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Encyclopedia > Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka

Photograph of Franz Kafka taken in 1906
Born July 3, 1883(1883-07-03)
Prague, Austria-Hungary
Died June 3, 1924 (aged 40)
Kierling near Vienna, Austria
Occupation insurance officer, factory manager, novelist, short story writer
Nationality Jewish-Bohemian (Austria-Hungary)
Genres novel, short story
Literary movement modernism, existentialism, precursor to magical realism
Notable work(s) The Trial, The Castle, The Metamorphosis
Signature
Kafka at the age of five.
Kafka at the age of five.

Franz Kafka (IPA: [ˈfʀanʦ ˈkafka]) (3 July 1883 - 3 June 1924) was one of the major German-language fiction writers of the 20th century. He was born to a middle-class Jewish family in Prague, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic). His unique body of writing—much of which is incomplete and was published posthumously—is among the most influential in Western literature.[1] Kafka or Kaffka is the last name of Franz Kafka (1883-1924), German language writer from Prague Gustav Kafka, philosopher and psychologist JindÅ™ich Kafka (1844-1917), bohemian composer Margit Kaffka (1880–1918), Hungarian writer Kafka may also mean: Kafka (film), a 1991 film by Steven Soderbergh This is a... Image File history File links Kafka1906. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... This page is a list of Jews. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Magic Realism (or Magical Realism) is an illustrative or literary technique in which the laws of cause and effect seem not quite to apply in otherwise real world situations. ... This article is about the novel by Kafka. ... It has been suggested that The Castle, Critical Edition, Underwood Translation be merged into this article or section. ... The Metamorphosis (German: ) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915, and arguably the most famous of his works along with the longer works The Trial and The Castle. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist (October 18, 1777 – November 21, 1811) was a German poet, dramatist and novelist. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (pronounced , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... Dickens redirects here. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... Robert Walser (April 15, 1878 near Biel/Bienne, Switzerland – December 25, 1956 near Herisau, Switzerland), was a German-speaking Swiss writer. ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... This page is about the novelist. ... For other uses, see Camus. ... Robert Musil (November 6, 1880, Klagenfurt, Austria – April 15, 1942, Geneva, Switzerland) was an Austrian writer. ... Federico Fellini (January 20, 1920 – October 31, 1993) was one of the most influential and widely revered film-makers of the 20th century. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (July 15, 1892 – September 27, 1940) was a German-Jewish Marxist literary critic, essayist, translator, and philosopher. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Borges redirects here. ... Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez, also known as Gabo (born March 6, 1927[1] in Aracataca, Colombia) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, editor, publisher, political activist, and recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ... Milan Kundera (IPA: ) (born April 1, 1929 in Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech-born writer who writes in both Czech and French. ... Drago Jančar (born 13 April 1948, Maribor) is a Slovenian novelist and dramatist. ... Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... Haruki Murakami , born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... Günter Wilhelm Grass (born October 16, 1927) is a Nobel Prize-winning German author and playwright. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Park Park Chan-wook (born August 23, 1963 in the Tanyan area of Jecheon) is a South Korean director and screenwriter. ... (JCV) redirects here. ... Amanda Filipacchi Amanda Filipacchi (born 1967 in Paris, France) is an American novelist based in New York City. ... Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) is an American author best known for The Catcher in the Rye, a classic coming-of-age story that has enjoyed enduring popularity since its publication in 1951. ... For other persons named David Lynch, see David Lynch (disambiguation). ... Bukowski redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Kafka5jahre. ... Image File history File links Kafka5jahre. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language and one of the worlds major languages. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... An unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


His stories, such as The Metamorphosis (1915), and novels, including The Trial (1925) and The Castle (1926), concern troubled individuals in a nightmarishly impersonal and bureaucratic world. The Metamorphosis (German: ) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915, and arguably the most famous of his works along with the longer works The Trial and The Castle. ... See also: 1914 in literature, other events of 1915, 1916 in literature, list of years in literature. ... This article is about the novel by Kafka. ... See also: 1924 in literature, other events of 1925, 1926 in literature, list of years in literature. ... It has been suggested that The Castle, Critical Edition, Underwood Translation be merged into this article or section. ... See also: 1925 in literature, other events of 1926, 1927 in literature, list of years in literature. ...

Contents

Family

Kafka was born into a middle-class, German-speaking Jewish family in Prague, the capital of Bohemia. His father, Hermann Kafka (1852–1931), was described as a "huge, selfish, overbearing businessman"[2] and by Kafka himself as "a true Kafka in strength, health, appetite, loudness of voice, eloquence, self-satisfaction, worldly dominance, endurance, presence of mind, [and] knowledge of human nature".[3] Hermann was the fourth child of Jacob Kafka, a shochet, and came to Prague from Osek, a Czech-speaking Jewish village near Písek in southern Bohemia. After working as a traveling sales representative, he established himself as an independent retailer of men's and women's fancy goods and accessories, employing up to 15 people and using a jackdaw (kavka in Czech) as his business logo. Kafka's mother, Julie (1856—1934), was the daughter of Jakob Löwy, a prosperous brewer in Poděbrady, and was better educated than her husband.[4] The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... Shechita Shechita (Hebrew ) is the ritual slaughter of animals, as prescribed for slaughter of mammals and birds according to Jewish dietary laws. ... Location of Písek in the Czech Republic Flag of Písek Old houses in city center See other locations named Písek. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Jackdaw range The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), sometimes known as the Eurasian Jackdaw or European Jackdaw, is one of the smallest species (34–39 cm in length) in the genus of crows and ravens. ... Coordinates: , Country Region District Nymburk Government  - Mayor Lubomír Zíta Area  - City 33. ...


