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The Franks or Frankish people (Latin: Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an ethnic group living north and east of the Lower Rhine. Under the Merovingian dynasty, they founded one of the Germanic monarchies which replaced the Western Roman Empire from the 5th century. The Frankish state consolidated its hold over large parts of western Europe by the end of the eighth century and the Carolingian Empire and its successor states were Frankish. The Salian political elite were one of the most active forces in spreading Christianity over western Europe. It is traditionally believed that the name Frank is derived from their usage of the javelin, which in Old Germanic is *frankon[1], the same case as the Saxons and their weapon of choice, the seax. The francisca is named after the Franks, because they used this weapon too. Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Franks can refer to: in medieval European history, the Franks, Germanic tribes who entered the Roman Empire from Frisia in the first five centuries AD in medieval Middle Eastern history, the Crusaders, or more broadly any persons originating in Catholic western Europe. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Germanic (also, Teutonic) peoples are the nations speaking Germanic languages, idioms descended from Proto-Germanic (spoken during the final centuries BC, the Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe). ... i hate erin saunders ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Germanic monarchy, also called barbarian monarchy, was a monarchical system of government which predominated among the Germanic tribes of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Javelin (Greek: ακόντιο, Latin: verutum, German: Wurfspeer, French: javelot, Spanish: jabalina, Dutch: werpspeer, Italian: giavellotto, Hindi: bhala) is the name of a light spear designed primarily for casting as a ranged weapon. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Some Merovingian seaxes The remains of a seax together with a reconstructed replica A Seax (also Hadseax, Sax, Seaxe, Scramaseax and Scramsax), was a type of Germanic single-edged knife. ... Different types of the Francisca The francisca or francesca is a throwing axe that was used as a weapon by early Franks before the 6th century. ...


Contemporary definitions of the ethnicity of the Franks vary by period and point of view. It is often unclear whether people referred to as Franks referred to themselves as such. Within Francia, the Franks were initially a distinct group with their own culture. Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ...


From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops. Only the Salians formed a kingdom on Roman-held soil that was acknowledged by the Romans after 357. In the climate of the collapse of imperial authority in the West, the Frankish tribes were united under the Merovingians and conquered all of Gaul save Septimania in the 6th century. The Salian Franks were a subgroup of the Franks. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. ...
















Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 1165 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sacramentarium Gelasianum. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 1165 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sacramentarium Gelasianum. ... In the Catholic tradition, the so-called Gelasian Sacramentary is a book of liturgy, containing the priests part in celebrating the Eucharist. ...


Mythological origins

Main article: Frankish mythology

The mythology of the Franks was probably a form of Germanic polytheism, later adapted and supplanted in the wake of their incursion into the Roman Empire. Like many Germanic peoples, the Franks concocted an origins story to explain their connection with peoples of classical history. In the case of the Franks, these peoples were the Sicambri and the Trojans. An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called "Sicambria". In just two generations (Priam and his son Marcomer) from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age) they arrive in the late fourth century at the Rhine. An earlier variation of this story can be read in Fredegar. In Fredegar's version an early king named Francio serves as namegiver for the Franks, just as Romulus has lent his name to Rome. Germanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Germanic tribe of the Sicambri (var. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy This article is about the city of Troy / Ilion as described in the works of Homer, and the location of an ancient city associated with it. ... Liber historiae Francorum (The book of the history of the Franks) is a book that briefly starts as secondary source for early Franks in the time of Marcomer, and it gives a short breviarum until the time of the late Merovingians, were it becomes an important primary source of the... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... Antenor was one of the Elders of Troy at the time of the Trojan War. ... Sarmatian cataphract from Tanais. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Marcomer was a Frankish duke (dux, leader) in the late 4th century. ... The Chronicle of Fredegar (died ca 660) is the main source for Western European events of the 7th century, a formative period whose scarcity of sources in part justifies the characterization of its silence as that of the Dark Ages. In the 7th century many institutions of the Middle Ages...


History

Main article: Francia

The Franks enter recorded history around 260 due to an invasion across the Rhine into the Roman Empire. They are first mentioned on the Tabula Peutingeriana as the Chamavi qui et Pranci (meaning "Chamavi, who are Pranci", probably an error for Franci). Over the next century other Frankish tribes besides the Chamavi surface in the records. The major primary sources include Panegyrici Latini, Ammianus Marcellinus, Claudian, Zosimus, Sidonius Apollinaris and Gregory of Tours. As early as 357 a Frankish king from the Salians enters Roman-held soil to stay. Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger table) is an itinerarium showing the cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire. ... The Chamavi first appear under that name in the 1st century AD Germania of Tacitus as a Germanic tribe that, for most of their history, existed along the north bank of the lower Rhine in the region today called Hamaland after them. ... The Panegyrici Latini or Latin Panegyrics is a collection of twelve ancient Roman panegyric orations. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... Claudius Claudianus, Anglicized as Claudian, was the court poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... Gaius Sollius Modestus Sidonius Apollinaris (c. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... The Salian Franks were a subgroup of the Franks who had separated from the original Franks, gone to the Dutch coastal area and migrated throughout Belgium and to northern France, then formed a kingdom in northern France and on coasts north of it. ...


Ethnogenesis

Modern scholars of the Migration Period are in agreement that the Frankish identity emerged at the first half of the third century out of various earlier, smaller groups, including the Salii, Sicambri, Chamavi, Bructeri, Chatti, and Chattuarii, who inhabited the lower Rhine valley and lands immediately to its east. This was a social development. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Salian Franks were a subgroup of the Franks. ... The Germanic tribe of the Sicambri (var. ... The Chamavi first appear under that name in the 1st century AD Germania of Tacitus as a Germanic tribe that, for most of their history, existed along the north bank of the lower Rhine in the region today called Hamaland after them. ... The Bructeri were a Germanic tribe located in northwestern Germany (Soester Boerde), between the Lippe and Ems rivers south of the Teutoburg Forest, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia around 100 BC through 350 AD. They formed an alliance with the Cherusci, the Marsi (Germanic) and the Chatti, under the... The Chatti (also Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe settled in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of the Weser river and in the valleys and mountains of the Eder, Fulda and Werra river regions, a district approximately corresponding to Hesse-Cassel, though probably... The Chatti (also Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe settled in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of the Weser river and in the valleys and mountains of the Eder, Fulda and Werra river regions, a district approximately corresponding to Hesse-Cassel, though probably...


