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Encyclopedia > Fraternities and sororities
See also: Fraternity and Fraternal and service organizations

The terms "fraternity" and "sorority" (from the Latin words frater and soror, meaning "brother" and "sister" respectively) may be used to describe many social and charitable organizations, for example the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Rotary International, Optimist International, or the Shriners. In the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico, however, fraternities and sororities are most commonly known as social organizations for higher education students. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Look up fraternity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A fraternal organization, sometimes also known as a fraternity, is an organization or club that represents the relationship between its members as akin to brotherhood. ... Lions Clubs International is the worlds largest service club organisation with 46,000 clubs and 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rotary International is an organization of service clubs known as Rotary Clubs located all over the world. ... Optimist International is a service club whose slogan is Bringing out the best in kids. ... The Shriners, A.A.O.N.M.S. or Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, established in New York City in 1870, is an appendant body to Freemasonry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Terminology

The term "fraternities", often colloquially shortened to "frats", generally refers to all-male or mixed-sex organizations; the female-only equivalent is usually called a "sorority", a word first used in 1874 at Gamma Phi Beta at Syracuse University—before this, societies for either sex were called "fraternities." To this day, some women's organizations prefer to be called "women's fraternities". Outside North America, they are also referred to as "student corporations", "academic corporations", or simply "corporations". The term "frat" is often considered to be derogatory, because of the relation to negative associations with fraternities in popular culture[citation needed] . A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Syracuse University (SU) is a private nonsectarian research university located in Syracuse, New York. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Corporation refers to all different kinds of fraternities and sororities worldwide. ... A word or phrase is pejorative or derogatory (sometimes misspelled perjorative) if it expresses contempt or disapproval; dyslogistic (noun: dyslogism) is used synonymously (antonyms: meliorative, eulogistic, noun eulogism). ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ...


With few exceptions (notably "Acacia", "FarmHouse", and "Triangle"), the names of North American fraternities and sororities consist of two or three Greek letters, many times abbreviating a Greek motto. For this reason, fraternities and sororities are known collectively as a Greek System or Greek Society and its members as Greeks. The use of Greek letters started with the first such organization, Phi Beta Kappa, which used Greek letters to hide their secret name. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... FarmHouse Fraternity is an all-male international social fraternity founded at the University of Missouri in 1905. ... Triangle Fraternity is a social fraternity, limiting its recruitment of members to male students majoring in engineering, architecture, and the physical, mathematical, biological, and computer/computational sciences. ... The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an academic honor society with the mission of fostering and recognizing excellence in the undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ...


Outside North America, organizations like college fraternities are rare. A notable exception is the Philippines, which maintains a large fraternity and sorority system (see fraternities and sororities in the Philippines for more detailed information). Other countries with active fraternity-like organizations are the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Germany (Studentenverbindung) and Sweden (see student nations).[citation needed] Note: International Affiliation indicates relationship with a similar fraternity and/or sorority existing at the same level of education in other countries. ... A Studentenverbindung (the umbrella term that includes the Burschenschaften, Landsmannschaften, Corps, Turnerschaften, Sängerschaften, Catholic Corporations, Wingolf and Ferialverbindungen) is a German student corporation somewhat comparable to fraternities in the US or Canada. ... A student nation is a society of students at universities in Sweden, mainly the two oldest Uppsala University and Lund University. ...


Types of fraternities

Further information: List of social fraternities and sororitiesService fraternities and sororitiesProfessional fraternity, and Honor Society

The most recognizable form of fraternity is the social fraternity, which present themselves as societies to help their members better themselves in a social setting. Other types of fraternities are chartered for (and not just emphasize) service to the community, professional advancement, or scholastic achievement. Social or General Fraternities and Sororities, in the North American fraternity system, are those not associated with a particular profession (as Professional fraternities are) or discipline (such as Service fraternities and sororities). ... Service fraternity may refer to any fraternal public service organization, such as the Kiwanis or Rotary International. ... Professional fraternities, in the North American fraternity system, are organizations whose membership is restricted to students and faculty members in a particular field of professional education. ... In the United States, an honor society is an organization of rank, the induction into which recognizes excellence among ones peers. ...


