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Encyclopedia > Franz Schubert
Franz Schubert by Wilhelm August Rieder. Oil painting, 1875, after a watercolor painting by Rieder of 1825.
Franz Schubert by Wilhelm August Rieder. Oil painting, 1875, after a watercolor painting by Rieder of 1825.

Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. He wrote some 600 lieder, nine symphonies (including the famous "Unfinished Symphony"), liturgical music, operas, and a large body of chamber and solo piano music. He is particularly noted for his original melodic and harmonic writing. The famous composer and things named after him: Franz Schubert(1797–1828), the prominent Austrian composer 3917 Franz Schubert is an asteroid. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. Typically, Lieder are arranged for a single singer and piano. ... A symphony is an extended piece of music for orchestra, especially one in the form of a sonata. ... Franz Schuberts Symphony No. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ...


While Schubert had a close circle of friends and associates who admired his work (including his teacher Antonio Salieri, and the prominent singer Johann Michael Vogl), wider appreciation of his music during his lifetime was limited at best. He was never able to secure adequate permanent employment, and for most of his career he relied on the support of friends and family. Interest in Schubert's work increased dramatically in the decades following his death. Antonio Salieri Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 – May 7, 1825), was an Italian composer and conductor. ... Johann Michael Vogl (August 10, 1768–November 19, 1840) was an Austrian baritone singer and composer. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life and education

Schubert was born in Vienna, Austria on January 31, 1797. His father, Franz Theodor Florian, the son of a Moravian peasant, was a parish schoolmaster; his mother, Elizabeth Vietz was the daughter of a Silesian master locksmith, and had also been a housemaid for a Viennese family prior to her marriage. Of the Schuberts' sixteen children (one illegitimate child was born in 1783)[1], eleven died in infancy; five survived. Their father Franz Theodor was a well-known teacher, and his school on the Himmelpfortgrund, a part of Vienna's 9th district, was well attended.[citation needed] He was not a famous musician, but he taught his son what he could of music. This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Alsergrund is the ninth district of Vienna, Austria, located just north of the first, central district Innere Stadt. ...

The house in which Schubert was born, today Nussdorfer Strasse 54, in the 9th district of Vienna.

At the age of five, Schubert began receiving regular instruction from his father and a year later was enrolled at the Himmelpfortgrund school. His formal musical education also began around the same time. His father continued to teach him the basics of the violin. At seven, Schubert was placed under the instruction of Michael Holzer. Holzer's lessons seem to have mainly consisted of conversations and expressions of admiration[2] and the boy gained more from his acquaintance with a friendly joiner's apprentice who used to take him to a neighboring pianoforte warehouse where he was given the opportunity to practice on better instruments. The unsatisfactory nature of Schubert's early training was even more pronounced during his time given that composers could expect little chance of success unless they were also able to appeal to the public as performers. To this end, Schubert's meager musical education was never entirely sufficient. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (3872 × 2592 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (3872 × 2592 pixels, file size: 1. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... A Joiner is a woodworker who makes and installs architectural woodwork, including things that are called Finish carpentry and millwork in the USA. Joiners fabricate and install building components such as doors, windows, stairs, wooden panelling, mouldings, shop cabinets, kitchen cabinets, and other wooden fittings. ...


In October 1808, he was received as a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt (Imperial religious boarding school) through a choir scholarship. It was at the Stadtkonvikt that Schubert was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozart. His exposure to these pieces as well as various lighter compositions combined with his occasional visits to the opera set the foundation for his greater musical knowledge. For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ...


Meanwhile, his genius was already beginning to show itself in his compositions. Antonio Salieri, a leading composer of the period, became aware of the talented young man and decided to train him in musical composition and music theory. Schubert's early essay in chamber music is noticeable, since we learn that at the time a regular quartet-party was established at his home "on Sundays and holidays," in which his two brothers played the violin, his father the cello and Franz himself the viola. It was the first germ of that amateur orchestra for which, in later years, many of his compositions were written. During the remainder of his stay at the Stadtkonvikt he wrote a good deal more chamber music, several songs, some miscellaneous pieces for the pianoforte and, among his more ambitious efforts, a Kyrie (D.31) and Salve Regina (D.27), an octet for wind instruments (D.72/72a) - said to commemorate the death of his mother, which took place in 1812 - a cantata (D.110), words and music, for his father's name-day in 1813, and the closing work of his school-life, his first symphony (D.82). Antonio Salieri Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 – May 7, 1825), was an Italian composer and conductor. ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison which is Greek for Lord, have mercy. ... The Salve Regina or is one of four Marian antiphons sung at different seasons. ... In music, an octet is a musical ensemble consisting of eight instruments or a musical composition written for it. ...