The Salian Franks invaded the Roman Empire and were accepted as Foederati by Julian the apostate in 358. By the end of the fifth century, the Salian Franks extended their footprint on Roman soil to a territory including the Netherlands south of the Rhine, Belgium and Northern France in which they received other peoples, mainly of the Frankish ethnicity. They gave rise to the Merovingian dynasty[2] in the 5th century. Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ...


Franks appear in Roman texts as both allies and enemies (laeti or dediticii). Around 250, one group of Franks, taking advantage of a weakened Roman Empire, penetrated as far as Tarragona in present-day Spain, plaguing this region for about a decade before Roman forces subdued them and expelled them from Roman territory. About forty years later, the Franks had the region of the Scheldt river (present day west Flanders and southwest Netherlands) under control[citation needed], and were raiding the Channel, disrupting transportation to Britain. Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks[citation needed], who continued to be feared as pirates along the shores at least till the time of Julian the Apostate (358), when Salian Franks were granted to settle as foederati in Toxandria, according to Ammianus Marcellinus.[3] For the municipality in the Philippines, see Tarragona, Davao Oriental. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Toxandria is the very old name for a region between the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers in France and Belgium. ...


Merovingian kingdom (481–751)

Territorial situation of the Frankish Empire, AD 481–814.
Territorial situation of the Frankish Empire, AD 481–814.
Main article: Merovingians

The first Frankish chief to make himself "King of the Franks" (rex Francorum) was Clovis I in 509. He had conquered the Kingdom of Soissons of the Roman general Syagrius and expelled the Visigoths from southern Gaul at the Battle of Vouillé, thus establishing Frankish hegemony over most of Gaul (excluding Burgundy, Provence, and Brittany), which he left to his successors, the Merovingians, to conquer. For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... In the Late Classical period, two states in the area of modern-day northwest France were termed the Domain of Soissons. ... The captured Syagrius is brought before Alaric II who orders him sent to Clovis I Afranius Syagrius (born 430, died 486 or 487) was the son of Aegidius, the last Roman magister militum per Gallias, who had preserved a rump state around Soissons after the collapse of central rule in... The Battle of Vouillé or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at a small place near Poitiers, (Gaul) in the spring 507. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ...


Clovis divided his realm between his four sons in a manner which would become familiar, as his sons and grandsons in turn divided their kingdoms between their sons. Clovis' sons united to defeat Burgundy in 534, but internecine feuding came to the fore during the reigns of the brothers Sigebert I and Chilperic I and their sons and grandsons, largely fueled by the rivalry of the queens Fredegunda and Brunhilda. This period saw the emergence of three distinct regna (realms or subkingdoms): Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy. Each region developed in its own way and often sought to exert influence over the others. The rising star of the Arnulfing clan of Austrasia meant that the centre of political gravity in the kingdom gradually shifted eastwards from Paris and Tours to the Rhineland. Sigebert I (535-575) was a Frankish King, one of the sons of Clotaire I and Ingund. ... Chilpéric I was born c. ... Queen Frédégonde, seated on her throne, gives orders to two young Men of Térouanne to assassinate Sigebert, King of Austrasia. ... In Norse mythology, Brünnehilde was a shieldmaiden and a Valkyrie. ... Austrasia & Neustria Austrasia formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising parts of the territory of present-day eastern France, western Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. ... Neustria & Austrasia The territory of Neustria originated in A.D. 511, made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, approximating most of the north of present-day France, with Paris and Soissons as its main cities. ... The Pippinids or Arnulfings are the members of a family of Frankish nobles whose select scions served as major-domos, de facto rulers, of the Frankish kingdoms of Neustra and Austrasia that were nominally ruled by the Merovingians. ...


The Frankish realm was united again in 613 by Chlothar II, son of Chilperic. Chlothar granted the Edict of Paris to the nobles in an effort to cut down on corruption and unite his vast realm under his authority. After the militarily successful reign of his son and successor Dagobert I, royal authority rapidly declined under a series of kings traditionally known as rois fainéants. By 687, after the Battle of Tertry, the chronicler could say that the mayor of the palace, formerly the king's chief household official, "reigned." Finally, in 751, with the approval of the papacy and the nobility, the mayor Pepin the Short deposed the last Merovingian king, Childeric III, and had himself crowned, inaugurating a new dynasty, the Carolingians. Chlothar II (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar, giving rise to Lothair; 584 – 629), called the Great (le Grand) or the Young (le Jeune), King of Neustria, and, from 613 to 629, King of all the Franks, was not yet born when his father, King Chilperic I died in... The Edict of Paris of Clotaire II, the Merovingian king of the Franks, promulgated October 18, 614 (or perhaps 615), is one of the most important royal instruments of the Merovingian period in French history and a hallmark in the history of the development of the French monarchy. ... Dagobert I (c. ... Roi fainéant is a French language phrase meaning do nothing king. It is primarily used to refer to the later kings of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, after they seemed to have lost their initial energy. ... The Battle of Tertry was an important engagement in Merovingian Gaul between the forces of Austrasia on one side and those of Neustria and Burgundy on the other. ... Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval title and office, also known by the Latin name, maior domus or majordomo, used most notably in the Frankish kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries. ... Pépin le Bref [1] (714 – September 24, 768), often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the King of the Franks from 751 to 768 and is best known for being the father of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. ... Childeric III (died about 754), called either the Idiot or the Phantom King, king of the Franks, was the fourteenth and last king of the Merovingian dynasty. ... The Carolingians were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdom from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ...


