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Encyclopedia > Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Description: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933. ...

Order: 32nd President
Term of Office: March 4, 1933April 12, 1945
Predecessor: Herbert Hoover
Successor: Harry S. Truman
Date of Birth January 30, 1882
Place of Birth: Hyde Park, New York
Date of Death: April 12, 1945
Place of Death: Warm Springs, Georgia
First Lady: Eleanor Roosevelt
Profession: Attorney
Political Party: Democratic
Vice President:

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. Born to wealth and privilege, he overcame a crippling illness to place himself at the head of the forces of reform. His family and close friends called him Frank. To the public he was usually known as "FDR." March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Herbert Clark Hoover ( August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) is best known as being the 31st ( 1929- 1933) President of the United States. ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Warm Springs is a city located in Meriwether County, Georgia. ... Laura Bush, Current First Lady (2001-present) First Lady of the United States is the unofficial title of the hostess of the White House. ... Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt ( October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American human rights activist, diplomat and as the wife of President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the longest serving First Lady of the United States from 1933- 1945. ... An attorney is someone who represents someone else in the transaction of business: For attorney-at-law, see lawyer, solicitor, barrister or civil law notary. ... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Dick Cheney 46th and current Vice President (2001- ) The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868–November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Henry Agard Wallace ( October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... President of the United States - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... FDR may refer to: Franklin Delano Roosevelt - The 32nd President of the United States, Flight data recorder - device used to record aircraft and pilot behavior in order to analyze accidents (usually called black boxes by the news media). ...


Roosevelt's inspirational leadership helped the United States recover from the Great Depression. In the build up to the second world war he prepared the USA to be the "Arsenal of Democracy" against the axis power of Nazi Germany and the Japanese Empire, but aspects of his leadership, particularly what is seen as his naïve attitude toward Joseph Stalin, are criticized by some historians. Finally his vision of an effective international organization to preserve peace was brought to fruition as the United Nations after his death. The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. ...


In his lifetime Roosevelt was a polarizing figure: he was a hero to liberals and a hated figure to conservatives. Today opinions of hinm are more complex. Some liberals criticise measures such as the internment of the Japanese-Americans during World War II and his failure to advance civil rights for African-Americans. Some conservatives such as Ronald Reagan have praised his national leadership, while dismantling his social programs. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Order: 40th President Vice President: George H.W. Bush Term of office: January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles...

Contents

Early life

Franklin Roosevelt was born at Hyde Park, in the Hudson River valley in upstate New York. His father, James Roosevelt (18281900), was a wealthy landowner and Vice-President of the Delaware & Hudson Railway. The Roosevelt family (see Roosevelt family tree) had lived in New York more than 200 years: Claes van Rosenvelt, originally from Haarlem in the Netherlands, arrived in New York (then called Nieuw Amsterdam) in about 1650. In 1788 Isaac Roosevelt was a member of the state convention in Poughkeepsie which voted to ratify the United States Constitution—a matter of great pride to his great-great-grandson Franklin. Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. ... Image of the Hudson River taken by NASA. View of the Hudson River in 1880s showing Jersey City View of the Hudson River from Battery Park, New York The Goldman Sachs Tower looms above the skyline of downtown Jersey City, New Jersey, overlooking the Hudson River. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Events January 4 - The Vicomte de Martignac succeeds the Comte de Villèle as Prime Minister of France. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Haarlem is a city in the west of the Netherlands, capital of the North Holland province. ... The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden). ... New Amsterdam may refer to: New Amsterdam, the colonial settlement in the New Netherland colony that became New York City New Amsterdam, Indiana New Amsterdam, Guyana Nieuw Amsterdam, Netherlands, in the Dutch municipality of Emmen Nieuw Amsterdam, Suriname Suriname New Amsterdam Brewing Company in New York City This is a... Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Poughkeepsie is a name referring to two locations in Dutchess County, New York. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is...


In the 18th century the Roosevelt family had divided into two branches, the "Hyde Park Roosevelts," who by the late 19th century were Democrats, and the "Oyster Bay Roosevelts," who were Republicans. President Theodore Roosevelt, an Oyster Bay Republican, was Franklin Roosevelt's fifth cousin. Despite their political differences, the two branches remained friendly: James Roosevelt met his wife at a Roosevelt family gathering at Oyster Bay, and Franklin was to marry Theodore Roosevelt's niece. The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Theodore Roosevelt ( October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the twenty-fifth ( 1901) Vice President and the twenty-sixth ( 1901- 1909) President of the United States, succeeding to the office upon the assassination of William McKinley. ...