Teacher at his father's school

At the end of 1813 he left the Stadtkonvikt, and entered his father's school as teacher of the lowest class. In the meantime, his father remarried, this time to Anna Kleyenboeck, the daughter of a silk dealer from the suburb Gumpendorf. For over two years the young man endured the drudgery of the work, which he performed with very indifferent success. There were, however, other interests to compensate. He received private lessons in composition from Salieri, who did more for Schubert’s training than any of his other teachers. Gumpendorf is the 6th district in Vienna, Austria. ...


Supported by friends

Franz Schubert (posthumous)
Franz Schubert (posthumous)

As 1815 was the most prolific period of Schubert's life, 1816 saw the first real change in his fortunes. Somewhere about the turn of the year his old schoolfriend Joseph von Spaun surprised him in the composition of Erlkönig (D.328, published as Op.1) — Goethe's poem propped among a heap of exercise books, and the boy at white-heat of inspiration "hurling" the notes on the music-paper. A few weeks later Franz von Schober, a student of good family and some means, who had heard some of Schubert's songs at Spaun's house, came to pay a visit to the composer and proposed to carry him off from school-life and give him freedom to practice his art in peace. The proposal was particularly opportune, for Schubert had just made an unsuccessful application for the post of Kapellmeister at Laibach and was feeling more acutely than ever the slavery of the classroom. His father's consent was readily given, and before the end of the spring he was installed as a guest in Schober's lodgings. For a time he attempted to increase the household resources by giving music lessons, but they were soon abandoned, and he devoted himself to composition. "I write all day," he said later to an inquiring visitor, "and when I have finished one piece I begin another." Franz Schubert This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Franz Schubert This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Erlking, by Albert Sterner, ca. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... A Kapellmeister is nowadays the director or conductor of an orchestra or choir. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ...


All this time his circle of friends was steadily widening. Mayrhofer introduced him to Johann Michael Vogl, a famous baritone, who did him good service by performing his songs in the salons of Vienna; Anselm Hüttenbrenner and his brother Joseph ranged themselves among his most devoted admirers; Joseph von Gahy, an excellent pianist, played his sonatas and fantasias; the Sonnleithners, a burgher family whose eldest son had been at the Stadtkonvikt, gave him free access to their home, and organized in his honor musical parties which soon assumed the name of Schubertiaden. The material needs of life were supplied without much difficulty. No doubt Schubert was entirely penniless, for he had given up teaching, he could earn nothing by public performance, and, as yet, no publisher would take his music at a gift; but his friends came to his aid with true Bohemian generosity — one found him lodging, another found him appliances, they took their meals together and the man who had any money paid the score. Schubert was always the leader of the party, but more often than not, was penniless. Though he was known by half a dozen affectionate nicknames, the most characteristic was kann er was? ("Is he able for something?"), or more colloquially, "Can he pay?" (for the food and drink), his usual question when a new acquaintance was introduced. Another nickname was "The Little Mushroom" as Schubert was only five feet, one and one-half inches tall (1.56 m), and tended to corpulence. Johann Michael Vogl (August 10, 1768–November 19, 1840) was an Austrian baritone singer and composer. ...


The compositions of 1820 are remarkable, and show a marked advance in development and maturity of style. The unfinished oratorio "Lazarus" (D.689) was begun in February; later followed, amid a number of smaller works, by the 23rd Psalm (D.706), the Gesang der Geister (D.705/714), the Quartettsatz in C minor (D.703), and the "Wanderer Fantasy" for piano (D.760). But of almost more biographical interest is the fact that in this year two of Schubert's operas appeared at the Kärntnerthor Theater, Die Zwillingsbrüder (D.647) on June 14, and Die Zauberharfe (D.644) on August 19. Hitherto his larger compositions (apart from Masses) had been restricted to the amateur orchestra at the Gundelhof, a society which grew out of the quartet-parties at his home. Now he began to assume a more prominent position and address a wider public. Still, however, publishers remained obstinately aloof, and it was not until his friend Vogl had sung Erlkönig at a concert (Feb. 8, 1821) that Anton Diabelli hesitatingly agreed to print some of his works on commission. The first seven opus numbers (all songs) appeared on these terms; then the commission ceased, and he began to receive the meagre pittances which were all that the great publishing houses ever accorded to him. Much has been written about the neglect from which he suffered during his lifetime. It was not the fault of his friends, it was only indirectly the fault of the Viennese public; the persons most to blame were the cautious intermediaries who stinted and hindered him from publication. The Quartettsatz (Movement for String Quartet) in C minor, D. 703 was composed by Franz Schubert in December 1820. ... Der Erlkönig (often called just Erlkönig) is a poem by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Anton Diabelli (September 6, 1781-April 7, 1858) was an Austrian music publisher, editor and composer. ...