Many fraternities and sororities are national or international organizations with chapters at individual schools. The organizations' headquarters or "Nationals" may place certain requirements on individual chapters to standardize rituals and policies regarding membership, housing, or behavior. These policies are generally codified in a constitution and bylaws which may be amended at conventions. Members of a such a fraternity or sorority may enjoy certain privileges when visiting other chapters of the same fraternity. Some fraternities and sororities are "local" and do not belong to a national organization.


Classification can also be made along religious lines, geographic extent, gender requirements (single-sex or co-ed), cultural or multicultural emphasis, and time of founding. "Secret Societies" are usually categorized separately from other types of fraternities. There are numerous collegiate secret societies at American and Canadian colleges and universities. ...


Structure and organization

Rituals and symbols

Most fraternities and sororities today maintain traditions which are generally symbolic in nature and closely guarded secrets, calling it their Ritual. They include an initiation ceremony, but may also include passwords, songs, handshakes, and the form of meeting. Meetings of the active members are generally secret and not to be discussed without the formal approval of the chapter as a whole.


For organizations with Greek letters composing their name, these letters can have a secret meaning, known only to initiated members. They can represent a motto (such as Delta Upsilon, a set of virtues (such as Alpha Kappa Lambda), or the history of its organization (such as Phi Tau). Delta Upsilon (ΔΥ) is one of the oldest international, all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities and is the first non-secret fraternity ever founded. ... Alpha Kappa Lambda (ΑΚΛ) is a national collegiate fraternity founded at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1914. ... Phi Tau is a coeducational fraternity at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. Phi Tau is also a commonly used abbreviation for Phi Kappa Tau, a (completely separate) national fraternity found on many college campuses throughout the United States. ...


Fraternities and sororities often have a number of symbols by which they are identified, such as colors or flowers, in addition to a badge (or pin), crest, and/or seal. An open motto (indicating that the organization has a "secret motto" as well) is used to express the unique ideals of a fraternity or sorority. An Open Motto is a public motto that is used to express the unique ideals and/or standards of a fraternity or sorority. ...


Fraternity and sorority houses

Main article: Fraternity and sorority houses

Unique among most campus organizations, members of social fraternities and sororities often live together in a large house or apartment complex. This can help emphasize the "bonds of brotherhood (or sisterhood)" and provide a place of meeting for the members of the organization as well as alumni. For reasons of cost, liability, and stability, housing is usually owned or overseen by an alumni corporation or the national headquarters of the fraternity or sorority. As a result, some houses have visitor restrictions, and some national organizations restrict or prohibit alcohol on the premises. [1][2] The Phi Kappa Psi fraternity house at Lafayette College. ...


The Chi Psi Fraternity chapter in Ann Arbor, Michigan was the first fraternity to use a house for its meetings.[citation needed] Sigma Phi's Williamstown, MA chapter was the first fraternity to own a chapter house.[citation needed] Delta Kappa Epsilon at Kenyon College is often described as the first fraternity to build its own building, in the 1850s, although some sources state that the group bought an existing cabin. Alpha Phi was the first women's fraternity to have a chapter house. Chi Psi, ΧΨ is a fraternity consisting of more than 30 chapters (known as alphas) at American colleges and universities. ... Ann Arbor redirects here. ... The Sigma Phi Society, founded on 4 March 1827 on the campus of Union College in Schenectady, New York is the second oldest Greek social fraternal organization in the United States. ... Williamstown is a town located in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. ... Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or Deke) is the oldest secret college mens fraternity of New England origin. ... Kenyon College is a private liberal arts college in Gambier, Ohio, founded in 1824 by Bishop Philander Chase of the The Episcopal Church, in parallel with the Bexley Hall seminary. ...