Roosevelt's mother Sara Delano (18541941) was of French Protestant (Huguenot) descent, her ancestor Phillippe de la Noye having arrived in Massachusetts in 1621. Her mother was a Lyman, another very old American family. Franklin was her only child, and she was an extremely possessive mother. Since James was a rather remote father (he was 54 when Franklin was born), Sara was the dominant influence in Franklin's early years. He later told friends that he was afraid of her all his life. He received his early education at home under her supervision. Events January 13 - The accordion is patented by Anthony Faas. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... State nickname: Bay State Other U.S. States Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney Official languages English Area 27,360 km² (44th)  - Land 20,317 km²  - Water 7,043 km² (25. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ...


Roosevelt grew up in an atmosphere of privilege. He learned to ride, to shoot, to row and to play polo and lawn tennis. Frequent trips to Europe made him fluent in German and French. He acquired a conventional set of upper class attitudes, and also a strong streak of anti-Semitism from his mother which he would later have to confront. The fact that his father was a Democrat, however, set him apart to some extent from most other members of the Hudson Valley aristocracy. The Roosevelts believed in public service, and were wealthy enough to be able to spend time and money on philanthropy. This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the sport, tennis. ... Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards Jews (not: Semites - see the Misnomer section further on). ...


This was reinforced by Roosevelt's schooling at Groton, an elite Episcopalian boarding school in Massachusetts. He was heavily influenced by the headmaster, Endicott Peabody, who preached the duty of Christians to help the less fortunate and urged his students to enter public service—although most of them in fact entered banks and Wall Street law firms. Roosevelt graduated from Groton in 1900, and naturally progressed to Harvard University, where he enjoyed himself in conventional fashion and graduated with an AB (arts degree) in 1904 without much serious study. While he was at Harvard his cousin Theodore became President, and his vigorous leadership style and reforming zeal made him the young Franklin's role model. In 1903 he met his future wife Eleanor Roosevelt, Theodore's niece, at a White House reception. (They had previously met as children, but this was their first serious encounter.) Groton School is a private boarding school located in Groton, Massachusetts in the United States. ... The word Episcopal is derived from the Greek επισκοπος epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word however is used in religious terms to mean bishop. ... View up Wall Street from Pearl Street Wall Street is the name of a narrow thoroughfare in lower Manhattan running east from Broadway downhill to the East River. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt ( October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American human rights activist, diplomat and as the wife of President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the longest serving First Lady of the United States from 1933- 1945. ... This page is about the official residence of the President of the USA. For other White Houses see White House (disambiguation). ...


Roosevelt next attended the Columbia Law School. He passed the bar exam and completed the requirements for a law degree in 1907 but did not bother actually graduating. In 1908 he took a job with the prestigious Wall Street firm of Carter, Ledyard and Milburn, dealing mainly with corporate law. Meanwhile he had become engaged to Eleanor, despite the fierce resistance of Sara Roosevelt, who was terrified of losing control of Franklin. They were married in March 1905, and moved into a house bought for them by Sara, who became a frequent house-guest, much to Eleanor's mortification. Eleanor was painfully shy and hated social life, and at first she desired nothing more than to stay at home and raise Franklin's children, of which they had six in rapid succession: Anna (190675), James (190791), Franklin Jr (March to November 1909), Elliott (191090), a second Franklin Jr. (191488), and John (191681). Columbia University is a large private research university in New York City comprising, through its affiliates, five undergraduate colleges and sixteen graduate and professional schools. ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Dall Boettiger Halsted ( May 3, 1906- December 1, 1975) was the first child of Eleanor Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... James Roosevelt, was the son of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Elliott Roosevelt ( September 23, 1910 – October 27, 1990), World War II hero and an author, was the son of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor Roosevelt. ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Aspinwall Roosevelt (born Washington DC March 13, 1916 - died New York City April 27, 1981) was the 6th and last child of the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his wife Anna Eleanor Roosevelt. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


(The five surviving Roosevelt children all led tumultuous lives overshadowed by their famous parents. They had between them fifteen marriages, ten divorces and twenty-nine children. All four sons were officers in World War II and were decorated, on merit, for bravery. Their postwar careers, whether in business or politics, were disappointing. Two of them were elected briefly to the House of Representatives but none attained higher office despite several attempts. One became a Republican.) Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ...