Kafka was the eldest of six children.[5] He had two younger brothers, Georg and Heinrich, who died at the ages of fifteen months and six months, respectively, before Kafka was seven, and three younger sisters, Gabriele ("Elli") (1889–1941), Valerie ("Valli") (1890–1942), and Ottilie ("Ottla") (1891–1943). On business days, both parents were absent from the home. His mother helped to manage her husband's business and worked in it as much as 12 hours a day. The children were largely reared by a series of governesses and servants.


Kafka's sisters were sent with their families to the Łódź Ghetto and died there or in concentration camps. Ottla was sent to the concentration camp at Theresienstadt and then on October 7, 1943 to the death camp at Auschwitz, where 1267 children and 51 guardians, including Ottla, were gassed to death on their arrival.[6] The Łódź Ghetto (historically the Litzmannstadt Ghetto) was the second-largest ghetto (after the Warsaw Ghetto) established for Jews and Roma in Nazi-occupied Poland. ... Location of the concentration camp in the Czech Republic Gate Concentration camp Theresienstadt was a concentration camp set up by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city Terezín (German name Theresienstadt), located in what is now the Czech Republic. ... A death camp is either a concentration camp, the important (though not necessarily single) function of which is to facilitate mass murder of the people deported into such a camp (such as the Nazis Auschwitz and Majdanek, which acquired their murderous functions only some time after they had been... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ...


Education

Kinsky Palace where Kafka attended gymnasium and where his father later owned a shop
Kinsky Palace where Kafka attended gymnasium and where his father later owned a shop

Kafka learned German as his first language, but he was also fluent in Czech. Later, Kafka acquired some knowledge of French language and culture; one of his favorite authors was Flaubert. From 1889 to 1893, he attended the Deutsche Knabenschule, the boys' elementary school at the Masný trh/Fleischmarkt (meat market), the street now known as Masná street. His Jewish education was limited to his Bar Mitzvah celebration at 13 and going to the synagogue four times a year with his father.[7] After elementary school, he was admitted to the rigorous classics-oriented state gymnasium, Altstädter Deutsches Gymnasium, an academic secondary school with eight grade levels, where German was also the language of instruction, at Old Town Square, within the Kinsky Palace. He completed his Maturita exams in 1901. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – Croisset, May 8, 1880) is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Celebration of Bar Mitzvah at the Western Wall in Jerusalem. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Old Town Square in Prague, Týn Cathedral in background Jan Hus statue Old Town Square (Czech: StaromÄ›stské námÄ›stí) is a historic square in the Old Town quarter of Prague in the Czech Republic. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ...


Admitted to the German Charles-Ferdinand University of Prague, Kafka first studied chemistry, but switched after two weeks to law. This offered a range of career possibilities, which pleased his father, and required a longer course of study that gave Kafka time to take classes in German studies and art history. At the university, he joined a student club, named Lese- und Redehalle der Deutschen Studenten, which organized literary events, readings and other activities. In the end of his first year of studies, he met Max Brod, who would become a close friend of his throughout his life, together with the journalist Felix Weltsch, who also studied law. Kafka obtained the degree of Doctor of Law on June 18, 1906 and performed an obligatory year of unpaid service as law clerk for the civil and criminal courts.[1] August Naegle, the rector who try to save the university With the notion Charles-Ferdinand University it is believed meanly as the German university in Prague , which exist as an independent institution from 1882 to 1945. ... Max Brod Max Brod (May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish author, composer, and journalist. ... Felix Weltsch (born Oct. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Work

On November 1, 1907, he was hired at the Assicurazioni Generali, a huge Italian insurance company, where he worked for nearly a year. His correspondence, during that period, witnesses that he was unhappy with his working time schedule - from 8 p.m. (20:00) until 6 a.m. (06:00) - as it made it extremely difficult for him to concentrate on his writing. On July 15, 1908, he resigned, and two weeks later found more congenial employment with the Worker's Accident Insurance Institute for the Kingdom of Bohemia. His father often referred to his son's job as insurance officer as a "Brotberuf", literally "bread job", a job done only to pay the bills. However, he did not show any signs of indifference towards his job, as the several promotions that he received during his career suggest that he was a hardworking employee. A little-known fact about this period, reported by Peter Drucker in Managing in the Next Society, is that Kafka invented the first civilian hard hat. He received a medal for this invention in 1912 because it reduced Bohemian steel mill deaths to fewer than 25 per thousand employees. He was also given the task of compiling and composing the annual report and was reportedly quite proud of the results, sending copies to friends and family. In parallel, Kafka was also committed to his literary work. Together with his close friends Max Brod and Felix Weltsch, these three were called "Der enge Prager Kreis", the close Prague circle, which was part of a broader Prague Circle, "a loosely knit group of German-Jewish writers who contributed to the culturally fertile soil of Prague during the 1880s until after World War I."[8] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is one of the largest New York based life insurance companies Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Peter Ferdinand Drucker (November 19, 1909–November 11, 2005) was a writer, management consultant and university professor. ... A hard hat is a type of helmet predominately used in workplace environments such as construction sites to protect the head from injury such as from falling objects, debris and bad weather. ... Max Brod Max Brod (May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish author, composer, and journalist. ... Felix Weltsch (born Oct. ...