The production of his two dramatic pieces turned Schubert's attention more firmly than ever in the direction of the stage; and towards the end of 1821 he set himself on a course which for nearly three years brought him continuous mortification and disappointment. Alfonso und Estrella was refused, and so was Fierrabras (D.796); Die Verschworenen (D.787) was prohibited by the censor (apparently on the ground of its title); Rosamunde (D.797) was withdrawn after two nights, owing to the poor quality of its libretto. Of these works the two former are written on a scale which would make their performances exceedingly difficult (Fierabras, for instance, contains over 1,000 pages of manuscript score), but Die Verschworenen is a bright attractive comedy, and Rosamunde contains some of the most charming music that Schubert ever composed. In 1822 he made the acquaintance both of Weber and of Beethoven, but little came of it in either case, though Beethoven cordially acknowledged his genius, the quote attributed to Beethoven being: "Truly, the spark of divine genius resides in this Schubert!" Schober was away from Vienna; new friends appeared of a less desirable character; on the whole these were the darkest years of his life. Alfonso und Estrella (Alfonso Estrella) is an opera by Franz Schubert. ... Fierrabras is a three-act opera by the composer Franz Schubert, to a libretto by Josef Kupelwieser. ... Rosamunde can refer to: The German name for the Beer Barrel Polka Incidental music composed by Franz Schubert to a play with the same name, see Rosamunde (Schubert) (and String Quartet No. ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ...


In 1994 musicologist Rita Steblin discovered Schubert's brother Karl's marriage petition on the attic floor of the Lichtental church. The composer's own wish to marry Therese Grob was hindered by Metternich's harsh marriage consent law of 1815, as Schubert's heart-rending cry in his diary of September 1816 makes clear. Therese Grob (1798 - 1875) was the first love of the composer Franz Schubert He petitioned to marry her but the petition was turned down on account of his impecunity: Metternichs Marriage Consent Law expressly forbade marriages by men in Schuberts class if they could not verify their ability...


Last years and masterworks

Schubert in 1825
Schubert in 1825

In 1823 appeared Schubert's first song cycle, Die schöne Müllerin (D.795), after poems by Wilhelm Müller. This work, together with the later cycle "Winterreise" (D.911; also written to texts of Müller) is widely considered one of the pinnacles of Lieder. The song Du bist die Ruh ("You are stillness/peace") D.776 was also composed during this year. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A song cycle is a group of songs designed to be performed in sequence as a single entity. ... Die schöne Müllerin, D. 795, is a song cycle by Franz Schubert on poems by Wilhelm Müller. ... Wilhelm Müller (October 7, 1794 - September 30, 1827), German lyric poet, was born at Dessau, the son of a shoemaker. ... Winterreise (Winter Journey) is a song cycle by Franz Schubert, on poems by Wilhelm Müller. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ...


In the spring of 1824 he wrote the Octet in F (D.803), "A Sketch for a Grand Symphony"; and in the summer went back to Želiezovce, when he became attracted by Hungarian idiom, and wrote the Divertissement a l'Hongroise (D.818) and the String Quartet in A minor (D.804). It has been said that he held a hopeless passion for his pupil Countess Karoline Eszterházy; if this is the case, the details are unknown to historians. The Octet in F major, D. 803 was composed by Franz Schubert in March 1824. ... Želiezovce (Hungarian: Zselíz) is a town in western Slovakia in the region of Nitra in the district of Levice, near the Hron river. ... The String Quartet No. ...


Despite his preoccupation with the stage and later with his official duties, he found time during these years for a good deal of miscellaneous composition. The Mass in A flat (D.678) was completed and the "Unfinished Symphony" (Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D.759) begun in 1822. The question of why the symphony was "unfinished" has been debated endlessly and is still unresolved. To 1824, beside the works mentioned above, belong the variations for flute and piano on Trockne Blumen, from the cycle Die schöne Müllerin. There is also a sonata for piano and arpeggione (D.821). This music is nowadays usually played by either cello or viola and piano, although a number of other arrangements have been made. Franz Schuberts Symphony No. ... Die schöne Müllerin, D. 795, is a song cycle by Franz Schubert on poems by Wilhelm Müller. ... The Sonata in A minor for Arpeggione and Piano, D. 821, was written by Franz Schubert in Vienna in November 1824. ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ...