Political career

FDR as Assistant Secretary for the Navy

In 1909 Theodore Roosevelt left the White House and was succeeded by the conservative Republican William Taft. Franklin's dislike of Taft's administration drove him into politics. In 1910 he ran as a Democrat for the New York State Senate from the district around Hyde Park, which had not elected a Democrat since 1884. The Roosevelt name, a lot of Roosevelt money and the big Democratic sweep of that year were enough to get him elected. In the state capital Albany he became leader of a group of reformist Democrats who opposed the Irish-American Tammany Hall machine which dominated the state Democratic Party. Roosevelt was young (30 in 1912), tall, handsome, and well spoken, and soon became a popular figure among New York Democrats. When Woodrow Wilson was elected President in 1912, Roosevelt was offered the post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Roosevelt was more interested in elective office: in 1914 he ran for the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate, but was blocked by Tammany Hall. Nevertheless the Navy post was to be the making of his career. Download high resolution version (484x737, 37 KB)Original source: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library; copied from http://history. ... Download high resolution version (484x737, 37 KB)Original source: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library; copied from http://history. ... 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... William Howard Taft I ( September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States ( 1909- 1913), and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States ( 1921 - 1930). ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The New York Legislature is the U.S. state of New Yorks legislative branch, seated at the states capital, Albany. ... 1884 is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar). ... Albany is the capital of the state of New York in the United States of America. ... The Tammany Hall on 14th Street, New York City Tammany Hall was the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that dominated New York City politics from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the election of Fiorello LaGuardia in 1934. ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... Dr. Thomas Woodrow Wilson ( December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 45th state Governor of New Jersey ( 1911- 1913) and later the 28th President of the United States ( 1913- 1921). ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ...


Between 1913 and 1917 Roosevelt campaigned to expand the Navy (in the face of considerable opposition from pacifists in the Administration such as the Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan), and founded the Navy Reserve to provide a pool of trained men who could be mobilized in wartime. He was also involved in the frequent American interventions in the affairs of Central American and Caribbean countries: he personally wrote the constitution which the United States imposed on Haiti in 1915. When the United States entered World War I in April 1917 Roosevelt became the effective administrative head of the United States Navy, since the Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, had been appointed mainly for political reasons and was widely considered to be not up to the job. 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... William Jennings Bryan, (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) born in Salem, Illinois, was a gifted orator and three-time United States presidential candidate. ... Haiti is a country situated on the western third of the island of Hispaniola and the smaller islands of La Gonâve, La Tortue (Tortuga), Grande Caye, and Ile a Vache in the Caribbean Sea, east of Cuba; the Dominican Republic shares Hispaniola with Haiti. ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Categories: Stub | 1862 births | 1948 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of the Navy ...


Roosevelt soon developed a life-long affection for the Navy. He also showed great administrative talent, and quickly learned to negotiate with Congress and other government departments to get budgets approved and a rapid expansion of the Navy pushed through. He became an enthusiastic advocate of the submarine, and also of means to combating the German submarine menace to Allied shipping: he proposed building a mine barrage across the North Sea from Norway to Scotland. In 1918 he visited Britain and France to inspect American naval facilities—during this visit he met Winston Churchill for the first time. With the end of the war in November 1918 he was in charge of demobilization, although he opposed plans to completely dismantle the Navy. USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Norway - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (November 30, 1874 – January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and politician, Churchill is generally regarded as... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1919 Roosevelt became an ardent supporter of Wilson's plan for a League of Nations to make future wars impossible. He campaigned tirelessly across the country in support of the League of Nations treaty, which was eventually rejected by the Senate. This made him a favorite of Wilson, and it was mainly due to Wilson's influence that the 1920 Democratic National Convention chose Roosevelt as the candidate for Vice-President of the United States on the ticket headed by Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. After eight years of Democratic government, however, the country was ready for a change, and the Cox-Roosevelt ticket was heavily defeated by the Republican Warren Harding. Roosevelt then retired to a New York legal practice, but few doubted that he would soon run for public office again. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The League of Nations was an international organisation founded after the First World War with its constitution being approved by the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Featured at the Democratic National Convention are speeches by prominent party figures. ... Dick Cheney 46th and current Vice President (2001- ) The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... James Middleton Cox ( March 31, 1870 - July 15, 1957) was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and a candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920. ... State nickname: The Buckeye State Other U.S. States Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft Official languages None Area 116,096 km² (34th)  - Land 106,154 km²  - Water 10,044 km² (8. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th (1921-1923) President of the United States and the sixth President to die in office. ...