In 1911, Karl Hermann, spouse of his sister Elli, proposed Kafka collaborate in the operation of an asbestos factory known as Prager Asbestwerke Hermann and Co. Kafka showed a positive attitude at first, dedicating much of his free time to the business. During that period, he also found interest and entertainment in the performances of Yiddish theatre, despite the misgivings of even close friends such as Max Brod, who usually supported him in everything else. Those performances also served as a starting point for his growing relationship with Judaism. For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Yiddish theatre consists of plays written and performed primarily by Jews in Yiddish, the language of the Eastern European Ashkenazaic Jewish community. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Later years

In 1912, at Max Brod's home, Kafka met Felice Bauer, who lived in Berlin and worked as a representative for a dictaphone company. Over the next five years they corresponded a great deal, met occasionally, and twice were engaged to be married. Their relationship finally ended in 1917.


In 1917, Kafka began to suffer from tuberculosis, which would require frequent convalescence during which he was supported by his family, most notably his sister Ottla. Despite his fear of being perceived as both physically and mentally repulsive, he impressed others with his boyish, neat, and austere good looks, a quiet and cool demeanor, obvious intelligence and dry sense of humor.[9] Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


In 1921 he developed an intense relationship with Czech journalist and writer Milena Jesenská. In 1923, he briefly moved to Berlin in the hope of distancing himself from his family's influence to concentrate on his writing. In Berlin, he lived with Dora Diamant, a 25-year-old kindergarten teacher from an orthodox Jewish family, who was independent enough to have escaped her past in the ghetto. Dora became his lover, and influenced Kafka's interest in the Talmud.[10] Milena Jesenská (August 10, 1896, Prague – May 17, 1944, Ravensbrück, Germany) was a Czech journalist, writer and translator. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ...


It is generally agreed that Kafka suffered from clinical depression and social anxiety throughout his entire life[citation needed]. He also suffered from migraines, insomnia, constipation, boils, and other ailments, all usually brought on by excessive stresses and strains. He attempted to counteract all of this by a regimen of naturopathic treatments, such as a vegetarian diet and the consumption of large quantities of unpasteurized milk. However, Kafka's tuberculosis worsened; he returned to Prague, then went to Dr. Hoffmann sanatorium in Kierling near Vienna for treatment, where he died on June 3, 1924, apparently from starvation. The condition of Kafka's throat made eating too painful for him, and since intravenous therapy had not been developed, there was no way to feed him (a fate resembling that of Gregor in the Metamorphosis and the main character of A Hunger Artist). His body was ultimately brought back to Prague where he was interred on June 11, 1924, in the New Jewish Cemetery (sector 21, row 14, plot 33) in Prague-Žižkov. On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Social anxiety is an experience of fear, apprehension or worry regarding social situations and being evaluated by others. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Sanatório Heliantia A sanatorium refers to a medical facility for long-term illness, typically cholera or tuberculosis. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... View of Žižkov from the roof of a flat Žižkov is a cadastral district of Prague, Czech Republic. ...


Personal views

Kafka was not formally involved in Jewish religious life, but he showed a great interest in Jewish culture and spirituality. He was deeply fascinated by the Jews of Eastern Europe who he regarded as having an intensity of spiritual life Western Jews did not have. Kafka at the same time had at times an alienation from Judaism and Jewish life: "What have I in common with Jews? I have hardly anything in common with myself and should stand very quietly in a corner, content that I can breathe."



During the later years of his life, Kafka suggested an interest in moving to Palestine.He dreamed of going with Dora Diamant who herself came from a Hasidic family to create a new kind of life in the land of Israel. Here he perhaps too was influenced by his Zionist friends Hugo Bergmann and Max Brod. Tragically Kafka's tuberculosis was too advanced and he was not able to realize this dream of his final years. A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Literary work

Franz Kafka's grave in Prague-Žižkov.
Franz Kafka's grave in Prague-Žižkov.

Kafka published only a few short stories during his lifetime, a small part of his work, and never finished any of his novels (with the possible exception of The Metamorphosis, which some consider to be a short novel). His writing attracted little attention until after his death. Prior to his death, he instructed his friend and literary executor Max Brod to destroy all of his manuscripts. His lover, Dora Diamant, partially executed his wishes, secretly keeping up to 20 notebooks and 35 letters until they were confiscated by the Gestapo in 1933. An ongoing international search is being conducted for these missing Kafka papers. Brod overrode Kafka's instructions and instead oversaw the publication of most of the work in his possession, which soon began to attract attention and high critical regard. Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 493 KB)Feel free to replace with a better photograph, when one appears. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 493 KB)Feel free to replace with a better photograph, when one appears. ... The Metamorphosis (German: ) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915, and arguably the most famous of his works along with the longer works The Trial and The Castle. ... A literary executor is a person with decision-making power in respect of a literary estate. ... Max Brod Max Brod (May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish author, composer, and journalist. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


All of Kafka's published works, except several letters he wrote in Czech to Milena Jesenská, were written in German.


Style of writing

Kafka often made extensive use of a trait special to the German language allowing for long sentences that sometimes can span an entire page. Kafka's sentences then deliver an unexpected impact just before the full stop - that being the finalizing meaning and focus. This is achieved due to the construction of certain sentences in German which require that the verb be positioned at the end of the sentence. Such constructions cannot be duplicated in English, so it is up to the translator to provide the reader with the same effect found in the original text.[11] One such instance of a Kafka translator's quandary is demonstrated in the first sentence of The Metamorphosis. The Metamorphosis (German: ) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915, and arguably the most famous of his works along with the longer works The Trial and The Castle. ...