The mishaps of the recent years were compensated by the prosperity and happiness of 1825. Publication had been moving more rapidly; the stress of poverty was for a time lightened; in the summer there was a pleasant holiday in Upper Austria, where Schubert was welcomed with enthusiasm. It was during this tour that he produced his "Songs from Sir Walter Scott". This cycle contains his famous and beloved Ellens dritter Gesang (D.839). This is today more popularly, though mistakenly, referred to as "Schubert's Ave Maria"; while he had set it to Adam Storck's German translation of Scott's hymn from The Lady of the Lake that happens to open with the greeting Ave Maria and also has it for its refrain, subsequently the entire Scott/Storck text in Schubert's song came to be substituted with the complete Latin text of the traditional Ave Maria prayer; and it is in this adaptation that this song of Schubert's is commonly sung today. During this time he also wrote the Piano Sonata in A minor (D.845, Op. 42) and the Symphony No. 9 (in C major, D.944), which is believed to have been completed the following year, in 1826. Ellens dritter Gesang (Ellens Gesang III, D839, Op 52 no 6, 1825), Ellens third song in English, composed by Franz Schubert in 1825, is one of Schuberts most popular works, although some misconceptions exist regarding its provenance. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Hail Mary... In 1838 Robert Schumann, on a visit to Vienna, found the dusty manuscript of Franz Schuberts C major symphony (the Great, D.944) and took it back to Leipzig, where it was performed by Felix Mendelssohn and celebrated in the Neue Zeitschrift. ...


From 1826 to 1828 Schubert resided continuously in Vienna, except for a brief visit to Graz in 1827. The history of his life during these three years is little more than a record of his compositions. The only events worth notice are that in 1826 he dedicated a symphony to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde and received an honorarium in return. In the spring of 1828 he gave, for the first and only time in his career, a public concert of his own works which was very well received. But the compositions themselves are a sufficient biography. The String Quartet in D minor (D.810), with the variations on Death and the Maiden, was written during the winter of 1825-1826, and first played on January 25, 1826. Later in the year came the String Quartet in G major, the "Rondeau brilliant" for piano and violin (D.895, Op.70), and the Piano Sonata in G (D.894, Op.78) (first published under the title "Fantasia in G"). To these should be added the three Shakespearian songs, of which "Hark! Hark! the Lark" (D.889) and "Who is Sylvia?" (D.891) were allegedly written on the same day, the former at a tavern where he broke his afternoon's walk, the latter on his return to his lodging in the evening. Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec), with a population of 305,000 (council census 2000) is the second-largest city in Austria and the capital of the province of Styria (Steiermark in German). ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (in English: Society for the Friends of Music) was founded in 1812 by Joseph von Sonnleithner, the Secretary for Court Theatre in Vienna. ... The Death and the Maiden Quartet, written in 1824 by Franz Schubert and D. 810 in Otto Erich Deutschs thematic catalog of Schuberts works, is a string quartet in four movements: Allegro, in D minor and common time Andante con moto, in G minor and divided common (2... Franz Schubert, composer Death and the Maiden (German: Der Tod und das Mädchen) is a 1817 song composed by Franz Schubert. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1827 Schubert wrote the song cycle Winterreise (D.911), a colossal peak of the art of art-song (remarkable is already the way it was presented at the Schubertiades), the Fantasia for piano and violin in C (D.934), and the two piano trios (B flat, D.898; and E flat, D.929): in 1828 the Song of Miriam, the Mass in E-flat (D.950), the Tantum Ergo (D.962) in the same key, the String Quintet in C (D.956), the second Benedictus to the Mass in C, the last three piano sonatas, and the collection of songs published posthumously under the fanciful name of Schwanengesang ("Swan-song", D.957), which whilst not a true song cycle, retains a unity of style amongst the individual songs, touching unwonted depths of tragedy and the morbidly supernatural. Six of these are to words by Heinrich Heine, whose Buch der Lieder appeared in the autumn. The Symphony No. 9 (D.944) is dated 1828, and many modern Schubert scholars (including Brian Newbould) believe that this symphony, written in 1825-6, was revised for performance in 1828 (a fairly unusual practice for Schubert, for whom publication, let alone performance, was rarely contemplated for many of his larger-scale works during his lifetime). In the last weeks of his life he began to sketch three movements for a new Symphony in D (D.936A). Winterreise (Winter Journey) is a song cycle by Franz Schubert, on poems by Wilhelm Müller. ... The String Quintet in C major, D. 956, op. ... Schwanengesang (Swan song) is the title of a posthumous collection of songs by Franz Schubert. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... In 1838 Robert Schumann, on a visit to Vienna, found the dusty manuscript of Franz Schuberts C major symphony (the Great, D.944) and took it back to Leipzig, where it was performed by Felix Mendelssohn and celebrated in the Neue Zeitschrift. ...