Private crises

Statue of FDR in his wheelchair at the FDR Memorial in Washington D.C

Roosevelt was a charismatic, handsome and socially active man, while Eleanor was shy and retiring, and furthermore was almost constantly pregnant during the decade after 1906. Roosevelt soon found romantic and sexual outlets outside his marriage. One of these was Eleanor's social secretary Lucy Mercer, with whom Roosevelt began an affair soon after she was hired in early 1914. In September 1918 Eleanor found letters in one of Franklin's suits which revealed the affair. Eleanor was both mortified and angry, and confronted him with the letters, demanding a divorce. Sara Roosevelt soon learned of the crisis, and decisively intervened. She argued that a divorce would ruin Roosevelt's political career, and pointed out that Eleanor would have to raise five children on her own if she divorced him. Since Sara was financially supporting the Roosevelts, this was a strong incentive to preserve the marriage. Statue of FDR in wheelchair File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Statue of FDR in wheelchair File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... FDR with his dog Fala, by sculptor Neil Estern Located along the famous Cherry Tree Walk on the Tidal Basin near the National Mall, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is a memorial not only to President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt, but also to the era he represents. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Lucy Page Mercer Rutherfurd, born Lucy Mercer, is best known as the mistress of Franklin Roosevelt. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Eventually a deal was struck. The facade of the marriage would be preserved, but sexual relations would cease. Sara would pay for a separate home at Hyde Park for Eleanor, and she would also fund Eleanor's philanthropic interests. When Franklin became President—as Sara was always convinced he would—Eleanor would be able to use her position to support her causes. Eleanor accepted these terms, and in time Franklin and Eleanor developed a new relationship as friends and political colleagues, while living separate lives. Franklin continued to see various women, including his secretary Missy LeHand.


In August 1921, while the Roosevelts were holidaying at Campobello Island, New Brunswick, Roosevelt was stricken with poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nerve fibers of the spinal cord, probably contracted while swimming in the stagnant water of a nearby lake. The result was that Roosevelt was totally and permanently paralyzed from the waist down. At first the muscles of his abdomen and lower back were also affected, but these eventually recovered. Thus he could sit up and, with aid of leg-braces, stand upright, but he could not walk. Unlike in other forms of paraplegia, his bowels, bladder and sexual functions were not affected. 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Campobello Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy near the entrances to Passamaquoddy Bay and Cobscook Bay. ... Poliomyelitis (polio) is a viral paralytic disease. ... Paraplegia is a condition where the lower half of a patients body is paralyzed and cannot move. ...


Although the paralysis resulting from polio had no cure (and still does not, although the disease is now very rare in developed countries), for the rest of his life Roosevelt refused to believe that he was permanently paralyzed. He tried a wide range of therapies, but none had any effect. Nevertheless he became convinced of the benefits of hydrotherapy, and in 1926 he bought a resort at Warm Springs, Georgia, where he founded a hydrotherapy center for the treatment of polio patients, and spent a lot of time there in the 1920s. This was in part to escape from his mother, who tried to resume control of his life following his illness. Hydrotherapy, formerly called hydropathy, is probably the oldest form of medical treatment. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Warm Springs is a city located in Meriwether County, Georgia. ...


At a time when media intrusion in the private lives of public figures was much less intense than it is today, Roosevelt was able to convince many people that he was in fact getting better, which he believed was essential if he was to run for public office again. (The Encyclopædia Britannica, for example, says that "by careful exercises and treatments at Warm Springs he gradually recovered," although this is quite untrue.) Fitting his hips and legs with iron braces, he laboriously taught himself to walk a short distance by swiveling his torso while supporting himself with a walking stick. In private he used a wheelchair, but he was careful never to be seen in it in public, although he sometimes appeared on crutches. He usually appeared in public standing upright, while being supported on one side by an aide or one of his sons. He would certainly have hated the statue of himself in a wheelchair now to be seen at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Washington, D.C.. 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt - look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae- ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia. ... FDR with his dog Fala, by sculptor Neil Estern Located along the famous Cherry Tree Walk on the Tidal Basin near the National Mall, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is a memorial not only to President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt, but also to the era he represents. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


Governor of New York

By 1928 Roosevelt believed he had recovered sufficiently to resume his political career. He had been careful to maintain his contacts in the Democratic Party. In 1924 he had attended the Democratic Convention and made a nomination speech for the Governor of New York, Alfred E. Smith. Although Smith was not nominated, in 1928 he ran again, and Roosevelt again supported him. This time he became the Democratic candidate, and he urged Roosevelt to run for Governor of New York. To gain the Democratic nomination, Roosevelt had to make his peace with Tammany Hall, which he did with some reluctance. At the November election, Smith was heavily defeated by the Republican Herbert Hoover, but Roosevelt was elected Governor by a margin of 25,000 votes out of 2.2 million. As a native of upstate New York he was able to appeal to voters outside New York City in a way other Democrats could not. 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alfred Emanuel Smith ( December 30, 1873– October 4, 1944), often known as Al Smith, was Governor of New York and a U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Herbert Clark Hoover ( August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) is best known as being the 31st ( 1929- 1933) President of the United States. ...