Joining a fraternity or sorority

The process of joining a fraternity or sorority commonly begins with a "formal recruitment" period, often called "rush week," usually consists of events and activities designed for members and potential members to learn about each other and the organization. At the end of the formal recruitment period, organizations give "bids," or invitations to membership. Most organizations have a period of "pledgeship" before extending full membership. Some organizations have changed the name of pledgeship due to negative connotations to the process, or have given up the process in favor of other joining requirements. Upon completion of the pledgeship and all its requirements, the active members will invite the pledges to be initiated and become full members. Initiation often includes secret ceremonies and rituals.


Requirements may be imposed on those wishing to pledge either by the school or the organization itself, often including a minimum grade point average, wearing a pledge pin, learning about the history and structure of the fraternity or sorority, and performing public service. When a school places an age or tenure requirement on joining, this is called "defered recruitment," as joining is defered for a semester or year. The pledgeship period also serves as a probationary period in the fraternity or sorority membership process where both the organization and the pledge decide they are compatible and will have a fulfilling experience. A grade in education can mean either a teachers evaluation of a students work or a students level of educational progress, usually one grade per year (often denoted by an ordinal number, such as the 3rd Grade or the 12th Grade). This article is about evaluation of...


Hazing issues

Hazing can be defined as the ritualistic harassment, abuse, or persecution of individuals in a group. Hazing is an often ritualistic test and a task, which may constitute harassment, abuse or humiliation with requirements to perform random, often meaningless tasks, sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. ...


Because of the association of fraternities with hazing, some schools banned fraternities as early as the mid-1800s. Hazing became widespread after World War I, with soldiers re-entering colleges, they brought with them the discipline and strict responses to authority they learned in boot camp. Hazing began to be officially banned at the national and international levels of fraternities and sororities, is against many colleges' Greek Codes, and is illegal in most U.S. states.[3][4] The North-American Interfraternity Conference also requires anti-hazing education for members, as do many Greek organizations and universities. Hazing can result in the revocation of the local chapter's charter, and expulsion of members from the national organization or university. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Boot Camp is a software assistant made available by Apple Inc. ... The North-American Interfraternity Conference (or NIC), (formerly known as the National Interfraternity Conference) is an association of collegiate mens fraternities that was formally organized in 1910, although it began on November 27, 1909. ...


History and development

Main article: History of North American fraternities and sororities‎

The fraternity and sorority system that exists in North America—mainly the United States and Canada, though some organizations have chapters in many other parts of the world— began with students who wanted to meet secretly, usually for discussions and debates not thought appropriate by the faculty of their schools. ...

Early Beginnings

The Phi Beta Kappa Society, founded on December 5, 1776 at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, is generally recognized to be the first Greek-letter student society in North America. By legend, it was founded by individuals rejected for membership from an older student society known as the Flat Hat Club. The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an academic honor society with the mission of fostering and recognizing excellence in the undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... The Flat Hat Club (as it was known outside its membership) or F.H.C. Society was the first of the collegiate secret societies or fraternities founded in the present United States. ...


The Phi Beta Kappa Society was formed as a forum to discuss topics not covered in the regimented classical education of universities of the era, lending the name literary fraternity to its type. Most students were well-versed in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew; Phi, Beta, and Kappa were the initials of a secret Greek motto, Philosophia Biou Kybernētēs, or Love of learning [is] the guide of life. In addition to its secrecy and selection of a Greek name, it also introduced a code of high ideals, secret rituals and handclasps, membership badges, and oaths that characterize later Greek letter societies. Classical education as understood and taught in the Middle Ages of Western culture is roughly based on the ancient Greek concept of Paideia. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