The works of his last two years reveal a composer increasingly meditating on the darker side of the human psyche and human relationships, and with a deeper sense of spiritual awareness and conception of the 'beyond', reaching extraordinary depths in several chillingly dark songs of this period, especially in the larger cycles, (the song Der Doppelgaenger reaching an extraordinary climax, conveying madness at the realization of rejection and imminent death, and yet able to touch repose and communion with the infinite in the almost timeless ebb and flow of the String Quintet). Schubert expressed the wish, were he to survive his final illness, to further develop his knowledge of harmony and counterpoint.


Death

In the midst of this creative activity, his health deteriorated. He had battled syphilis since 1822. The final illness may have been typhoid fever, though other causes have been proposed; some of his final symptoms match those of mercury poisoning (mercury was a common treatment for syphilis in the early 19th century). At any rate, insufficient evidence remains to make a definitive diagnosis. His solace in his final illness was reading, and he had become a passionate fan of the writings of James Fenimore Cooper. He died aged 31 on Wednesday November 19, 1828 at the apartment of his brother Ferdinand in Vienna. At 3 p.m. "someone observed that he had ceased to breathe." By his own request, he was buried next to Beethoven, whom he had adored all his life, in the village cemetery of Währing. In 1888, both Schubert's and Beethoven's graves were moved to the Zentralfriedhof, where they can now be found next to those of Johann Strauss II and Johannes Brahms.


In 1872, a memorial to Franz Schubert was erected in Vienna's Stadtpark.


Music

Style

Schubert composed music for a wide range of ensembles and in various genres including opera, liturgical music, chamber and solo piano music. Liturgical music originated as a part of religious ceremony, and includes a number of traditions, both ancient and modern. ...


While he was clearly influenced by the Classical sonata forms of Mozart and Beethoven (his early works, among them notably the 5th Symphony, are particularly Mozartean), his formal structures and his developments tend to give the impression more of melodic development than of harmonic drama. This combination of Classical form and long-breathed Romantic melody sometimes lends them a discursive style: his 9th Symphony was described by Robert Schumann as running to "heavenly lengths".[1] His harmonic innovations include movements in which the first section ends in the key of the subdominant rather than the dominant (as in the last movement of the Trout Quintet). Schubert's practice here was a forerunner of the common Romantic technique of relaxing, rather than raising, tension in the middle of a movement, with final resolution postponed to the very end. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale. ... The word dominant has several possible meanings: In music theory, the dominant or dominant note (second most important) of a key is that which is a perfect fifth above the tonic; in just intonation the note whose pitch is 1. ... The Trout Quintet is the popular name for the piano quintet in A major by Franz Schubert. ...


It was in the genre of the Lied, however, that Schubert made his most indelible mark. Plantinga remarks, "In his more than six hundred lieder he explored and expanded the potentialities of the genre as no composer before him." [3] Prior to Schubert's influence, lieder tended toward a strophic, syllabic treatment of text, evoking the folksong qualities burgeoned by the stirrings of Romantic nationalism[4]. Among Schubert's treatments of the poetry of Goethe, his settings of Gretchen am Spinnrade and Der Erlkönig are particularly striking for their dramatic content, forward-looking uses of harmony, and their use of eloquent pictorial keyboard figurations, such as the depiction of the spinning wheel and treadle in the piano in Gretchen and the furious and ceaseless gallop the right hand in Erlkönig. Also of particular note are his two song cycles on the poems of Wilhelm Müller--Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise--and the collection Schwanengesang, all of which helped to establish the genre and its potential for musical, poetic, and dramatic narrative. In turn, Schubert's work in Lieder fostered interest in shorter and more lyrical instrumental works.[citation needed] Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Gretchen am Spinnrade is a selection of text from Goethes Faust. ... The Erlking, by Albert Sterner, ca. ... A song cycle is a group of songs designed to be performed in sequence as a single entity. ... Wilhelm Müller (October 7, 1794 - September 30, 1827), German lyric poet, was born at Dessau, the son of a shoemaker. ... Die schöne Müllerin, D. 795, is a song cycle by Franz Schubert on poems by Wilhelm Müller. ... Winterreise (Winter Journey) is a song cycle by Franz Schubert, on poems by Wilhelm Müller. ... Schwanengesang (Swan song) is the title of a posthumous collection of songs by Franz Schubert. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ...