Carolingian empire (751–843)

Main article: Carolingian Empire

The unification of most of what is now western and central Europe under one chief ruler provided a fertile ground for the continuation of what is known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Despite the almost constant internecine warfare that beset the Carolingian Empire, the extension of Frankish rule and Roman Christianity over such a large area ensured a fundamental unity throughout the Empire. Each part of the Carolingian Empire developed differently; Frankish government and culture depended very much upon individual rulers and their aims. Those aims shifted as easily as the changing political alliances within the Frankish leading families. However, those families, the Carolingians included, all shared the same basic beliefs and ideas of government. These ideas and beliefs had their roots in a background that drew from both Roman and Germanic tradition, a tradition that began before the Carolingian ascent and continued to some extent even after the deaths of Louis the Pious and his sons. Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ...


Military

In general Germanic peoples on the borders are known to have served in the Roman army since the days of Julius Caesar. The tribes at the Rhine delta that later became Franks are no exception to that general rule. Despite the fact that from the 3rd century onward large quantities of Germanic peoples served in the Roman army, others kept on invading and raiding Roman soil. This caused confrontations between Franks and their neighbours on Roman soil as the Batavi and Menapii. When Roman administration collapsed in Gaul in 260 due to a joint invasion of Franks and Alamanni, The Germanic Batavian Postumus was forced to usurp power to restore order. From that moment on Germanic soldiers in the Roman army, most notably Franks, were visibly promoted from the ranks. A few decades later the Menapian Carausius (born in Batavia) created a Batavian-British rumpstate on Roman soil that was supported by Frankish soldiers and pirates. In the mid of the 4th century Frankish soldiers like Magnentius, Silvanus and Arbitio held a dominating position in the Roman army. From description of Ammianus Marcellinus it becomes clear that both Frankish and Alamannic armies were organised like Romans and fought comparably. The Batavians by Rembrandt van Rijn The Batavians (also known by Batavii, or Batavi) were a Germanic tribe, originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to have lived around the Rhine delta, in the area that is currently the Netherlands, an uninhabited district on the extremity of the coast... The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul in the 1st century BC, dwelling around the Rhine estuary, and extending inland towards the Ardennes. ... Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from AD 259 to 268. ... Carausius coin from Londinium mint. ... Magnentius (303–August 11, 353) was a Roman usurper (January 18, 350 – August 11, 353). ... Silvanus may refer to: Silvanus (mythology), a Roman tutelary spirit of woods, apparently inherited from the Etruscan deity Selvan Silvanus, also called Silas, an early Christian and companion of Paul Silvanus of the Seventy, another early Christian and traditionally among Jesus seventy apostles Saint Sylvanus, Bishop of Emesa in Phoenicia... Arbitio was a Frank that lived in the middle of the 4th century. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are...


After the invasion of Chlodio the Roman armies at the Rhine-border became a Frankish "franchise", and Franks were known to levy Roman-like troops that were supported by a Roman-like armour-industry. This lasted at least till the days of Procopius, when the Roman Empire was gone for more than a century, because this historian reported that the former Rhine-army was still in operation and that legions kept on using the same standard and insignia as their forefathers during Roman time. Chlodio1, was a king of the Salian Franks from the Merovingian dynasty. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ...


Militarily, the Franks under the Merovingians melded Germanic custom with Roman organisation and several important innovations. Before the conquest of Gaul, the Franks fought primarily as a tribe unless they were part of a Roman military unit fighting in conjunction with other regiments.


Early Frankish warfare

The primary sources for Frankish military custom and armament are Ammianus Marcellinus, Agathias, and Procopius, the latter two Eastern Roman historians writing about Frankish intervention in the Gothic War. Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... Agathias (c. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Justinus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila The Gothic War, was a war fought in Italy in 535-552. ...


Writing of 539, Procopius says:

At this time the Franks, hearing that both the Goths and Romans had suffered severely by the war . . . forgetting for the moment their oaths and treaties . . . (for this nation in matters of trust is the most treacherous in the world), they straightway gathered to the number of one hundred thousand under the leadership of Theudebert and marched into Italy: they had a small body of cavalry about their leader, and these were the only ones armed with spears, while all the rest were foot soldiers having neither bows nor spears, but each man carried a sword and shield and one axe. Now the iron head of this weapon was thick and exceedingly sharp on both sides, while the wooden handles was very short. And they are accustomed always to throw these axes at one signal in the first charge and thus to shatters the shields of the enemy and kill the men.[4]

His contemporary, Agathias, says:

The military equipment of this people [the Franks] is very simple. . . . They do not know the use of the coat of mail or greaves and the majority leave the head uncovered, only a few wear the helmet. They have their chests bare and backs naked to the loins, they cover their thighs with either leather or linen. They do not serve on horseback except in very rare cases. Fighting on foot is both habitual and a national custom and they are proficient in this. At the hip they wear a sword and on the left side their shield is attached. They have neither bows nor slings, no missile weapons except the double edged axe and the angon which they use most often. The angons are spears which are neither very short nor very long they can be used, if necessary, for throwing like a javelin, and also in hand to hand combat.[5]

While the above quotations have been used as a statement of the military practices of the Frankish armies in the sixth century and have even been extrapolated to the entire period preceding Charles Martel's reforms (early – mid eighth century), post-Second World War historiography has emphasised the inherited Roman characteristics of the Frankish military from the date of the beginning of the conquest of Gaul. The Byzantine authors present several contradictions and difficulties. Procopius denies the Franks the use of the spear while Agathias makes it one of their primary weapons. They agree that the Franks were primarily infantrymen, threw axes, and carried a sword and shield. Both writers also contradict the authority of Gallic authors of the same general time period (Sidonius Apollinaris and Gregory of Tours) and the archaeological evidence. Scramasaxes and arrowheads are numerous in Frankish graves even though the Byzantine historians do not assign them to the Franks. Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... Gaius Sollius Modestus Sidonius Apollinaris (c. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... King or Chief of Franks armed with the Scramasax, from a Miniature of the Ninth Century, drawn by H. de Vielcastel. ...


The evidence of Gregory and of the Lex Salica implies that the early Franks were a cavalry people. In fact, some modern historians have hypothesised that the Franks possessed so numerous a body of horses that they could use them to plough fields and thus were agriculturally technologically advanced over their neighbours. Perhaps the Byzantine writers considered the Frankish horse to be insignificant relative to the Greek cavalry, which is probably accurate.[6] The King of the Franks, in the midst of the Military Chiefs who formed his Treuste, or armed Court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ...