The first general fraternity is considered to be the Kappa Alpha Society, established at Union College in Schenectady, New York on November 26, 1825 by John Hart Hunter. Kappa Alpha's founders adopted many of Phi Beta Kappa's practices, but formed their organization around fellowship, making the development of friendship their primary purpose. The Sigma Phi Society formed in March 1827, followed by Delta Phi in November. These three constitute the Union Triad. The Kappa Alpha Society (ΚΑ), founded in 1825, is the progenitor of the modern fraternity system in North America according to Bairds Manual. ... This article is about the Union College in New York. ... Schenectady (IPA ) is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. ... John Hart Hunter is recognized as the father of the American college fraternity system. ... The Sigma Phi Society, founded on 4 March 1827 on the campus of Union College in Schenectady, New York is the second oldest Greek social fraternal organization in the United States. ... Delta Phi (ΔΦ) is a fraternity was founded in 1827 at Union College in Schenectady, New York. ... The Union Triad is a term used to refer to three general fraternities all founded at Union College in Schenectady, New York: the Kappa Alpha Society (established 1825), Sigma Phi (1827) and Delta Phi (1827). ...


The Fraternity system becomes "national"

Sigma Phi became the first "national" fraternity when it opened a satellite chapter at Hamilton College in 1831. Beta Theta Pi was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio in August, 1839, in response to the chartering of the west-most chapter of Alpha Delta Phi. Phi Delta Theta (1848) and Sigma Chi (1855), also founded at Miami University, emulated Beta Theta Pi's focus on establishing new chapters. These three constitute the Miami Triad. These and other fraternities spread West, South, and even into Canada. For other colleges with the same name, see Hamilton College (disambiguation). ... Beta Theta Pi (ΒΘΠ) is a social collegiate fraternity that was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, where it is part of the Miami Triad which includes Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi. ... , This article is about the university in Oxford, Ohio. ... Location of Oxford in Butler County, Ohio Oxford is a college town located in the southwestern portion of the U.S. state of Ohio in northwestern Butler County in Oxford Township, originally called the College Township. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Phi Delta Theta (ΦΔΘ) is an international fraternity founded in 1848 at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. ... Sigma Chi (ΣΧ) is one of the largest and oldest all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities. ... The Miami Triad is comprised of three fraternities that were founded at the Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. ...


Growth was then stunted by the American Civil War; though following the War, the system as a whole underwent phenomenal growth in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, both in the number of organizations founded and chapters of existing organizations established. This was aided, in part, by the reopening of schools and the return of veterans as students. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Alpha Phi Alpha,[5] Phi Iota Alpha,[6] and Phi Sigma Nu were founded as the first fraternities for African-American, Latino-American, and Native American members. Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ) is the first intercollegiate fraternity established by African Americans. ... Phi Iota Alpha (ΦΙΑ), established December 26, 1931 is the oldest Latino fraternity in existence. ... ΦΣΝ (Phi Sigma Nu) is the first Native American fraternity founded on February 3, 1997 at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. ...


Modern sororities

Women's organizations also formed contemporaneously: the Adelphean Society (now Alpha Delta Pi) was established in 1851 at Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia, making it the first secret society for collegiate women. The Philomathean Society (not associated with the Philomathean Society of the University of Pennsylvania) was also founded at Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia in 1852, and I.C. Sorosis (later renamed Pi Beta Phi) was founded in 1867 at Monmouth College, in Monmouth, Illinois. The Adelphean Society and the Philomathean Society did not take on their modern Greek names (Alpha Delta Pi and Phi Mu, respectively) until 1904 when they took on expansion beyond the Wesleyan campus. Wesleyan College is a private, liberal arts womens college located in Macon, Georgia. ... Macon is a city located in central Georgia, USA. It is among the largest metropolitan areas in Georgia, and the county seat of Bibb County, It lies near the geographic center of Georgia, approximately 75 miles (129 km) south of Atlanta, hence the citys nickname as the Heart of... College Hall of the University of Pennsylvania. ... Pi Beta Phi (ΠΒΦ) is an international fraternity for women founded as I.C. Sorosis on April 28, 1867, at Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois. ... For the university in New Jersey, see Monmouth University. ... Monmouth is the county seat of Warren County in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Alpha Delta Pi (ΑΔΠ) was founded May 15, 1851 at Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia making it the first female fraternal organization. ... Phi Mu (ΦΜ) is the second oldest secret organization for women in the United States. ...