Schubert's compositional style progressed rapidly throughout his short life. The loss of potential masterpieces caused by his early death at 31 was perhaps best expressed in the epitaph on his tombstone written by the poet Franz Grillparzer, "Here music has buried a treasure, but even fairer hopes." Franz Seraphicus Grillparzer (January 15, 1791 - January 21, 1872), Austrian dramatic poet, was born in Vienna. ...


Posthumous history of Schubert's music

Some of his smaller pieces were printed shortly after his death, but the more valuable seem to have been regarded by the publishers as so much waste paper[citation needed]. In 1838 Robert Schumann, on a visit to Vienna, found the dusty manuscript of the C major symphony (the "Great", D.944) and took it back to Leipzig, where it was performed by Felix Mendelssohn and celebrated in the Neue Zeitschrift. There continues to be some controversy over the numbering of this symphony, with German-speaking scholars numbering it as symphony No. 7, the revised Deutsch catalogue (the standard catalogue of Schubert's works, compiled by Otto Erich Deutsch) listing it as No. 8, and English-speaking scholars listing it as No. 9. | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... In 1838 Robert Schumann, on a visit to Vienna, found the dusty manuscript of Franz Schuberts C major symphony (the Great, D.944) and took it back to Leipzig, where it was performed by Felix Mendelssohn and celebrated in the Neue Zeitschrift. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Front page banner of NZM, issue of 30April 1850 Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (English - New Journal of Music) was a music magazine published in Leipzig, founded by Robert Schumann. ... Otto Erich Deutsch (September 5, 1883 – November 23, 1967) was an Austrian musicologist. ...


Fifty of his songs were transcribed for piano by Franz Liszt. Liszt redirects here. ...


The most important step towards the recovery of the neglected works was the journey to Vienna which Sir George Grove (of "Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians" fame) and Sir Arthur Sullivan made in the autumn of 1867. The travellers rescued from oblivion seven symphonies, the Rosamunde incidental music, some of the Masses and operas, some of the chamber works, and a vast quantity of miscellaneous pieces and songs. This led to more widespread public interest in Schubert's work. Sir George Grove (August 13, 1820 - May 28, 1900) was an English writer on music, immortalised in the title of Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ... The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a dictionary of music and musicians, generally considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842 – November 22, 1900) was an English composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist W. S. Gilbert. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Another controversy, which originated with Grove and Sullivan and continued for many years, surrounded the "lost" symphony. Immediately before Schubert's death, his friend Eduard von Bauernfeld recorded the existence of an additional symphony, dated 1828 (although this does not necessarily indicate the year of composition) named the "Letzte" or "Last" symphony. It has been more or less accepted by musicologists that the "Last" symphony refers to a sketch in D major (D.936A), identified by Ernst Hilmar in 1977, and which was realised by Brian Newbould as the Tenth Symphony. Eduard von Bauernfeld (January 13, 1802 - August 9, 1890), Austrian dramatist, was born at Vienna. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Schuberts Symphony No. ...


Franz Liszt declared Schubert to be "the most poetic musician who has ever lived". Liszt redirects here. ...


Catalogue

Lists of works by Franz Schubert
  • By Deutsch number: D 1 to 504 - D 505 to 998
  • List of compositions by Franz Schubert — by musical genre
  • Alphabetical list of Schubert's compositions (insofar as described in separate articles)

This is a catalogue of works by Franz Schubert, ordered according to the D numbers of an updated version of the chronological catalogue of Schubert compositions by Otto Erich Deutsch. ... This is a catalogue of works by Franz Schubert, ordered according to the D numbers of an updated version of the chronological catalogue of Schubert compositions by Otto Erich Deutsch. ... Many of Franz Schuberts works are covered in separate Wikipedia articles, for which there are links on this page. ...