Another virtually insurmountable problem facing the translator is how to deal with the author's intentional use of ambiguous terms or of words that have several meanings. An example is Kafka's use of the German noun Verkehr  in the final sentence of The Judgment. The sentence can be translated as: "At that moment an unending stream of traffic crossed over the bridge."[12] What gives added weight to the obvious double meaning of Verkehr  is Kafka's confession to his friend and biographer Max Brod that when he wrote that final line, he was thinking of "a violent ejaculation." In the English translation, of course, what can Verkehr  be but "traffic"?[13] The Judgment (Das Urteil) is a short story by Franz Kafka which depicts the conversation between a man and his father, where many conflicts arise. ... Max Brod Max Brod (May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish author, composer, and journalist. ...


Critical interpretation

Bronze statue of Franz Kafka in Prague.
Bronze statue of Franz Kafka in Prague.

Critics have interpreted Kafka's works in the context of a variety of literary schools, such as modernism, magical realism, and so on.[14] The apparent hopelessness and absurdity that seem to permeate his works are considered emblematic of existentialism. Others have tried to locate a Marxist influence in his satirization of bureaucracy in pieces such as In the Penal Colony, The Trial, and The Castle,[14] whereas others point to anarchism as an inspiration for Kafka's anti-bureaucratic viewpoint. Still others have interpreted his works through the lens of Judaism (Borges made a few perceptive remarks in this regard), through Freudianism[14] (because of his familial struggles), or as allegories of a metaphysical quest for God (Thomas Mann was a proponent of this theory). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (621x1012, 309 KB) Motive-description: Monument for Franz Kafka in Prag Scan/photo by: User:Henryart (who is owner of the original photo) Date: August 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Franz Kafka ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (621x1012, 309 KB) Motive-description: Monument for Franz Kafka in Prag Scan/photo by: User:Henryart (who is owner of the original photo) Date: August 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Franz Kafka ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Magic Realism (or Magical Realism) is an illustrative or literary technique in which the laws of cause and effect seem not quite to apply in otherwise real world situations. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... In the Penal Colony (German: In der Strafkolonie) is a short story in German by Franz Kafka. ... This article is about the novel by Kafka. ... It has been suggested that The Castle, Critical Edition, Underwood Translation be merged into this article or section. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Jorge Luis Borges Jorge Luis Borges (August 24, 1899 – June 14, 1986) was an Argentine writer who is considered to be one of the foremost writers of the 20th century. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ...


Themes of alienation and persecution are repeatedly emphasized, and the emphasis on this quality, notably in the work of Marthe Robert, partly inspired the counter-criticism of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, who argued that there was much more to Kafka than the stereotype of a lonely figure writing out of anguish, and that his work was more deliberate, subversive, and more "joyful" than it appears to be. Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ...


Furthermore, an isolated reading of Kafka's work — focusing on the futility of his characters' struggling without the influence of any studies on Kafka's life was worthless — reveals the humor of Kafka. Kafka's work, in this sense, is not a written reflection of any of his own struggles, but a reflection of how people invent struggles.


Biographers have said that it was common for Kafka to read chapters of the books he was working on to his closest friends, and that those readings usually concentrated on the humorous side of his prose. Milan Kundera  refers to the essentially surrealist humour of Kafka as a main predecessor of later artists such as Federico Fellini, Gabriel García Márquez, Carlos Fuentes and Salman Rushdie. For García Márquez, it was as he said the reading of Kafka's The Metamorphosis  that showed him "that it was possible to write in a different way". Milan Kundera (IPA: ) (born April 1, 1929 in Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech-born writer who writes in both Czech and French. ... Federico Fellini (January 20, 1920 – October 31, 1993) was one of the most influential and widely revered film-makers of the 20th century. ... Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez, also known as Gabo (born March 6, 1927[1] in Aracataca, Colombia) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, editor, publisher, political activist, and recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ... Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... The Metamorphosis (German: ) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915, and arguably the most famous of his works along with the longer works The Trial and The Castle. ...


Publications and dates

Much of Kafka's work was unfinished, or prepared for publication posthumously by Max Brod. The novels The Castle (which stopped mid-sentence and had ambiguity on content), The Trial (chapters were unnumbered and some were incomplete) and Amerika (Kafka's original title was The Man who Disappeared) were all prepared for publication by Brod. It appears Brod took a few liberties with the manuscript (moving chapters, changing the German and cleaning up the punctuation), and thus the original German text was altered prior to publication. The editions by Brod are generally referred to as the Definitive Editions. It has been suggested that The Castle, Critical Edition, Underwood Translation be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the novel by Kafka. ... Amerika, also known as Der Verschollene or The Man Who Disappeared, was the incomplete first novel of author Franz Kafka, published posthumously in 1927. ...


According to the publisher's note[15] for The Castle,[16] Malcolm Pasley was able to get most of Kafka's original handwritten work into the Oxford Bodleian Library in 1961. The text for The Trial was later acquired through auction and is stored at the German literary archives[17] at Marbach, Germany.[18] Sir John Malcolm Sabine Pasley, 5th Baronet (April 5, 1926 – March 4, 2004), commonly known as Malcolm Pasley born in Rajkot, India. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ... This article is about the novel by Kafka. ... Marbach am Neckar (pop. ...