Merovingian military

Composition and development

The Frankish military establishment incorporated much of the pre-existing Roman institutions in Gaul, especially during and after the conquests of Clovis I in the late fifth and early sixth centuries. Frankish military strategy revolved around the holding and taking of fortified centres (castra) and in general these centres were held by garrisons of milites or laeti, that is, former Roman soldiers. Throughout Gaul the descendants of Roman soldiers continued to wear their uniforms and perform their ceremonial duties. Laeti, the plural form of laetus, is a Latin word used in the late Roman empire, from the 4th century (if not earlier) onwards, to denote communities of barbari (= foreigners, people from outside the empire) permitted to settle inside the empire on condition that they provide recruits for the Roman...


Immediately beneath the Frankish king in the military hierarchy were the leudes or sworn followers of the king. They could be Gallo-Romans or Franks, laymen or clergy. Some historians have gone to the length of relating their oath-making to the later development of feudalism. The king also had an elite bodyguard called the truste (trustis). Members of the truste, antrustiones, often served in centannae, garrison settlements of Franks (or others) established for military and police purposes throughout the realm. The actual day-to-day bodyguard of the king was made up of pueri who were probably antrustiones. All high-ranking men had pueri (bodyguards). Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the...


The Frankish military was not composed solely of Franks and Gallo-Romans, but also contained Saxons, Alans, Taifals, and Alemanni. After the conquest of Burgungy (534) the well-organised military institutions of that kingdom were integrated into the Frankish realm. Chief among these was the standing army under the command of the Patrician of Burgundy. For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The dragon-and-pearl device of the shields of the Equites Taifali unit based in Britain. ... The Alamanni, Allemanni or Alemanni, are a Germanic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius, under the year 213. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy // Kings of the Burgundians The Burgundians had left Bornholm, ca 300, and settled near the Vistula. ... Cross of Burgundy Flag The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ...


In the late sixth century, during the wars instigated by Fredegund and Brunhilda, the Merovingian monarchs introduced a new element into their militaries: the local levy. A levy consisted in all the able-bodied men of a district who at the call had to report for military service. The local levy applied only to a city and its environs. Initially only in certain cities in western Gaul, in Neustria and Aquitaine, did the kings possess the right or power call up the levy. The commanders of the local levies were always different from the commanders of the urban garrisons. Often the former were commanded by the counts of the districts. A much rarer occurrence was the general levy, which applied to the entire kingdom and included peasants (pauperes and inferiores). General levies could also be made within the still-pagan trans-Rhenish stem duchies at the bequest of a monarch. The Saxons, Alemanni, and Thuringii all had the levy and it could be depended upon by the Frankish monarchs until the mid-seventh century, when the stem dukes began to sever their ties to the monarchy. Radulf of Thuringia called up the levy for a war against Sigebert III in 640. Queen Frédégonde, seated on her Throne, gives orders to two young Men of Térouanne to assassinate Sigebert, King of Austrasia. ... In Norse mythology, Brünnehilde was a shieldmaiden and a Valkyrie. ... Look up Levy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Comes,itis (genitive: comitis) is the Latin word for companion, either individually or as a member of a collective known as comitatus (compare comitatenses), especially the suite of a magnate, in some cases large and/or formal enough to have a specific name, such as a cohors amicorum. ... During the Early Middle Ages, the stem duchies (from the German Stammes- Herzogtum, tribal duchy[1]) formed the major divisions of the eastern Carolingian kingdom of (East) Francia (corresponding to modern Germany but larger). ... The Thuringii were a tribe which appeared later than most in the highlands of central Germany, a region which still bears their name to this day -- Thuringia. ... Sigebert III (c. ...


Soon the local levy spread to Austrasia and the less Romanised regions of Gaul. On an intermediate level, the kings began calling up territorial levies from the regions of Austrasia (which did not have major cities of Roman origin). However, all the forms of the levy gradually disappeared in the course of the seventh century after the reign of Dagobert I. Under the so-called rois fainéants, the levies disappeared by mid-century in Austrasia and later in Burgundy and Neustria. Only in Aquitaine, which was fast becoming independent of the central Frankish monarchy, did complex military institutions persist into the eighth century. In the final half of the seventh century and first half of the eight in Merovingian Gaul the chief military actors became the lay and ecclesiastical magnates with their bands of armed followers called retainers. The other aspects of the Merovingian military, mostly Roman in origin or innovations of powerful kings, disappeared from the scene by the eighth century. Dagobert I (c. ... Roi fainéant is a French language phrase meaning do nothing king. It is primarily used to refer to the later kings of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, after they seemed to have lost their initial energy. ...


Strategy, tactics, and equipment

The equipment of the Merovingian armies was as varied as the composition. Magnates were known to provide their retainers with coats of mail, helmets, shields, lances, swords, bows and arrows, and war horses. The magnates private armies resembled in armament those of the Gallo-Roman potentiatores of the late Empire. The descendants of Roman soldiers continued to use their service weapons. There was a strong element of Alanic cavalry settled in Armorica which influenced the fighting style of the Bretons down into the twelfth century. Local urban levies could be reasonably well-armed and even mounted, but the more general levies were composed of pauperes and inferiores who were mostly farmers by trade and carried into battle whatever weapons they had at hand, often tools or farming implements which made them of militarily ineffective and thus rarely called upon. The peoples east of the Rhine — Franks, Saxons, and even Wends — who were sometimes called upon to serve wore less and more rudimentary armour and carried more primitive weaponry, including spears and axes. Few of these men were mounted and they were not affected very much by Roman traditions and technologies. Hauberk, Museum of Bayeux. ... A person wearing a helmet. ... This article is about the defensive device. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bow is a weapon that shoots arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow and/or the string. ... War horses are horses specially trained for use in battle or individual combat (see also: Jousting). ... Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany peninsula and the territory between the Seine and Loire rivers, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast. ... Breton can refer to: The Breton language A person from Brittany Author André Breton This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Vend redirects here. ... Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... Ax may refer to: Emanuel Ax, a modern concert pianist Ax, a 87th Precinct story written in 1964 by Ed McBain (Evan Hunter) Ax, a WWE World Tag-Team Champion professional wrestler An alternative spelling of axe A fictional Animorphs character Ax, Aximili-Esgarrouth-Isthils nickname See also: AX...