Roosevelt came to office in 1929 as a reform Democrat, but with no overall plan for his administration. He tackled official corruption by sacking Smith's cronies and instituting a Public Service Commission, and took action to address New York's growing need for electricity through the development of hydroelectricity on the St. Lawrence River. He reformed the state's prison administration and built a new state prison at Attica. He had a long feud with Robert Moses, the state's most powerful public servant, whom he sacked as Secretary of State but kept on as Parks Commissioner and head of urban planning. When the Wall Street Crash in October ushered in the Great Depression, Roosevelt showed his usual energy and imagination in responding. The Hoover administration took the traditional Republican view that the state should not interfere with the free operations of the economy, and that the states and cities should carry the burden of unemployment relief. Roosevelt therefore asked the state legislature for $20 million in relief funds, which he spent mainly on public works in the hope of stimulating demand and providing employment. Aid to the unemployed, he said, "must be extended by Government, not as a matter of charity, but as a matter of social duty." 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Attica is the name of some places in the U.S. state of New York: Town of Attica, Wyoming County Village of Attica, Wyoming and Genesse Counties Also see Attica (disambiguation). ... Robert Moses (December 18, 1888–July 29, 1981) was the master builder of 20th century New York City and its suburbs. ... For the protest against the Communications Decency Act, see Black World Wide Web protest. ... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ...


Roosevelt knew little about economics, but he took advice from leading academics and social workers, and also from Eleanor, who had developed a network of friends in the welfare and labor fields and who took a close interest in social questions. On Eleanor's recommendation he appointed one of her friends, Frances Perkins, as Labor Secretary, and there was a sweeping reform of the labor laws. He established the first state relief agency under Harry Hopkins, who became a key advisor, and urged the legislature to pass an old age pension bill and an unemployment insurance bill. Frances Perkins wearing a veil after the death of president Roosevelt Frances Coralie Perkins (April 10, 1882--May 14, 1965) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors and one of the key architects of the New Deal. ...


The main weakness of the Roosevelt administration was the blatant corruption of the Tammany Hall machine in New York City, where the Mayor, Jimmy Walker, was the puppet of Tammany boss John F. Curry and where corruption of all kinds was rife. Roosevelt had made his name as an opponent of Tammany, but he needed the machine's goodwill to be re-elected in 1930 and for a possible future presidential bid. Roosevelt fell back on the rather feeble line that the Governor could not interfere in the government of New York City. But as the 1930 election approached Roosevelt acted by setting up a judicial investigation into the corrupt sale of offices. This eventually resulted in Walker resigning and fleeing to Europe to escape prosecution. But Tammany Hall's power was not seriously affected. In 1930 Roosevelt was elected to a second term by a margin of more than 700,000 votes. James J. Walker, often known as Jimmy Walker, (June 19, 1881–November 18, 1946) was the fun-loving mayor of New York City during the Jazz Age. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


First term: the New Deal

Roosevelt gives one of his fireside chats

Roosevelt's immense popularity in the largest state in the country made him an obvious candidate for the Democratic nomination, which was hotly contested since it seemed clear that Hoover would be defeated at the 1932 presidential election. Al Smith also wanted the nomination, and Roosevelt was at first reluctant to oppose his old patron. But the party regulars were convinced that Smith, a Catholic who was closely associated with the illegal liquor industry, was unacceptable, and persuaded Roosevelt to declare his candidacy. At first the delegates at the Chicago convention were deadlocked, but eventually Smith's supporters from the north-eastern states were persuaded to support Roosevelt, and he was nominated on the fourth ballot. During the campaign Roosevelt said: "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people," coining a slogan that was later adopted for his legislative program. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Catholic is a term generally used in relation to the members, beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... The New Deal was President Franklin D. Roosevelts legislative agenda for rescuing the United States from the Great Depression. ...


In November Roosevelt and his Vice Presidential running mate, John N. Garner of Texas, won 57 percent of the vote and carried all but six states. In February 1933, while he was President-elect, Roosevelt had a brief holiday in Florida. In Miami an unemployed bricklayer called Giuseppe Zangara fired five shots at Roosevelt, missing him but killing the Mayor of Chicago, Anton Cermak. Zangara, who was later executed, said he had shot at Roosevelt because "the capitalists killed my life." John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868–November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States. ... State nickname: Lone Star State Other U.S. States Capital Austin Largest city Houston Governor Rick Perry Official languages None Area 696,241 km² (2nd)  - Land 678,907 km²  - Water 17,333 km² (2. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... State nickname: Everglade State, Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Giuseppe Zangara ( September 7, 1900 - March 20, 1933) attempted to assassinate United States President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933. ... Anton Cermak, in Czech Antonín Čermák, ( May 9, 1873 - March 6, 1933) was the mayor of Chicago, Illinois from 1931 until his death in 1933. ...


