlaw. He then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181. He spent three years in exile at the court of his father-in-law Henry II of England in Normandy, before being allowed back into Germany, where he finished his days as much-diminished Duke of Brunswick, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture, and died on 6 August 1195. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ...


After making his peace with the Pope, Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade (1189), a grand expedition in conjunction with the French army, led by king Philip Augustus together with the English, under Richard Lionheart. He organized a grand army and set out on the overland route to the Holy Land, through Hungary and Romania, and arrived at Constantinople in the autumn of 1189. From there they pushed on through Anatolia (where they were victorious in two battles) into Armenia, and approached Syria. The approach of the immense German army greatly concerned Saladin and the other Muslim leaders, who began to rally troops of their own and prepare to confront Barbarossa's forces. However, on June 10, 1190, while crossing the Saleph River in Cilicia, south-eastern Anatolia, Frederick was thrown from his horse and the shock of the cold water caused him to have a heart attack. Weighed down by his armour, he drowned in water that was barely hip-deep, according to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir. The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Saladin, from a 12th-century Arab codex Saladin (1137 or 1138–1193; Kurdish: Selahaddin Eyyübi; Arabic: Salah ad-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub; صلاح الدين يوسف ابن ايوب; Salah ad-Din is an honorific that means The Righteousness of the Faith in Arabic) was a 12th century Kurdish Muslim military general who founded the Ayyubid... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In ancient geography, Cilicia (Ki-LIK-ya) formed a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... Izz ad-Dīn Hassan Karam pour Athīr (1160–1233), was a 13th century Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ...


A more mythological view of Frederick's death is based on the claim that he was an owner of the legendary Spear of Destiny. According to myth, whoever possesses the spear is unstoppable, but if the owner loses the spear, he will soon lose his life also. Frederick died while crossing a stream, and at that moment, some accounts say that the spear had fallen from his hands. This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Frederick's death plunged his army into chaos. Leaderless, panicked, and attacked on all sides by Turks, many Germans were killed or deserted. Only 5,000 soldiers, a tiny fraction of the original forces, actually arrived in Acre. Barbarossa's son, Frederick VI of Swabia carried on with the remnants of the army, with the aim of burying the Emperor in Jerusalem, but efforts to conserve his body in vinegar failed. Hence, his flesh was interred in the Church of St. Peter in Antiochia, his bones in the cathedral of Tyre, and his heart and inner organs in Tarsus. The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen (1167 – March 20, 1191) was duke of Swabia from 1170 to his death at the siege of Acre. ... This is about one of the cities called Antioch in Asia Minor, now Turkey. ... For a wheel tyre, see the article under the US English spelling of the word, tire. ... In tetrapods, the tarsi are the cluster of bones in the foot between the tibia and fibula and the metatarsus. ...


Frederick's untimely death left the Crusader army under the command of the rivals Philip of France and Richard of England, who had traveled to Palestine separately by sea, and ultimately led to its dissolution. Richard Lionheart continued to the East where he fought Saladin with mixed results, but ended without accomplishing his main goal, the capture of Jerusalem. Saladin, from a 12th-century Arab codex Saladin (1137 or 1138–1193; Kurdish: Selahaddin Eyyübi; Arabic: Salah ad-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub; صلاح الدين يوسف ابن ايوب; Salah ad-Din is an honorific that means The Righteousness of the Faith in Arabic) was a 12th century Kurdish Muslim military general who founded the Ayyubid...

Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly.
Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly.

Frederick is the subject of many legends, including that of a sleeping hero, derived from the much older British Celtic legend of Bran the Blessed. He is said not to be dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia, Germany, and that when ravens should cease to fly around the mountain he would awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story his red beard has grown through the table at which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying. 1881 young Persons Cyclopedia of Persons and Places This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... 1881 young Persons Cyclopedia of Persons and Places This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly. ... Bran the Blessed (aka Bendigeidfran) was a character in Welsh mythology, a son of Llyr and Penarddun, who appears in the Mabinogion. ... The Kyffhäuser is a mountain located at the border of Thuringia. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 sq. ...


The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was codenamed Operation Barbarossa. For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Original German plan Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941. ...


Frederick's descendents by his wife Beatrice

  1. Frederick V, Duke of Swabia (1164 - 1170)
  2. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165-1197)
  3. Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia (1167-1191)
  4. Otto II, Count of Burgundy (1170-killed 1200)
  5. Conrad II, Duke of Swabia and Rothenburg (1173-killed 1196)
  6. Philip of Swabia (1177-killed, 1208) King of Germany in 1198
  7. Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (1162-1174). She was betrothed to William II of Sicily but died before they could be married.
  8. Agnes of Hohenstaufen (died October 1184). She was betrothed to Emeric of Hungary but died before they could be married.