Subsequently, Pasley headed a team (including Gerhard Neumann, Jost Schillemeit, and Jürgen Born) in reconstructing the German novels and S. Fischer Verlag republished them.[19] Pasley was the editor for Das Schloß (The Castle), published in 1982, and Der Prozeß (The Trial), published in 1990. Jost Schillemeit was the editor of Der Verschollene (Amerika) published in 1983. These are all called the 'Critical Editions' or the 'Fischer Editions'. The German critical text of these, and Kafka's other works, may be found online at The Kafka Project.[20] Gerhard Neumann was a famous and legendary aviation engineer. ... The German publishing house S. Fischer Verlag (today in Frankfurt am Main) was founded in 1886 by Samuel Fischer in Berlin and is a leading German address for literary publications and fiction. ... Amerika, also known as Der Verschollene or The Man Who Disappeared, was the incomplete first novel of author Franz Kafka, published posthumously in 1927. ...


There is another Kafka Project based at San Diego State University, which began in 1998 as the official international search for Kafka's last writings. Consisting of 20 notebooks and 35 letters to Kafka's last companion, Dora Diamant (later, Dymant-Lask), this missing literary treasure was confiscated from her by the Gestapo in Berlin 1933. The Kafka Project's four-month search of government archives in Berlin in 1998 uncovered the confiscation order and other significant documents. In 2003, the Kafka Project discovered three original Kafka letters, written in 1923. Building on the search conducted by Max Brod and Klaus Wagenbach in the mid-1950s, the Kafka Project at SDSU has an advisory committee of international scholars and researchers, and is calling for volunteers who want to help solve a literary mystery.[21]


Translations

There are two primary sources for the translations based on the two German editions. The earliest English translations were by Edwin and Willa Muir and published by Alfred A. Knopf. These editions were widely published and spurred the late-1940's surge in Kafka's popularity in the United States. Later editions (notably the 1954 editions) had the addition of the deleted text translated by Eithne Wilkins and Ernst Kaiser. These are known 'Definitive Editions'. They translated both The Trial, Definitive and The Castle, Definitive among other writings. Definitive Editions are generally accepted to have a number of biases and to be dated in interpretation. Edwin Muir (15 May 1887 - 3 January 1959) was an Orcadian [1] poet, novelist and translator born on a farm in Deerness on the Orkney Islands. ... Colophon of the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. ... The Castle is a philosophical novel by Franz Kafka. ...


After Pasley and Schillemeit completed their recompilation of the German text, the new translations were completed and published -- The Castle, Critical by Mark Harman (Schocken Books, 1998), The Trial, Critical by Breon Mitchell (Schocken Books, 1998) and Amerika: The Man Who Disappeared by Michael Hoffman (New Directions Publishing, 2004). These editions are often noted as being based on the restored text. The Castle is a philosophical novel by Franz Kafka. ... Schocken Verlag was establish in Berlin witha publishing office in Prague in 1931 by the Department Store owner Salman Schocken. ... Schocken Verlag was establish in Berlin witha publishing office in Prague in 1931 by the Department Store owner Salman Schocken. ... An independent publisher for 70 years, New Directions was founded when president and publisher James Laughlin issued the first New Directions anthology in 1936. ...


Bibliography

See also: Bibliography of Franz Kafka

This is a bibliography of works by Franz Kafka // This literature-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

Short stories

Many collections of the stories have been published, and they include: Description of a Struggle (German: Beschreibung eines Kampfes) is a short story by Franz Kafka. ... Wedding Preparations in the Country (Hochzeitsvorbereitungen auf dem Lande) is an uncompleted work by Franz Kafka which depicts with a great amount of detail the journey of a man travelling to the country to meet his future wife. ... Contemplation, or Meditation (Betrachtung in German) is a sequence of eighteen short stories by Franz Kafka. ... The Judgment (Das Urteil) is a short story by Franz Kafka which depicts the conversation between a man and his father, where many conflicts arise. ... The Stoker is a short story by Franz Kafka. ... In the Penal Colony (German: In der Strafkolonie) is a short story in German by Franz Kafka. ... The Village Schoolmaster ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Warden of the Tomb (Der Gruftwächter) is a short story by Franz Kafka. ... The Hunter Gracchus (Der Jäger Gracchus) is a short story written by Franz Kafka. ... The Great Wall of China (Beim Bau der Chinesischen Mauer) is a short story written by Franz Kafka in 1917. ... A Report to an Academy (Ein Bericht für eine Akademie) is a short story written by Franz Kafka in 1917 and originally published that year by Martin Buber, in the German monthly Der Jude, along with another of Kafkas stories, Jackals and Arabs (Schakale und Araber). Kafka allowed... A Message from the Emperor (German: Eine kaiserliche Botschaft) is a short story by Franz Kafka. ... An Old Manuscript (German: Ein altes Blatt), alternatively translated as An Old Leaf,[1] is a short story by Franz Kafka. ... The Refusal (Die Abweisung) is a short story by Franz Kafka. ... A Hunger Artist (Ein Hungerkünstler), also translated as A Fasting Artist, is a short story by Franz Kafka published in Die Neue Rundschau in 1922. ... Investigations of a Dog is a longer short-story by Franz Kafka, analyzing the day-to-day life of a dog, and how it compares to human beings. ... A Little Woman (Eine kleine Frau) is a short story by Franz Kafka. ... The Burrow is an unfinished short story by Franz Kafka in which a mole-like animal burrows through an elaborate system of tunnels it has built over its life. ... Josephine the Singer (aka The Mouse Folk) is a short story by Kafka set in a village of rodents, with a subtext concerning the rich and famous. ...