When Roosevelt was inaugurated in March 1933 the United States was in the depths of the worst depression in its history. Some 13 million people, a third of the workforce, were unemployed. Industrial production had fallen by more than half since 1929. In a country with few government social services, millions were living on the edge of starvation, and two million were homeless. The banking system seemed to be on the point of collapse. There were occasional outbreaks of violence, but most observers considered it remarkable that such an obvious breakdown of the capitalist system had not led to a rapid growth of socialism, communism, or fascism (as happened for example in Germany). Instead of adopting revolutionary solutions, the American people had turned to the Democrats (traditionally a party of small government and laissez faire economics) and to a leader who had grown up to privilege and had no coherent plan for solving America's problems other than a genial optimism. 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Communism is a term that can refer to one of several things: a social and economic system, an ideology which supports that system, or a political movement that wishes to implement that system. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ...


Roosevelt indeed had no systematic economic beliefs at all. He saw the Depression as mainly a matter of confidence—people had stopped spending, investing and employing labor because they were afraid to do so. As he put it in his inaugural address: "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." He therefore set out to restore confidence through a series of dramatic gestures. He called a "bank holiday" to prevent a threatened run on the banks and called an emergency session of Congress to stabilize the financial system. The Federal Deposit Insurance Administration was created to guarantee the funds held in all banks in the Federal Reserve System, and thus prevent runs and bank failures. An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central bank of the United States. ...


During the first hundred days of his administration, Roosevelt used his enormous prestige and the sense of impending disaster to force a series of bills through Congress, establishing and funding various new government agencies. These included the Emergency Relief Administration, which granted funds to the states for unemployment relief; the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps to hire millions of unemployed to work on local projects; and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, with powers to increase farm prices and support struggling farmers. Following these emergency measures came the National Industrial Recovery Act which imposed an unprecedented amount of state regulation on industry, including fair practice codes and a guaranteed role for trade unions, in exchange for the repeal of anti-trust laws and huge amounts of financial assistance as a stimulus to the economy. Later came one of the largest pieces of state industrial enterprise in American history, the Tennessee Valley Authority, which built dams and power stations, controlled floods, and improved agriculture in one of the poorest parts of the country. The repeal of prohibition also provided stimulus to the economy, while eliminating a major source of corruption. The Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 with the signing of Executive Order 7034. ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was created in President Franklin Delano Roosevelts first month in office (on March 31, 1933). ... The United States Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) (P.L. 73-10 of May 12, 1933) restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area. ... The United States National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) of June 16, 1933 established codes of fair competition Categories: 1933 in law | United States history stubs ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the TVA Act The Tennessee Valley Authority is a New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven- U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley. ... This article is about the prohibition of alcoholic beverages; separate articles on the prohibition of drugs in general and writs of prohibition are also available. ...


After the 1934 Congressional elections, which gave the Democrats large majorities in both houses, there was a fresh surge of New Deal legislation, driven by the "brains trust" of young economists and social planners gathered in the White House, including Raymond Moley, Rexford Tugwell and Adolf Berle of Columbia University, attorney Basil O'Connor, economist Bernard Baruch and Felix Frankfurter of Harvard Law School. Eleanor Roosevelt, Labor Secretary Frances Perkins (the first female Cabinet Secretary) and Agriculture Secretary Henry A. Wallace were also important influences. These measures included bills to regulate the stock market and prevent the corrupt practices which had led to the 1929 Crash; the Social Security Act, which established Social Security and promised economic security for the elderly, the poor and the sick; and the National Labor Relations Act, which established the rights of workers to organize unions, to engage in collective bargaining and to take part in strikes in support of their demands. 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Columbia University is a large private research university in New York City comprising, through its affiliates, five undergraduate colleges and sixteen graduate and professional schools. ... Bernard Mannes Baruch ( August 19, 1870 – June 20, 1965) was an American financier and presidential adviser. ... Justice Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter ( November 15, 1882– February 22, 1965) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... Langdell Hall, home of the HLS library. ... Henry Agard Wallace ( October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States. ... A stock market is a market for the trading of publicly held company stock and associated financial instruments (including stock options, convertibles and stock index futures). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... United States Social Security Card Social Security is a social insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration under the authority of the United States federal government. ... Social security mainly refers to a field of social welfare concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognised needs. ... The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (or Wagner Act) protects the rights of workers in the private sector of the United States to organize unions, to engage in collective bargaining over wages, hours, and terms and conditions of employment, and to take part in strikes and other forms of...