Frederick V of Hohenstaufen (1164 – 1170) was duke of Swabia from 1167 to his death still young. ... // Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ... Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of infidelities. ... Portrait of Henry VI from the Codex Manesse (folio 6r). ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen (1167 – March 20, 1191) was duke of Swabia from 1170 to his death at the siege of Acre. ... Events Taira no Kiyomori becomes the first samurai to be appointed Daijo Daijin, chief minister of the government of Japan Peter of Blois becomes the tutor of William II of Sicily Absalon, archbishop of Denmark, leads the first Danish synod at Lund Absalon fortifies Copenhagen William Marshal, the greatest knight... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of infidelities. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died 1278) Adam Marsh, English Franciscan (approximate date; died 1259) John Fitzalan, Lord of... Conrad II of Hohenstaufen (1173 – August 15, 1196) was duke of Swabia from 1191 to his death and Duke of Rothenburg (1188-1191). ... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas a Becket, buried at Canterbury August 9th - Construction starts on the Leaning tower of Pisa Castle at Abergavenny was seized by the Welsh. ... Events Spring, London, popular uprising of the poor against the rich led by William Fitz Osbern. ... Philip of Swabia depicted in a medieval manuscript (about 1200) Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor Frederick I and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of Burgundy, and consequently... Events November 25 - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. ... Events Philip of Swabia King of Germany and rival Holy Roman Emperor to Otto IV, assassinated June 21 in Bamberg by German Count Otto of Wittelsbach because Philip had refused to give him his daughter in marriage. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... // Events June 3 - Thomas Becket consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... William II (1153 - 1189), king of Sicily, was only thirteen years old at the death of his father William I when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Marguerite of Navarre. ... Events Abbeville receives its commercial charter. ... Emeric (or Imre) was a Hungarian king (1174–1204), who ruled from 1196 to 1204. ...

Sources

  • Otto of Freising. The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, English translation pub. 2004
  • Ibn al-Athir
  • Romuald of Salerno. Rerum Italicarum scriptores.
  • Otto of St Blasien.
  • Haverkamp, Alfred. Friedrich Barbarossa, 1992
  • Opll, Ferdinand. Friedrich Barbarossa, 1998
  • Reston, James. Warriors of God, 2001

See also: Dukes of Swabia family tree Otto of Freising (c. ... Izz ad-Dīn Hassan Karam pour Athīr (1160–1233), was a 13th century Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ... This is a Family tree of the Dukes of Swabia, from 1012 to the end of the Hohenstaufen dominion over the duchy in 1268. ...


Fiction about Frederick I

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Photo of Umberto Eco by Robert Birnbaum Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novels and essays. ... Baudolino is a 2000 novel by Umberto Eco about a young man named Baudolinos adventures in the known and mythical Christian world of the 12th century. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings (or simply Age of Kings) is a real-time strategy game set in the middle ages, released in 1999. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


External links

  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Frederick I
  • MSN Encarta - Frederick I (Holy Roman Empire)
  • Famous Men of the Middle Ages - Frederick Barbarossa
  • The Death of Frederick Barbarossa 1190
  • The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa - Otto of Freising
  • Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa
Preceded by:
Conrad III
King of Germany
11521190
Succeeded by:
Henry VI
Preceded by:
Lothair II
Holy Roman Emperor
11551190
Preceded by:
Frederick II
Duke of Swabia
11471152
Succeeded by:
Frederick IV

King Conrad III (Miniature, 13th century) Conrad III (1093-1152), the first German king of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Portrait of Henry VI from the Codex Manesse (folio 6r). ... Lothair II of Supplinburg ( 1075– 1137), was the Duke of Saxony ( 1106), King of Germany ( 1125), and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (1090 – 1147) was duke of Swabia, succeeding his father, duke Frederick I in 1105. ... The following is a list of Dukes of Swabia, including the several holders of the title who were also Holy Roman Emperors. ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Frederick IV of Hohenstaufen (1145 – 1167) was duke of Swabia, succeeding his cousin, Frederick Brabarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1152. ...



[1] Imperial College of Princes and Counts


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Frederick Barbarossa - definition of Frederick Barbarossa in Encyclopedia (1317 words)
Frederick I Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa ("Frederick Redbeard") was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18 1155.
Abroad, Frederick intervened in the Danish civil war between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark, and negotiations were begun with the East Roman emperor, Manuel I Comnenus.
Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia (1167 - 1191)
Encyclopedia: Frederick Barbarossa (750 words)
Frederick's campaign was stopped by the sudden outbreak of the plague which threatened to destroy the Imperial army and drove the emperor as a fugitive to Germany, where he remained for the ensuing six years.
frederick i (holy roman empire), called frederick barbarossa (1123?-90), holy roman emperor and king of germany (1152-90), king of italy (1155-90), and as frederick iii, duke of swabia (1147-52, 1167-68).
frederick was forced in 1177 to acknowledge alexander iii as pope and in 1183 to sign the peace of constance, acceding to the demands of the lombards for autonomy but retaining imperial suzerainty over the towns.
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