  • The Penal Colony: Stories and Short Pieces. New York: Schocken Books, 1948.
  • The Complete Stories, (ed. Nahum N. Glatzer). New York: Schocken Books, 1971.
  • The Basic Kafka. New York: Pocket Books, 1979.
  • The Sons. New York: Schocken Books, 1989.
  • The Metamorphosis, In the Penal Colony, and Other Stories. New York: Schocken Books, 1995.
  • Contemplation. Twisted Spoon Press, 1998.
  • Metamorphosis and Other Stories. Penguin Classics, 2007

The Complete Stories of Franz Kafka is a book which brings together all of Kafkas short stories. ... Cover of The Sons, Schocken Books, 1989. ... Contemplation, or Meditation (Betrachtung in German) is a sequence of eighteen short stories by Franz Kafka. ...

Novellas

The Metamorphosis (German: ) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915, and arguably the most famous of his works along with the longer works The Trial and The Castle. ...

Novels

This article is about the novel by Kafka. ... Before the Law is a section of The Trial (German Der Prozeß), a novel by Franz Kafka, that has been published separately from the novel. ... It has been suggested that The Castle, Critical Edition, Underwood Translation be merged into this article or section. ... Amerika book cover Amerika was a novel written by Franz Kafka, published in 1927, which describes the adventures of a sixteen-year-old European emigrant called Karl Rossman in the United States, as a punishment for being seduced by a maid, to meet his uncle who receives him at his...

Diaries and notebooks

Franz Kafkas Diaries, written between 1910-1923, include casual observations, details of daily life, reflections on philosophical ideas, accounts of dreams, and ideas for stories. ... The Blue Octavo Notebooks is the name given to a series of eight notebooks written by Franz Kafka from late 1917 until June 1919. ...

Letters

Letter to His Father (German:Brief an den Vater) is the name usually given to the letter Franz Kafka wrote his father Hermann in November 1919. ... Cover of 1973 English edition of Letters to Felice Letters to Felice is a book collecting some of Franz Kafkas letters to Felice Bauer from 1912 to 1917. ... Letters to Milena is a book collecting some of Franz Kafkas letters to Milena Jesenská from 1920 to 1923. ... Letters to Family, Friends, and Editors is a book collecting some of Franz Kafkas letters from 1900 to 1924. ...

Works about Kafka

  • Brod, Max. Franz Kafka: A Biography. New York: Da Capo Press, 1995. ISBN 0-306-80670-3
  • Brod, Max. The Biography of Franz Kafka, tr. from the German by G. Humphreys Roberts. London: Secker & Warburg, 1947. OCLC 2771397
  • Calasso, Roberto. K. Knopf, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-4189-9
  • Citati, Pietro, Kafka, 1987. ISBN 0-7859-2173-7
  • Coots, Steve. Franz Kafka (Beginner's Guide). Headway, 2002, ISBN 0-340-84648-8
  • Deleuze, Gilles & Félix Guattari. Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature (Theory and History of Literature, Vol 30). Minneapolis, University of Minnesota, 1986. ISBN 0-8166-1515-2
  • Glatzer, Nahum N., The Loves of Franz Kafka. New York: Schocken Books, 1986. ISBN 0-8052-4001-2
  • Greenberg, Martin, The Terror of Art: Kafka and Modern Literature. New York, Basic Books, 1968. ISBN 0-465-08415-X
  • Gordimer, Nadine (1984). "Letter from His Father" in Something Out There, London, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-007711-1
  • Hayman, Ronald. K, a Biography of Kafka. London: Phoenix Press, 2001.ISBN 1-84212-415-3
  • Janouch, Gustav. Conversations with Kafka. New York: New Directions Books, second edition 1971. (Translated by Goronwy Rees.)ISBN 0-8112-0071-X
  • Kwinter, Sanford. Architectures of Time: Toward a Theory of the Event in Modernist Culture. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2002. ISBN 0-262-11260-4
  • Murray, Nicholas. Kafka. New Haven: Yale, 2004.
  • Pawel, Ernst. The Nightmare of Reason: A Life of Franz Kafka. New York: Vintage Books, 1985. ISBN 0-374-52335-5
  • Thiher, Allen (ed.). Franz Kafka: A Study of the Short Fiction (Twayne's Studies in Short Fiction, No. 12). ISBN 0-8057-8323-7

Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Pietro Citati (Florence, 1930) is a famous italian critic. ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French militant, institutional psychotherapist and philosopher, a founder of both schizoanalysis and ecosophy. ...

Legacy

The entrance to the Franz Kafka museum in Prague.
The entrance to the Franz Kafka museum in Prague.

Franz Kafka has a museum dedicated to his work in Prague, Czech Republic. The term "Kafkaesque" is widely used and misused to describe concepts, situations, and ideas which are reminiscent of Kafka's works, particularly The Trial and "The Metamorphosis". Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Kafkaesque is an adjective which is used to describe concepts, situations, and ideas which are reminiscent of the literary work of Prague writer Franz Kafka, particularly his novel The Trial and his novella The Metamorphosis. ...


In Mexico, the phrase "Si Franz Kafka fuera mexicano, sería costumbrista" (If Franz Kafka were Mexican, he would be a Costumbrista writer) is commonly used in newspapers, blogs, and online forums to tell how hopeless and absurd the situation in the country is.[22] Aranda JJ: An Incident at the Bullring (1870) Costumbrista refers to the literary or pictorial interpretation of local everyday life, mannerisms, and customs, primarily in the Hispanic scene. ... Aranda JJ: An Incident at the Bullring (1870) Costumbrista refers to the literary or pictorial interpretation of local everyday life, mannerisms, and customs, primarily in the Hispanic scene. ...