Merovingian strategy was wound up in the militarised nature of the entire society. The Franks, to a good deal unlike their Germanic neighbours in this respect, were disposed to call annual meetings in March (the so-called Marchfeld, because assemblies so large had to meet in open fields) whereat the nobles in the presence of the king determined the military target or targets for the coming season of campaigning. In their civil wars with one another, the Merovingian kings concentrated on the holding of fortified places and cities (castra) and siege warfare was a primary aspect in all their endeavours. Siege engines of Roman type were used extensively and the greatest emphasis on tactics was tied to sieges. In offensive wars waged against external foes, the objective was typically the acquisition of booty or the enforcement of tribute. Only in the lands beyond the Rhine did the Merovingians seek to extend their political control over their neighbours. A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ...


Tactically, the Merovingians borrowed heavily from the Romans, especially regarding siege warfare. However, they were not bereft of innovation and there seems to be little remnant of tribal custom in their battle tactics, which were highly flexible and designed to meet the specific circumstances under which battle was being given. Subterfuge, as a tactic, was endlessly employed. Cavalry formed a large segment of the Merovingian military, but mounted troops readily dismounted when appropriate to fight on foot with the infantry. The Merovingians were capable of raising naval forces when necessary. The most significant naval campaign was waged against the Danes by Theuderic I in 515 and involved ocean-worthy ships. More regular was the use of rivercraft on the Loire, Rhone, and Rhine. The Danish nation is a concept closely connected to 19th century ethnic nationalism. ... Theuderic I (or Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry) (died 533 or 534) was the Merovingian king of Metz, Rheims, or Austrasia—as its variously called—from 511 to 533 or 534. ... This article is about the French department. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ...


Carolingian military

Francisca

A well known weapon of the Franks is the "scramas", a javelin that is better known under the Latin word francisca. Historian Ammianus Marcellinus shows us that the Franks used this weapon in the same way late Roman troops used their javelins.


The ethnonym Franc has sometimes been traced to Francisca (Latin) *frankon (Old English franca), meaning "javelin" This would compare to the seax (knife) after which the Saxons were named or the halberd (battle-axe) after which the Lombards may have been named. The throwing axe of the Franks is known as the francisca but, conversely, the weapon may have been named after the tribe. A. C. Murray says, "The etymology of Franci is uncertain ('the fierce ones' is the favourite explanation), but the name is undoubtedly of Germanic origin."[7] Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Some Merovingian seaxes The remains of a seax together with a reconstructed replica A Seax (also Hadseax, Sax, Seaxe, Scramaseax and Scramsax), was a type of Germanic single-edged knife. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Different types of the Francisca The francisca or francesca is a throwing axe that was used as a weapon by early Franks before the 6th century. ...


Culture

Language and literature

The language spoken by the early Franks is known as Old Frankish and is only attested in a few words in the Lex Salica and in personal names, and is mostly reconstructed from Old Low Franconian and loanwords in Old French and Latin. It evolved eventually into Old Low Franconian and then into Old Dutch in the Low Countries, while in what is now Germany the Eastern Franconian dialects were slowly replaced from the 14th century by High German. In what became France, from the 8th century Frankish was replaced by Old French south of the language border. From the 10th century the language border slowly retreated north to the current border between French and the Germanic languages Dutch and German. Old Frankish was the language of the Franks and it is classified as a West Germanic language. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the Military Chiefs who formed his Treuste, or armed Court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Old Low Franconian is the language ancestral to the Low Franconian languages, including Dutch. ... Old Dutch (Also Old West Low Franconian) is a branch of Old Low Franconian spoken and written during the early middle ages (c. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... Subdivisions Central German Upper German High German (in German, Hochdeutsch) is any of several German dialects spoken in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg (as well as in neighbouring portions of Belgium, France (Alsace), Italy, Poland, and Romania (Transylvania) and in some areas of former colonial settlement, for example in...


There is no surviving work of literature in the Frankish language and perhaps no such works ever existed. Latin was the written language of Gaul before and during the Frankish period. Of the Gallic works which survive, there are a few chronicles, many hagiographies and saints' lives, and a small corpus of poems.


The word Frank has the meaning of "free" (e.g. English frank, frankly, franklin) This arose because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.[8] Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


Religion

Paganism

Main article: Frankish mythology
Drawings of golden bees or flies discovered in the tomb of Childeric I.
Drawings of golden bees or flies discovered in the tomb of Childeric I.

Echoes of Frankish paganism arise in the primary sources, but their meaning is not always clear. Modern scholars vary wildly about their interpretation, but it is very likely that Frankish paganism shared most of its characteristics with the other varieties of Germanic paganism. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Childeric I (c. ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ...


It was highly ritualistic and many daily activities centred around the multiple deities, chiefest of which may have been the Quinotaur, a water-god from whom the Merovingians were reputed to have derived their ancestry.[9] Most of the pagan gods were associated with local cult centres and their sacred character and power were associated with specific regions, outside of which they were neither worshipped nor feared. Most of the gods were "worldly", possessing form and having concrete relation to earthly objects, in contradistinction to the transcedent God of Christianity.[10] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Archaeologically, Frankish paganism has been observed in the burial site of Childeric I, where the king's body was found covered in a cloth decorated with numerous bees or flies. The symbolism of these insects is unknown. Childeric I (c. ...


Christianity

Statue in the Cathedral of Reims depicting the baptism of Clovis I by Saint Remi there around 496.
Statue in the Cathedral of Reims depicting the baptism of Clovis I by Saint Remi there around 496.