In the mid-1800s women were begining to be admitted to previously all-male universities, and there were many women who felt that it was in their best interest to band together. By imitating the men’s social groups, including their policy of secrecy and ritual, the first collegiate women formed women's fraternities in an effort to counteract the widespread opposition to their presence. [7]


Kappa Alpha Theta (founded on January 27, 1870 at DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana) and Kappa Kappa Gamma (October 1870) are formally recognized as the first Greek-lettered societies for women. The term sorority was not yet in use, so the earliest organizations were founded as "women's fraternities" or "fraternities for women." The first organization to adopt the word sorority was Gamma Phi Beta, established in 1874 at Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York. Alpha Kappa Alpha, Lambda Theta Alpha, Alpha Psi Omega were founded as the first sororities for African-American, Latina-American, and Native American members respectively. Kappa Alpha Theta (ΚΑΘ) is an international womens fraternity founded on January 27, 1870 at DePauw University. ... This school is not to be confused with DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois, which has a similar pronunciation. ... Kappa Kappa Gamma (ΚΚΓ) is a college womens fraternity, founded on October 13, 1870 at Monmouth College, Illinois. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Syracuse University (SU) is a private nonsectarian research university located in Syracuse, New York. ... Alpha Kappa Alpha (ΑΚΑ) Sorority, Incorporated, is the first Greek-letter organization established and incorporated by African-American college women. ... // Lambda Theta Alpha Latin Sorority, Inc. ... Alpha Psi Omega (ΑΨΩ) is the American National Theater Honors Fraternity. ...


High School Fraternities and Sororities

Main article: High school fraternities and sororities

High school fraternities and sororities, or secondary fraternities and sororities, are social fraternities for high school-aged men and women. There are a few active high school fraternities and sororities, including Zeta Mu Gamma in Puerto Rico and Sigma Alpha Rho (SAR) in the mainland United States. High school Fraternities and sororities, or secondary Fraternities and sororities, are social fraternities and sororities for high school-aged men and women. ... Zeta Mu Gamma (ΖΜΓ) is a highschool Fraternity established in Mayagüez Puerto Rico on March 12, 1943. ... Sigma Alpha Rho(ΣAP) is the oldest, continuously run, independent Jewish High School Fraternity, founded on November 18, 1917 by 11 young men in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...


Greek umbrella organizations

These are councils and associations that seek to aid their member organizations through eccumenical promotion and providing a forum for them to interact at.

  • North-American Interfraternity Conference (NIC) — association of 68 men's social fraternities; local organizations found on a single campus are usually known as "Interfraternity Councils."
  • National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) — association of 26 international social women's fraternities and sororities; local organizations found on a single campus are usually known as "Panhellenic Councils."
  • National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) — association of 9 historically African-American fraternities and sororities; local organizations found on a single campus are usually known as "Pan-Hellenic Councils."
  • National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO) — association of 23 Latino fraternities and sororities.
  • National Multicultural Greek Council (NMGC) — association of 13 national and local multicultural Greek fraternities and sororities; local organizations found on a single campus are usually known as "Multicultural Councils" or "Unified Greek Councils."
  • United Council of Christian Fraternities & Sororities - a council for organizations based on Christianity
  • Concilio Interfraternitario Puertorriqueño de la Florida (CIPFI) — umbrella council for the Florida chapters of 5 Puerto Rican Greek Letter Fraternities
  • Fraternity Leadership Association — association of fraternities similar to the NIC.
  • Association of College Honor Societies — association of 65 honor societies.
  • Association of Fraternity Advisors — organization intended to support and assist advisors of fraternities and sororities.
  • College Fraternity Editors Association — organization for professional fraternity and sorority communicators.
  • Fraternity Executives Association — organization for professional fraternity and sorority members.
  • Professional Fraternity Association — organization for professional fraternity and sorority members.