The net effect of these measures was to restore confidence and optimism, allowing the country to begin the long process of recovery from the Depression. Contrary to popular belief, however, the Depression was not cured by Roosevelt's programs, collectively known as the New Deal. The economic theories of John Maynard Keynes were not widely known in the United States, and it is doubtful that Roosevelt ever knew of them. Even the large appropriations that Roosevelt extracted from Congress and spent on relief and assistance to industry were not enough to provide a sufficient fiscal stimulus to revive so large an economy as that of the United States. The economy remained sluggish throughout the 1930s, and, in fact, after a partial recovery, slid back towards Depression in 1937 and 1938. This was mainly because the high tariff barriers erected in response to the Depression were not removed, and without a revival of international trade there could be no full recovery. It took the massive growth in government spending during World War II to restore industrial production to its 1929 level and eliminate unemployment. The New Deal was President Franklin D. Roosevelts legislative agenda for rescuing the United States from the Great Depression. ... John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes [ˈkeɪns], 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (June 5, 1883 - April 21, 1946) was an English economist, whose radical ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political thought. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... A tariff is a tax placed on imported and/or exported goods, sometimes called a customs duty. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The second term

Roosevelt's ebullient public personality did a great deal to help restore the nation's confidence.
Roosevelt's ebullient public personality did a great deal to help restore the nation's confidence.

At the 1936 election Roosevelt won 61 percent of the vote and carried every state except Maine and Vermont. The New Deal Democrats won enough seats in Congress to outvote both the Republicans and the conservative Southern Democrats (who supported programs which brought benefits for their states but opposed measures which strengthened labor unions). Roosevelt was backed by a coalition of voters which included the urban workers and middle class, small farmers, the "Solid South," northern African-American voters (who had traditionally been Republicans), Jews and other urban ethnic minorities, intellectuals and political liberals. This coalition remained largely intact for the Democratic Party until the 1960s. The Roosevelt ascendancy also prevented the growth of both socialism and fascism. Although the Communist Party USA saw some growth during the 1930s, and gained some influence in industrial unions affiliated with the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), it was unable to break into the political mainstream. (AP/Wide World Photos) This work is copyrighted. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci Official languages None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  - Land 80,005 km²  - Water 11,724 km² (13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The phrase Solid South describes the reliable electoral support of the U.S. Southern states for Democratic Party candidates from the Reconstruction era through much of the 20th century. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or Black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist_Leninist groups in the United States. ... The Congress of Industrial Organizations, or CIO, was a federation of unions that organized industrial workers in the United States and Canada in the 1930s through the 1950s. ...


Roosevelt's second term agenda included an act creating the United States Housing Authority (1937), a second Agricultural Adjustment Act and the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, which created the minimum wage. When the economy began to deteriorate again in late 1937, Roosevelt responded with an aggressive program of stimulation, asking Congress for $5 billion for relief and public works programs. 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938 is federal legislation of the United States. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


With the Republicans powerless in Congress, the conservative majority on the United States Supreme Court was the only obstacle to Roosevelt's programs. During 1937 the Court ruled that the National Recovery Act and some other pieces of New Deal legislation were unconstitutional. Roosevelt's response was to propose enlarging the Court so that he could appoint more sympathetic judges. This "court packing" plan was the first Roosevelt scheme to run into serious political opposition, since it seemed to upset the separation of powers which is one of the cornerstones of the American constitutional structure. Eventually Roosevelt was forced to abandon the plan, but the Court also drew back from confrontation with the administration by finding the Labor Relations Act and the Social Security Act to be constitutional. Deaths and retirements on the Supreme Court soon allowed Roosevelt to make his own appointments to the bench. Between 1937 and 1941 he appointed eight justices to the court, including liberals such as Felix Frankfurter, Hugo Black and William O. Douglas, reducing the possibility of further clashes. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... -1... Court packing is the name given to President Franklin Delano Roosevelts plan to create a judiciary more favorable to his New Deal policies. ... Separation of powers is the idea that the powers of a sovereign government should be split between two or more strongly independent entities, preventing any one person or group from gaining too much power. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Justice Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter ( November 15, 1882– February 22, 1965) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... Hugo Black Hugo LaFayette Black ( February 27, 1886 - September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States ( 1937 - 1971). ... William Orville Douglas ( October 16, 1898 - January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ...