Some Franks converted early to Christianity, like the usurper Silvanus in the 4th century. In 496, Clovis I, who had married a Burgundian Catholic named Clotilda three years earlier, was baptised into the (Trinitarian) Catholic faith by Saint Remi after a decisive victory over the Alemanni at the Battle of Tolbiac. According to Gregory of Tours, over 3000 of his soldiers were baptised alongside him.[11] Clovis' conversion to Catholicism would prove to have an enormous effect on the course of European history, for at the time the Franks were the only major Christianized Germanic tribe without a predominantly Arian aristocracy (their contemporary rivals, the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians and Lombards, had converted to Arian Christianity), and this led to a naturally amicable relationship between the Church of Rome and the increasingly powerful Franks. By Germanic Christianity is that phase in the history of Northern Europe understood, when the Germanic peoples of the Migration period and Viking Age adopted Christianity. ... Image File history File links Bateme_de_Clovis_par_St_Remy. ... Image File history File links Bateme_de_Clovis_par_St_Remy. ... Façade of the Notre-Dame de Reims The Notre-Dame de Reims (Our Lady of Rheims) is the Cathedral of Reims, where the kings of France were once crowned. ... Claudius Silvanus (died 7 September 355) was a Roman general of Frankish descent who became Roman Emperor (recognized only in Gaul) for 28 days in 355. ... Events Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis I defeats the Alamanni accepts Catholic baptism at Reims. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... Burgundian is either of the following; An extinct language of the Germanic language group spoken by the Burgundians. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Saint Clotilde (475 – 545 in Tours), (also spelled Clotilda, Clothilde, Chrodchild, Chrodegilde; and also known as Chlothilde von Burgund) was the daughter of Chilperic II of Burgundy and Caretena. ... The adjective trinitarian is used in several senses: Ideas or things pertaining to the Holy Trinity A person or group adhering to the doctrine of Trinitarianism, which holds God to subsist in the form of the Holy Trinity The Trinitarian Order is a Catholic monastic order founded in 1198 by... Saint Remigius, Apostle of the Franks, bishop of Reims, (ca 437– January 13, 533) effected the conversion to Christianity of Clovis, King of the Franks, at Christmas, 496, one of the turning points in the success of Trinitarian Christianity and a climacteric moment in European history. ... The Alamanni, Allemanni or Alemanni, are a Germanic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius, under the year 213. ... The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks under Clovis I and the Alamanni, traditionally in 496. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ...


Though a sizeable portion of the Frankish aristocracy quickly followed Clovis in converting to Christianity, the conversion of the whole of the people under Frankish rule required a considerable amount of time and effort - in some places two centuries or more.[12] Early efforts towards organized resistance were quickly squelched: the Chronicle of St. Denis relates that, following Clovis' conversion, a number of devout pagans, unhappy with this turn of events, rallied around Ragnachairus (or Ragnachar), a powerful figure who had played an important role in Clovis' initial rise to power. Though the text remains unclear as to the precise pretext, Clovis soon had Ragnachairus thrown in chains and then executed.[13] As for the remaining pockets of resistance, they were overcome region by region - primarily due to the work of the quickly expanding network of monasteries.[14]


The Frankish church of the Merovingians was shaped by a number of internal and external forces: it had to come to terms with an established Gallo-Roman Christian hierarchy entrenched in a culturally resistant aristocracy; it had to Christianize pagan Frankish sensibilities and effectively suppress their expression; it had to provide a new theological basis for Merovingian forms of kingship, which were deeply rooted in pagan Germanic tradition; it had to accommodate Irish and Anglo-Saxon missionary activities on the one hand and papal requirements on the other.[15] The Carolingian reformation of monastic life and teaching and church-state relations can be seen both as the culmination of the Frankish church and a transformation of it. St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


The increasing personal wealth of the Merovingian elite allowed the endowment of many monasteries, such as those of the Irish missionary Saint Columbanus. The fifth, sixth and seventh centuries saw two major waves of hermitism in the Frankish world, a movement which was eventually reorganised by legislation requiring that all monks and hermits follow the Rule of St Benedict.[16] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... St. ...


The period of Frankish rule saw the gradual replacement, always pushed for by Rome, of the Gallican rite of the Gallo-Roman church with the Roman rite; this does not seem to have stirred passions outside the clergy. The Gallican Rite is a historical sub-grouping of Christianity in western Europe; it is not a single rite but actually a family of rites within the Western Rite which comprised the majority use of most of Christianity in western Europe for the greater part of the 1st millennium AD... This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ...


The Church seems to have had a somewhat uneasy relationship with the Merovingian kings, whose claim to rule depended on a mystique of royal descent that the Church had not yet come to terms with, and who tended to revert to the polygamy of their pagan ancestors. When the mayors took over, the Church was supportive, and an Emperor crowned by the Pope was much more to their liking.


Art and architecture

Chalice (c. 525) from the Treasure of Gourdon, perhaps a late Gallo-Roman piece, but displaying clear barbarian markers and influences.
Chalice (c. 525) from the Treasure of Gourdon, perhaps a late Gallo-Roman piece, but displaying clear barbarian markers and influences.

Early Frankish art and architecture belong to that phase of European art called Migration Period art, and have left very few remains. The later period is called Carolingian art, or, especially in architecture, the Pre-Romanesque. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1308 × 1589 pixel, file size: 560 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1308 × 1589 pixel, file size: 560 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A gold chalice from the Treasure of Gourdon. ... Lorsch Gospels 778-820. ... Gravegoods from various North French and Rhineland sites, up to the 6th c. ... Lorsch Gospels 778-820. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Pre-Romanesque art is the roughly 400 year period in Western European art from about the Carolingian Renaissance in the 8th century, to the beginning of the 12th century Romanesque period. ...


Merovingian

Very little is preserved in the way of Frankish architecture of the Merovingian period. The works of Gregory of Tours praise the churches of his day, which mostly seem to have been timber-built, with larger examples using the basilica plan, but the most completely surviving example of Merovingian architecture is a baptistery dedicated to Saint John in Poitiers. It is a small building with three apses, now much rebuilt, essentially continuing Gallo-Roman style. In the South of France a number of small baptistries have survived, as separate baptistries fell permanently out of fashion in later periods, so they were not updated as the main churches have been. Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Latin baptisterium) is the separate centrally-planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... Christen redirects here. ...