The North-American Interfraternity Conference (or NIC), (formerly known as the National Interfraternity Conference) is an association of collegiate mens fraternities that was formally organized in 1910, although it began on November 27, 1909. ... The National Panhellenic Conference (NPC), founded in 1902, is an umbrella organization for 26 inter/national womens sororities. ... The National Pan-Hellenic Council, Inc. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO) is an umbrella council for 23 Latino Greek Letter Organizations established in 1998. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... The National Multicultural Greek Council (NMGC) is an umbrella council for thirteen Multicultural Greek Letter Organizations established in 1998. ... The United Council of Christian Fraternities and Sororities, (UCCFS) is an umbrella organization for the Christian fraternities and sororities. ... The Concilio Interfraternitario Puertorriqueño de la Florida, Inc. ... The Association of College Honor Societies (ACHS), founded in 1925, is a predominantly American organization that serves a number of functions with respect to national collegiate and post-graduate honor societies. ... PFA The Professional Fraternity Association (or PFA), is an association of collegiate professional fraternities that was formed 1978. ...

Fraternities and sororities outside the United States and Canada

Further information: List of fraternities and sororities in EuropeList of fraternities and sororities in the Philippines, and List of Puerto Rican fraternities and sororities

This is a list of fraternities and sororities in Europe. ... Note: International Affiliation indicates relationship with a similar fraternity and/or sorority existing at the same level of education in other countries. ... *) Indicates a member of Concilio Interfraternitario de Puerto Rico (Inter-Fraternity Council of Puerto Rico) Categories: | | | | | ...

See also

Social or General Fraternities and Sororities, in the North American fraternity system, are those not associated with a particular profession (as Professional fraternities are) or discipline (such as Service fraternities and sororities). ... . ... The following is a list of fictional fraternities and sororities in popular culture. ... There are numerous collegiate secret societies at American and Canadian colleges and universities. ... In the United States, high school fraternities and sororities were initially popular, but were mostly banned during the early decades of the 20th century and are very rare today. ... A fraternal organization, sometimes also known as a fraternity, is an organization or club that represents the relationship between its members as akin to brotherhood. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.cavalierdaily.com/CVArticle.asp?ID=7342&pid=683
  2. ^ http://www.post-gazette.com/regionstate/20000818fraternity3.asp
  3. ^ University of Michigan, The University Record Online, September 27, 2004, Campaign: See Through the Haze, by Laurel Thomas Gnagey (retrieved July 25, 2006)
  4. ^ StopHazing.org, State Anti-Hazing Laws (retrieved July 25, 2006)
  5. ^ Congressman Scott Honors Centennial Anniversary of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.,. davidscott.house.gov.. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  6. ^ Anson, Jack L.; Robert F. Marchesani, Jr. (1991). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. Menasha, Wisconsin: Banta Publishing Company, VIII-22. ISBN 0-9637159-0-9. 
  7. ^ Diana B. Turk, Bound by a Mighty Vow: Sisterhood and Women’s Fraternities, 1870-1920 (New York: New York University Press, 2004), 3.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Handbook: Social Fraternities and Sororities (1153 words)
While social fraternities and sororities may not discriminate on the basis of age, color, creed, handicap, national origin, race, religion, or sexual orientation, university policy and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 do permit their selection of members on the basis of gender.
Social fraternities and sororities are required to abide by the same university regulations and policies as other RSOs (as outlined in this Handbook) and also are responsible to follow the policies, regulations and procedures of their governance council if they are to maintain their rights as a Registered Student Organization.
In 1988, the Commission On Fraternities And Sororities was established to evaluate, define and recommend the relationship between the university and the fraternities and sororities.
Canadians Go Greek: the source for Canadian Chapters (353 words)
Alpha Omicron Pi is pleased to announce that the Fraternity has colonized a new chapter at the University of Waterloo.
The council is aimed at promoting activities and events hosted by fraternities and sororities to erase the stereotypes of those social organizations at universities, said Smyth.
Although fraternities and sororities have now been given formal status by CUSA, the university administration has made no move towards recognizing these groups on campus, she said.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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