It has been noted that "from the Czech point of view, Kafka was German, and from the German point of view he was, above all, Jewish" and that this was a common "fate of much of Western Jewry."[8]


Kafka in literature

The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... For other uses, see Golem (disambiguation). ... Jewish mythology is the body of mythology of the Jewish people and Judaism as understood by some people. ... Kafka Americana is a collection of short stories by Jonathan Lethem and Carter Scholz based on works by Franz Kafka. ... Jonathan Allen Lethem (born February 19, 1964) is an American writer. ... Kafka on the Shore ) is a novel by Japanese author Haruki Murakami (2002). ... Haruki Murakami , born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... Anatole Broyard (July 16, 1920–October 11, 1990) was an American literary critic for The New York Times. ... Achmat Dangor is a South African writer was born in Johannesburg in 1948, the year the Nationalist Party, whose works include Kafkas Curse and Bitter Fruit. ... The Kafka Effekt (2001) is the debut book of American author D. Harlan Wilson, who is a noted homosexual. ... Cover of The Bizarro Starter Kit - a sampler anthology series that introduces and defines the bizarro genre. ... D. Harlan Wilson (born September 3, 1971 in Grand Rapids, Michigan) is an American short-story writer and novelist whose body of work is typically associated with the genres of irrealism, science fiction, fantasy, and Bizarro fiction. ... Irrealism is a philosophical term which seems to have been coined in the 1980s by Nelson Goodman to refer to the belief that the debate between realism and anti-realism was based on poor assumptions. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ...

Film

The fat man on a litter, as depicted in a short film adaptation of Description of a Struggle.
The fat man on a litter, as depicted in a short film adaptation of Description of a Struggle.

For a full list of films The IMDb filmography Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles for transport of persons. ... Description of a Struggle (German: Beschreibung eines Kampfes) is a short story by Franz Kafka. ...

Kafka's Life

  • Kafka (1990) Jeremy Irons stars as the eponymous author. Written by Lem Dobbs and directed by Steven Soderbergh, the movie mixes his life and fiction providing a semi-biographical presentation of Kafka's life and works. The story concerns Kafka investigating the disappearance of one of his work colleagues. The plot takes Kafka through many of the writer's own works, most notably The Castle and The Trial.
  • Franz Kafka (1992) at the Internet Movie Database : an animated film by Piotr Dumała

Kafka is a film based on the life of writer Franz Kafka. ... Jeremy John Irons (born September 19, 1948) is an Academy Award, Tony Award, Screen Actors Guild, two-time Emmy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning English film, television and stage actor. ... An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. ... Lem Dobbs (born Lem Kitaj on December 24, 1959 in Oxford, England) is an American screenwriter. ... Steven Andrew Soderbergh (born January 14, 1963 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an American film producer, screenwriter, cinematographer, editor, and Oscar-winning director. ... It has been suggested that The Castle, Critical Edition, Underwood Translation be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the novel by Kafka. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ...

Novels

The Trial (aka Le Procès) is a 1962 film directed by Orson Welles, based on the famous novel by Franz Kafka. ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... Anthony Perkins (April 4, 1932 – September 12, 1992) was an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning American stage and screen actor best known for his role as Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho and its three sequels. ... Klassenverhältnisse, known in English as Class Relations, is a 1984 film by the French filmmaking duo of Jean-Marie Straub and Danièle Huillet. ... Jean-Marie Straub was born in France in 1933. ... Danièle Huillet (1 May 1936 in Paris - 9 October 2006 in Cholet) collaborated with her husband Jean-Marie Straub on films. ... Amerika, also known as Der Verschollene or The Man Who Disappeared, was the incomplete first novel of author Franz Kafka, published posthumously in 1927. ... The Trial is a 1993 film made by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). ... Kyle MacLachlan (born February 22, 1959, in Yakima, Washington) is a Golden Globe award winning American actor. ... For the composer, see Antony Hopkins. ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ...

Metamorphosis

For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... Caroline Leaf was born in Seattle, Washington in 1946. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Peter Capaldi as Mark Jenkins in Skins. ... Richard E. Grant depicted as the unofficial Ninth Doctor. ... The Metamorphosis (German: ) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915, and arguably the most famous of his works along with the longer works The Trial and The Castle. ... This article is about the film director. ... For other uses, see Its a Wonderful Life (disambiguation). ... Carlos Atanes (born November 8, 1971) is an Spanish film director. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ...

Short stories

Zoetrope is an experimental avant-garde short film by music-video director Charlie Deaux (director of music videos for System of a Down and Mortiis). ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ...

Theatre

  • Alan Bennett, Kafka's Dick, 1986, a play in which the ghosts of Kafka, his father Hermann, and Max Brod arrive at the home of an English insurance clerk (and Kafka aficionado) and his wife.
  • Milan Richter, Kafka's Hell-Paradise, 2006, a play with 5 characters, using Kafka's aphorisms, dreams and re-telling his relations to his father and to the women. Translated from the Slovak by Ewald Osers.
  • Milan Richter, Kafka's Second Life, 2007, a play with 17 characters, starting in Kierling where Kafka is dying and ending in Prague in 1961. Translated from the Slovak by Ewald Osers.
  • Tadeusz Różewicz, Pułapka (The Trap), 1982, a play loosely based on Kafka's diaries and letters

Published by Faber/Profile Books in 2005 Alan Bennett (born May 9, 1934) is an English author and actor noted for his work, his boyish appearance and his sonorous Yorkshire accent. ... Kafkas dick (1986) is a comedy play by Alan Bennett. ... Tadeusz Różewicz and Günter Grass, 2006 Tadeusz Różewicz (b. ...