What is preserved of the visual and plastic arts largely consists of archaeological finds of jewellery (such as brooches), weapons (such as swords with decorative hilts), and apparel (such as capes and sandals) found in grave sites, such as the famous grave of the queen Aregund, discovered in 1959, or the Treasure of Gourdon, deposited soon after 524. Not many illuminated manuscripts survive from the Merovingian period, though the few that do, like the Gelasian Sacramentary, contain a great deal of zoomorphic representations. Compared to the similar hybrid works of Insular art from the British Isles, Frankish works in all these media show more continuing use of late Antique style and motifs, and a lesser degree of skill and sophistication in design and manufacture. The numbers surviving are so small, however, that the best quality of work may not be represented.[17] Arégonde, Aregund, or Aregunda (French: Arnegonde de Worms) (Worms, c. ... Gold chalice, with garnet and turquoise, from the Treasure of Gourdon Cabinet des Médailles, Paris The Treasure of Gourdon (Trésor de Gourdon), unearthed near Gourdon, Saône-et-Loire, in 1845, is a hoard of gold, the objects dating to the end of the fifth or beginning of... An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript, often of a religious nature, in which the text is supplemented by the addition of colourful ornamentation, such as decorated initials, borders and the like. ... In the Catholic tradition, the so-called Gelasian Sacramentary is a book of liturgy, containing the priests part in celebrating the Eucharist. ... This page (folio 292r) of the Book of Kells contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ...


Carolingian

The pinnacle of Carolingian architecture: the palatine chapel at Aachen, Germany.
The pinnacle of Carolingian architecture: the palatine chapel at Aachen, Germany.

The work of the main centres of the Carolingian Renaissance represents a great transformation from that of the earlier period, and has survived in far greater quantity. The visual and literary arts were lavishly funded and encouraged by Charlemagne, using imported artists where necessary, and Carolingingian developments were in many areas decisive for the future course of Western art. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1136 × 852 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Interior de la Capilla Palatina, en Aquisgrán Aachen, Cathedral, Oktagon Aachener Dom, Oktagon Photograph: Tobias Helfrich, May 10th, 2004. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1136 × 852 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Interior de la Capilla Palatina, en Aquisgrán Aachen, Cathedral, Oktagon Aachener Dom, Oktagon Photograph: Tobias Helfrich, May 10th, 2004. ... Charlemagnes chapel in Aachen. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ...


The main surviving monument of Carolingian architecture is the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, which is an impressive and confident adaptation of San Vitale, Ravenna, from where some of the pillars were brought. Many other important buildings can be largely reconstructed, such as the monasteries of Centula or St Gall, or the old Cologne Cathedral, now rebuilt. These were now large structures and complexes with a distinctive and sophisticated style, including an emphasis on the vertical and the frequent use of towers.[18] Lorsch monastery gatehouse The Palatine Chapel in Aachen Carolingian architecture is the style of North European architecture promoted by Charlemagne, King of the Franks, who was crowned Imperator Augustus in Rome on Christmas Day, 800 by Pope Leo III. The period of architecture spans the late 8th and 9th centuries... Charlemagnes chapel in Aachen. ... The Basilica of San Vitale The Basilica of San Vitale is the most famous monument of Ravenna, Italy and is one of the most important examples of Byzantine art and architecture in western Europe. ... St. ... The Cologne Cathedral (German: , officially ) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. ...


Carolingian illuminated manuscripts and ivory plaques survive in reasonable numbers, and now approach those of Constantinople in quality, as was certainly the intention. In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Society

Law

See also: Lex Salica and Lex Ripuaria

Like other Germanic peoples, the legal precedents of the Franks were originally housed only in the memory of designated specialists, rachimburgs, parallel to Scandinavian lawspeakers.[19] By the time codes began to be written down in the sixth century, there persisted two basic legal subdivisions within the Frankish nation: Salian Franks were subject to Salic law, Ripuarian Franks to Ripuarian law. Gallo-Romans south of the Loire River and the clergy remained subject to tradiational Roman law.[20] Germanic law was overwhelmingly concerned with private law, which protects individuals, over public law, which protects the interest of the state. According to Michel Rouche, "Frankish judges devoted as much care to a case involving the theft of a dog as Roman judges did to cases involving the fiscal responsibility of curiales, or municipal councilors."[21] The King of the Franks, in the midst of the Military Chiefs who formed his Treuste, or armed Court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... The Lex Ripuaria is a 7th century collection of Germanic law, the laws of the Ripuarian Franks. ... A Lawspeaker (Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Norwegian: lagmand, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maðr) was a unique Scandinavian legal office. ... // The Salic law (Lat. ... The Lex Ripuaria is a 7th century collection of Germanic law, the laws of the Ripuarian Franks. ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ...


Legacy

Because the Frankish kingdom dominated Western Europe for centuries, terms derived from "Frank" were used by many in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and beyond as a synonym for Roman Christians (e.g., al-Faranj in Arabic, farangi in Persian, Frenk in Turkish, Feringhi in Hindustani, and Frangos in Greek). See also Thai ฝรั่ง farang[22]. During the crusades, which were at first led mostly by nobles from northern France who claimed descent from Charlemagne, both Muslims and Christians used these terms as ethnonyms to describe the Crusaders. This usage is often followed by modern historians, who call Western Europeans in the eastern Mediterranean "Franks" regardless of their country of origin. Compare with Rhomaios, Rûmi ("Roman"), used for Orthodox Christians. Catholics on various islands in Greece are still referred to as Φραγκοι, "Frangoi" (Franks). Examples include the naming of a Catholic from the Island of Syros as "Frangosyrianos" (Φραγκοσυριανος). The term Frangistan was used by Muslims to refer to the land where the Crusaders came from, i.e. Christian Europe. Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Hindustani redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... An ethnonym (Gk. ... Rûm, also Roum or Rhum (in Arabic الرُّومُ ar-RÅ«m, Turkish Rum), is a very indefinite term used at different times in the Muslim world for Europeans generally and for the Byzantine Empire in particular, for the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in Asia Minor, and for Greeks inhabiting...