Media

  • Ellens dritter Gesang
    Ellens dritter Gesang, often referred to as Schubert's Ave Maria
    Moment Musical No. 2 in A-flat Major
    Performed by Raymond Smullyan
    Piano Sonata in A minor, D.784, Allegro Giusto
    Performed by Raymond Smullyan
    Piano Sonata in G major, D.894 - Moderato
    Performed by Ralph Hokanson
    Piano Sonata in G major, D.894 - Andante
    Performed by Ralph Hokanson
    Piano Sonata in G major, D.894 - Menuetto
    Performed by Ralph Hokanson
    Piano Sonata in G major, D.894 - Allegretto
    Performed by Ralph Hokanson
    • A recording of Ralph Hokanson playing the B-flat sonata, D. 960.
    1. Molto moderato
    2. Andante sostenuto
    3. Scherzo. Allegro vivace con delicatezza
    4. Allegro, ma non troppo
    • A recording by David H. Porter, also of the B-flat sonata, courtesy of Musopen
    1. Molto moderato
    2. adagio sostenuto
    3. Scherzo. Allegro vivace con delicatezza
    4. Allegro, ma non troppo
    Wanderer Fantasy in C Major, I. Allegro con Fuoco
    Performed by Daniel Blanch. Courtesy of Musopen
    Wanderer Fantasy in C Major, Ii. adagio
    Performed by Daniel Blanch. Courtesy of Musopen
    Wanderer Fantasy in C Major, Iii. Presto
    Performed by Daniel Blanch. Courtesy of Musopen
    Wanderer Fantasy in C Major, Iv. Allegro
    Performed by Daniel Blanch. Courtesy of Musopen
    Mass in G, movement 1
    Mass in G, movement 2
    Mass in G, movement 3
    Mass in G, movement 4
    Mass in G, movement 5
    Mass in G, movement 6
    Impromptu Op. 99 No. 1 (D. 899/1) in C minor
    Performed by Ralph Hokanson
    Impromptu in A-flat, D. 935/2 (Op. 142 No. 2)
    Impromptu in B-flat, D. 935/3 (Op. 142 No. 3), movement 1
    Impromptu in B-flat, D. 935/3 (Op. 142 No. 3), movement 2
    Impromptu in B-flat, D. 935/3 (Op. 142 No. 3), movement 3
    Impromptu in B-flat, movement 4
    Impromptu in B-flat, D. 935/3 (Op. 142 No. 3), movement 5
    Impromptu in B-flat, D. 935/3 (Op. 142 No. 3), movement 6
    Impromptu in B-flat, D. 935/3 (Op. 142 No. 3), movement 7
    Der Hirt auf dem Felsen
    Arpeggione Sonata - 1. Allegro Moderato
    Performed by Hans Goldstein (cello) and Clinton Adams (piano)
    Arpeggione Sonata - 2. Adagio and 3. Allegretto
    Performed by Hans Goldstein (cello) and Clinton Adams (piano)
    Arpeggione Sonata - 3. Allegretto
    Performed by Elias Goldstein (viola) with the Advent Chamber Orchestra
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Ellens_dritter_Gesang. ... Ellens dritter Gesang (Ellens Gesang III, D839, Op 52 no 6, 1825), Ellens third song in English, composed by Franz Schubert in 1825, is one of Schuberts most popular works, although some misconceptions exist regarding its provenance. ... Raymond Merrill Smullyan (born 1919) is a mathematician, logician, philosopher, and magician. ... Raymond Merrill Smullyan (born 1919) is a mathematician, logician, philosopher, and magician. ... Image File history File links Schubert_-_Piano_Sonatas_-_1_Moderato. ... Image File history File links Schubert_-_Piano_Sonatas_-_2_Andante. ... Image File history File links Schubert_-_Piano_Sonatas_-_3_Menuetto. ... Image File history File links Schubert_-_Piano_Sonatas_-_4_Allegretto. ... Image File history File links Schubert_-_Piano_Sonatas_-_5_Moderato. ... Image File history File links Schubert_-_Piano_Sonatas_-_6_Andante. ... Image File history File links Schubert_-_Piano_Sonatas_-_7_Scherzo. ... Image File history File links Schubert_-_Piano_Sonatas_-_8_Allegro. ... Schubert-mass in g. ... Schubert-mass in g. ... Schubert-mass in g. ... Schubert-mass in g. ... Schubert-mass in g. ... Schubert-mass in g. ... Image File history File links Schubert-D.935-2. ... Schubert- Impromptu B-flat1. ... Schubert- Impromptu B-flat2. ... Schubert- Impromptu B-flat3. ... Schubert- Impromptu B-flat4. ... Schubert- Impromptu B-flat5. ... Schubert- Impromptu B-flat6. ... Schubert- Impromptu B-flat7. ... Image File history File links Franz_Schubert_-_Der_Hirt_auf_dem_Felsen. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Rita Steblin, "Franz Schubert - das dreizehnte Kind", Wiener Geschichtsblätter, 3/2001, pp. 245-65.
  2. ^ Maurice J. E. Brown, The New Grove Schubert, ISBN 0-393-30087-0, pp. 2-3
  3. ^ Leon Plantinga, Romantic Music: A History of Musical Style in Nineteenth-Century Europe, published by Norton, 1984, p. 117
  4. ^ ibid. pp. 107-117.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Further reading

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  • Brian Newbould, Schubert: The Music and the Man. University of California Press, 1999. ISBN 0-520-21957-0.
  • Christopher H. Gibbs [ed.], "The Cambridge Companion to Schubert", Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Christopher H. Gibbs, The Life Of Schubert, Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-59512-6
  • Rita Steblin, "Schubert's Relationship with Women: An Historical Account," in: Schubert Studies, ed. Brian Newbould, Ashgate, 1998, pp. 159-182.
  • Rita Steblin, "In Defense of Scholarship and Archival Research: Why Schubert's Brothers Were Allowed to Marry," Current Musicology 62 (1998): 7-17.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

External links

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Recordings and MIDI files

The Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project is a free digital collection maintained by the University of California, Santa Barbara Libraries with streaming and downloadable versions of over 5,000 phonograph cylinders manufactured between 1895 and the mid 1920s. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ...