See also

For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... 3412 Kafka is a small main belt asteroid. ... Max Brod Max Brod (May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish author, composer, and journalist. ... Felix Weltsch (born Oct. ... Kafka on the Shore ) is a novel by Japanese author Haruki Murakami (2002). ... The Franz Kafka Prize is an international literary prize in the Czech Republic presented in honour of Franz Kafka, the German language novelist. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b (Spanish)Contijoch, Francesc Miralles (2000) "Franz Kafka". Oceano Grupo Editorial, S.A. Barcelona. ISBN 84-494-1811-9.
  2. ^ Corngold 1973
  3. ^ Franz Kafka's Letter to his father www.kafka-franz.com
  4. ^ Gilman, Sander L. (2005) Franz Kafka. Reaktion Books Ltd. London, UK. p.20-21. ISBN 1-88187-264-5.
  5. ^ Hamalian ([1975], 3).
  6. ^ Danuta Czech: Kalendarz wydarzeń w KL Auschwitz, Oświęcim 1992, p. 534. In the archives of the camp a list with the names of the guardians was preserved.
  7. ^ Franz Kafka Biography www.kafka-franz.com
  8. ^ a b The Metamorphosis and Other Stories, notes. Herberth Czermak. Lincoln, Nebraska: Cliffs Notes 1973, 1996.
  9. ^ Ryan McKittrick speaks with director Dominique Serrand and Gideon Lester about Amerika www.amrep.org
  10. ^ Lothar Hempel www.atlegerhardsen.com
  11. ^ Kafka (1996, xi).
  12. ^ Kafka (1996, 75).
  13. ^ Kafka (1996, xii).
  14. ^ a b c Franz Kafka 1883 – 1924 www.coskunfineart.com
  15. ^ A Kafka For The 21st Century by Arthur Samuelson, publisher, Schocken Books www.jhom.com
  16. ^ Schocken Books, 1998
  17. ^ (German) Herzlich Willkommen www.dla-marbach.de
  18. ^ (publisher's note, The Trial, Schocken Books, 1998
  19. ^ Stepping into Kafka’s head, Jeremy Adler, Times Literary Supplement, October 13, 1995 (http://www.textkritik.de/rezensionen/kafka/einl_04.htm)
  20. ^ The Kafka Project - Kafka's Works in German According to the Manuscript www.kafka.org
  21. ^ Sources: Kafka, by Nicolas Murray, pages 367, 374; Kafka's Last Love, by Kathi Diamant; "Summary of the Results of the Kafka Project Berlin Research June 1-September 1998" published in December 1998 Kafka Katern, quarterly of the Kafka Circle of the Netherlands. More information is available at http://www.kafkaproject.com
  22. ^ Aquella, Daniel (2006-11-22). México kafkiano y costumbrista. Daquella manera:Paseo personal por inquietudes culturales, sociales y lo que tengamos a bien obrar.. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  23. ^ Bashevis Singer, Isaac (1970). A Friend of Kafka, and Other Stories. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 311. ISBN 0-37415-880-0. 
  24. ^ (German) Menschenkörper movie website www.menschenkoerper.de

Schocken Verlag was establish in Berlin witha publishing office in Prague in 1931 by the Department Store owner Salman Schocken. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Adorno, Theodor. "Prisms." The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA. 1967.
  • Corngold, Stanley (1972). Introduction to The Metamorphosis, reissue edition. Bantam Classics. ISBN 0-553-21369-5.
  • Hamalian, Leo (Ed.). [1974]. Franz Kafka: A Collection of Criticism. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-025702-7.
  • Kafka, Franz (1996). The Metamorphosis and Other Stories, trans. Donna Freed. New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 1-56619-969-7.
  • Paul Heller: Franz Kafka. Wissenschaft und Wissenschaftskritik. Tuebingen: Stauffenburg 1989. ISBN 3-923-72140-4.

External links

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Franz Kafka
Persondata
NAME Kafka, Franz
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION German Czech novelist
DATE OF BIRTH July 3, 1883(1883-07-03)
PLACE OF BIRTH Prague, Austria-Hungary
DATE OF DEATH June 3, 1924
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna, Austria

is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Franz Kafka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3056 words)
Franz Kafka (IPA: [ˈfranʦ ˈkafka]) (July 3, 1883 – June 3, 1924) was one of the major German-language novelists and short story writers of the 20th century, whose unique body of writing — most of it incomplete, and published posthumously despite his wish that it be destroyed — has become iconic in Western literature.
Kafka was born into a middle-class, German-speaking Jewish family in Prague, the capital of Bohemia, a kingdom that was then part of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
Kafka's mother, Julie (1856—1934), was the daughter of Jakob Löwy, a prosperous brewer in Poděbrady, and was better educated than her husband.
Franz Kafka - definition of Franz Kafka - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (1601 words)
Franz Kafka (July 3, 1883 in Prague - June 3, 1924 in Vienna) was one of the major German language writers of the 20th century most of whose work was published posthumously.
Kafka was born July 3, 1883, into a middle class German-speaking Jewish family in Prague, in the Austrian province of Bohemia, inside the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Kafka's writing is noted for its attention to psychological and physical detail, the recurrence of paradoxes or encounters with absurdity, and the many descriptions of nightmarish predicaments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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