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Encyclopedia > Franz I of Austria
Francis II
Francis I

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who may also be referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 - March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. He was also Francis I, first Emperor of Austria (ruling from 1804 to 1835).

He was a son of Leopold II of Austria (1747-1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745-1792).

As the leader of a large multi-ethnic nation, Francis felt threatened by Napoleon's call for liberty and equality in Europe. He led Austria into the French Revolutionary Wars and was defeated by Napoleon. At the Treaty of Campo Formio, he ceded the left bank of the Rhine to France in exchange for Venice and Dalmatia. He again fought against France during the Second Coalition, and, after meeting crushing defeat at Austerlitz, agreed to the Treaty of Lunéville, which dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, weakening Austria and decentralizing Germany.

In 1809, Francis attacked France again, hoping to take advantage of the conflict embroiling Napoleon in Spain. He was again defeated, and this time forced to ally with Napoleon, ceding territory to the Empire, joining the Continental System, and wedding his daughter Marie-Louise to the Emperor. Francis essentially became a vassal of the Emperor of France. The Napoleonic wars drastically weakened Austria and reduced its prestige, which would lead to Prussia acquiring the edge in the contest for dominance of Germany.

In 1813, for the fourth and final time, Austria turned against France and joined England, Russia, and Prussia in their war against Napoleon. Austria played a major role in the final defeat of France—in recognition of this, Francis, represented by Clemens von Metternich, presided over the Congress of Vienna, helping to form the Concert of Europe and the Holy Alliance, ushering in an era of conservatism and reactionism in Europe.

He married four times:

Names in other languages: German: Franz II/I, Czech: František I, Slovak: František I, Hungarian: I. Ferenc, Italian: Francesco II/I

Preceded by:
Leopold II
Holy Roman Emperor
Succeeded by:
Preceded by:
Leopold II
King of Hungary
Succeeded by:
Ferdinand V
King of Bohemia
Preceded by:
Emperor of Austria
Succeeded by:
Ferdinand I

  Results from FactBites:
Wikipedia search result (783 words)
Franz Joseph was born in Vienna, the oldest son of Archduke Franz Karl (younger brother and heir of Emperor Ferdinand I), and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria.
In 1854 Franz Joseph married Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria ("Sisi" or "Sissi").
Tomb of Franz Joseph I, flanked by wife Elisabeth and son Rudolf in the crypt beneath the Kapuzinerkirche, in Vienna.
First World War.com - Who's Who - Emperor Franz Josef I (729 words)
Austria's relationship with Russia was irreparably damaged as a consequence of Austria's withholding of support during the Anglo-Russian Crimean War of 1853-56, a factor in the July Crisis of 1914.
Franz Josef was its monarch, serving alongside his wife Elisabeth whom he married in 1853 (and who was regarded by many Hungarians as their true monarch).
Franz Josef left the conduct of the war strictly to his military officials, although by 1916 he believed victory to be impossible and the break-up of his empire likely.
  More results at FactBites »



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