Sheet music

Persondata
NAME Schubert, Franz Peter
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Austrian composer
DATE OF BIRTH January 31, 1797
PLACE OF BIRTH Vienna, Austria
DATE OF DEATH November 19, 1828
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna, Austria

The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Werner Icking Music Archive, often abbreviated WIMA, is a web archive of public domain sheet music. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The Mutopia project is a volunteer-run effort to create a library of public domain sheet music, in a way similar to Project Gutenbergs library of public domain books. ... Romantics redirects here. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Charles-Valentin Alkan (November 30, 1813–March 29, 1888) was a French composer and one of the greatest virtuoso pianists of his day. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Franz Berwald ca 1840 - painter unknown Franz Adolf Berwald (born in Stockholm on July 23, 1796 and died there on April 3, 1868) was a Swedish Romantic composer who was generally ignored during his lifetime and had to make his living as an orthopedic surgeon and, later, as the manager... Georges Bizet Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875) was a French composer and pianist of the romantic era. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Bruckner redirects here. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , often anglicized DVOR-zhak; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... John Field John Field (July 26, 1782 – January 23, 1837) was an Irish composer and pianist. ... César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (December 10, 1822 – November 8, 1890), a composer, organist and music teacher of Belgian origin who lived in France, was one of the great figures in classical music in the second half of the 19th century. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ... Liszt redirects here. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns () (9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, Samson et Dalila, and Symphony No. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Portrait of BedÅ™ich Smetana BedÅ™ich Smetana (pronounced ; 2 March 1824 - 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under the leadership of Mily Balakirev with the aim of producing... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Photograph of Hugo Wolf Hugo Wolf (March 13, 1860 – February 22, 1903) was an Austrian composer of Slovene origin, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... Romanticism largely began as a reaction against the prevailing Enlightenment ideals of the day. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Byron redirects here. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze Thomas Carlyle (December 4, 1795 – February 5, 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Goethe redirects here. ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin [] (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Keats redirects here. ... Categories: 1812 births | 1859 deaths | Polish poets | Polish writers | Stub ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Giacomo Leopardi, Count (June 29, 1798 – June 14, 1837) is generally considered, along with such figures as Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto and Tasso, to be among Italys greatest poets and one of its greatest thinkers. ... Mikhail Lermontov in 1837 Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов), (October 15, 1814–July 27, 1841), a Russian Romantic writer and poet, sometimes called the poet of the Caucasus, was the most important presence in the Russian poetry from Alexander Pushkins death until his own four years later, at the age... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... Adam Mickiewicz. ... Gérard de Nerval (May 22, 1808 - January 26, 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, the most essentially Romantic among French poets. ... For the German rock band, see Novalis (band). ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... 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William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Karl Pavlovich Briullov (Карл Павлович Брюллов), called by his friends the Great Karl (December 12, 1799, St Petersburg - June 11, 1852, Rome), was the first Russian painter of international standing. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... For a project of the French Space Agency, see COROT. Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter and printmaker in etching. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... Monument at Gericaults tomb. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Goya redirects here. ... Thomas Coles View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, or The Oxbow, 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... Washington Crossing the Delaware Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (May 24, 1816 – July 18, 1868) was a German-born American painter. ... -1... Self-portrait of the young Samuel Palmer, circa 1826. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art, and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Franz Schubert (1046 words)
Schubert's admirers issued 20 of his songs by private subscription, and he and Schober collaborated on Alfonso und Estrella (later said to be his favourite opera).
Schubert's fame was long limited to that of a songwriter, since the bulk of his large output was not even published, and some not even performed, until the late 19th century.
Schubert's discovery of Wilhelm Müller's narrative lyrics gave rise to his further development of the lied by means of the song cycle.
Island of Freedom - Franz Schubert (513 words)
Schubert was an immensely prolific composer in all media; only his operas have not been successful.
Schubert's first six symphonies are outwardly modeled after those of Mozart and Haydn but contain many innovative departures from their classic prototypes.
Schubert did not teach and left no school of composers, but his influence was felt throughout the century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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