The Carolingian elite produced Feudalism. This social structure, or parts of it, went on to influence much of Western Europe from the Middle Ages onwards. Also, the Franks and their leaders became an important part of the legendary history of Western Europe. Because of this, many European rulers and writers used the idea of a Frankish legacy as justification for political claims or for political and social theories. In the twentieth century, Franks and Frankish leaders became common political symbols for European unity. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


See also

Look up frank, frankly in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Franks were originally lead by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings). ... The name France comes from Latin Francia, which literally means land of the Franks, Frankland. Originally it applied to the whole Frankish Empire, extending from southern France to eastern Germany. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/
  2. ^ Previté-Orton. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, vol. I, 151. 
  3. ^ Previté-Orton. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, vol. I, 51-52. 
  4. ^ Procopius HW, VI, xxv, 1ff, quoted in Bachrach (1970), 436.
  5. ^ Agathias, Hist., II, 5, quoted in Bachrach (1970), 436–437.
  6. ^ Bachrach (1970), 440.
  7. ^ A. C. Murray, From Roman to Merovingian Gaul: A Reader. Broadview Press Ltd, 2000. p. 1.
  8. ^ Michel Rouche (1987). "The Early Middle Ages in the West", in Paul Veyne: A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Belknap Press, 425. ISBN 0674399749. OCLC 59830199. 
  9. ^ Schutz, 152.
  10. ^ Gregory of Tours, in his History of the Franks, relates: "Now this people seems to have always been addicted to heathen worship, and they did not know God, but made themselves images of the woods and the waters, of birds and beasts and of the other elements as well. They were wont to worship these as God and to offer sacrifice to them." (Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks, Book I.10)
  11. ^ Gregory of Tours. "Book II, 31", History of the Franks. 
  12. ^ Sönke Lorenz (2001), Missionierung, Krisen und Reformen: Die Christianisierung von der Spätantike bis in Karolingische Zeit in Die Alemannen, Stuttgart: Theiss; ISBN: 3-8062-1535-9; pp.441-446
  13. ^ The Chronicle of St. Denis, I.18-19, 23
  14. ^ Lorenz (2001:442)
  15. ^ J.M. Wallace-Hadrill covers these areas in The Frankish Church (Oxford History of the Christian Church; Oxford:Clarendon Press) 1983.
  16. ^ Michel Rouche, 435-436.
  17. ^ Otto Pächt, Book Illumination in the Middle Ages (trans fr German), 1986, Harvey Miller Publishers, London, ISBN 0199210608
  18. ^ Eduard Syndicus; Early Christian Art; pp. 164-74; Burns & Oates, London, 1962
  19. ^ Michel Rouche, 421.
  20. ^ Michel Rouche, 421-422.
  21. ^ Michel Rouche, 422-423
  22. ^ ฝรั่ง fa rang, thai-language.com, 2008

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ...

Sources

Primary sources

Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... The Chronicle of Fredegar (died ca 660) is the main source for Western European events of the 7th century, a formative period whose scarcity of sources in part justifies the characterization of its silence as that of the Dark Ages. In the 7th century many institutions of the Middle Ages... John Michael Wallace-Hadrill CBE, (September 29, 1916- November 3, 1985) J. M. Wallace-Hadrill was Professor of Mediaeval History at the University of Manchester (1955-61), a Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford (1961-74), Chichele Professor of Modern History, University of Oxford (1974-83) and a Fellow, All... The Chronicle of Fredegar (died ca 660) is the main source for Western European events of the 7th century, a formative period whose scarcity of sources in part justifies the characterization of its silence as that of the Dark Ages. In the 7th century many institutions of the Middle Ages... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... Liber historiae Francorum (The book of the history of the Franks) is a book that briefly starts as secondary source for early Franks in the time of Marcomer, and it gives a short breviarum until the time of the late Merovingians, were it becomes an important primary source of the...

Secondary sources

  • Bachrach, Bernard S. Merovingian Military Organization, 481–751. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1971. ISBN 0 8166 0621 8
  • Collins, Roger. Early Medieval Europe 300–1000. London: MacMillan, 1991.
  • Geary, Patrick J. Before France and Germany: the Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0 19 504458 4
  • James, Edward. The Franks. (Peoples of Europe series) Basil Blackwell, 1988. ISBN 0 631 17936 4
  • Lewis, Archibald R. "The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550–751." Speculum, Vol. 51, No 3 (July 1976), pp 381–410.
  • McKitterick, Rosamond. The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751–987. London: Longman, 1983. ISBN 0 582 49005 7.
  • Murray, Archibald Callander, and Goffart, Walter A. After Rome's Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, 1998.
  • Nixon, C. E. V. and Rodgers, Barbara. In Praise of Later Roman Emperors. Berkeley, 1994.
  • Perry, Walter Copland. The Franks, from Their First Appearance in History to the Death of King Pepin. Longman, Brown, Green: 1857.
  • Schutz, Herbert. The Germanic Realms in Pre-Carolingian Central Europe, 400–750. American University Studies, Series IX: History, Vol. 196. New York: Peter Lang, 2000.
  • Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Long-Haired Kings. London: Butler & tanner Ltd, 1962.
  • Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Barbarian West. London: Hutchinson, 1970.
Edward James is Professor of Medieval History at University College, Dublin. ... Walter Goffart is an historian of the later Roman Empire and the early Middle Ages who specializes in research on the barbarian kingdoms of those periods. ... John Michael Wallace-Hadrill CBE, (September 29, 1916- November 3, 1985) J. M. Wallace-Hadrill was Professor of Mediaeval History at the University of Manchester (1955-61), a Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford (1961-74), Chichele Professor of Modern History, University of Oxford (1974-83) and a Fellow, All... John Michael Wallace-Hadrill CBE, (September 29, 1916- November 3, 1985) J. M. Wallace-Hadrill was Professor of Mediaeval History at the University of Manchester (1955-61), a Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford (1961-74), Chichele Professor of Modern History, University of Oxford (1974-83) and a Fellow, All...

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