Foreign policy 1933–41

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Secretary of State Cordell Hull

The rejection of the League of Nations treaty in 1919 marked the dominance of isolationism in American foreign policy. Despite his Wilsonian background, Roosevelt and his Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, acted with great care not to provoke isolationist sentiment. The main foreign policy initiative of Roosevelt's first term was the Good Neighbor Policy, a re-evaluation of American policy towards Latin America, which ever since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 had been seen as an American sphere of influence. American forces were withdrawn from Haiti, new treaties with Cuba and Panama ended their status as American protectorates. At the Seventh International Conference of American States in Montevideo in December 1933, Roosevelt and Hull signed the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, renouncing the assumed American right to intervene unilaterally in the affairs of Latin American countries. Nevertheless, the realities of American support for various Latin American dictators, often in the service of American corporate interests, remained unchanged. It was Roosevelt who made the often-quoted remark about the dictator of Nicaragua, Anastasio Somoza: "Somoza may be a son of a bitch, but he's our son of a bitch." 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Isolationism is a diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations. ... Secretary Hull Cordell Hull ( October 2, 1871– July 23, 1955) was United States Secretary of State from 1933- 1944 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and was the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. ... The Good Neighbor policy was the policy of the United States Administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in relation to Latin America in 1933-45, when the active U.S. intervention of previous decades was moderated in pursuit of hemispheric solidarity against external threats. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Monroe Doctrine, expressed in 1823, proclaimed that the Americas should be free from future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries affairs. ... Events July 15 - San Paolo fuori le Mura church in Rome almost completely destroyed by fire September 10 - Peru December 2 - US President James Monroe delivers a speech to the U.S. Congress, announcing a new policy of forbidding European interference in the Americas and establishing American neutrality in future... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of economic influence around an urban area. ... Haiti is a country situated on the western third of the island of Hispaniola and the smaller islands of La Gonâve, La Tortue (Tortuga), Grande Caye, and Ile a Vache in the Caribbean Sea, east of Cuba; the Dominican Republic shares Hispaniola with Haiti. ... The Republic of Cuba is an archipelago in the northern Caribbean that lies at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. ... Panama (Spanish: Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. ... Montevideo, Minnesota, Montevideo is the capital, chief port and largest city in Uruguay (population 1. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States was a treaty signed at Montevideo on December 26, 1933, at the Seventh International Conference of American States. ... Nicaragua is a republic in Central America. ... Anastasio Somoza was the name of two presidents of Nicaragua. ...


The rise to power of Adolf Hitler in Germany aroused fears of a new world war. In 1935, at the time of Fascist Italy's invasion of Abyssinia, Congress passed the Neutrality Act, applying a mandatory ban on the shipment of arms from the United States to any combatant nation. Roosevelt opposed the act on the grounds that it penalized the victims of aggression such as Abyssinia, and that it restricted his right as President to assist friendly countries, but he eventually signed it. In 1937 Congress passed an even more stringent Act, but when the Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937 Roosevelt found various ways to assist China, and warned that Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan were threats to world peace and to the United States. When World War II in Europe broke out in 1939, Roosevelt became increasingly eager to assist Britain and France, and he began a regular secret correspondence with Winston Churchill, in which the two freely discussed ways of circumventing the Neutrality Acts. Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), a German politician who was the founder of the Third Reich (1933-1945), is widely regarded as one of the most significant and reviled leaders in world history. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ityopiya, Amharic ኢትዮጵያ) is a country situated in the Horn of Africa. ... Several United States laws have been called Neutrality Acts: The Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibited American citizens from selling arms to belligerents in international war. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Flag of Japan adopted 1870, official 1999 Japanese Naval Ensign adopted 1889, re-adopted 1954 The Empire of Japan (大日本帝国; Dai Nippon Teikoku) was the official title of Japan before the end of World War II. The names Imperial Japan and Japanese Empire are also used. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In May 1940 Germany attacked France and rapidly occupied the country, leaving Britain vulnerable to German air attack and possible invasion. Roosevelt was determined to prevent this and sought to shift public opinion in favor of aiding Britain. He secretly aided a private body, the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, and he appointed two anti-isolationist Republicans, Henry L. Stimson and Frank Knox, as Secretaries of War and the Navy respectively. The fall of Paris shocked American opinion, and isolationist sentiment declined. In August Roosevelt openly defied the Neutrality Acts with the Destroyers for Bases Agreement, which gave 50 American destroyers to Britain and Canada in exchange for base rights in the British Caribbean islands. This was a precursor of the March 1941 Lend-Lease agreement which began to direct massive military and economic aid to Britain. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... The Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom, September 2, 1940, transferred 50 obsolete destroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions. ... This article is about the warship. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Lend-lease Act of March 11, 1941 permitted the President of the United States to sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government [whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States] any defense article. It thus extended...


The path to war

Secretry of War Henry L. Stimson
Secretry of War Henry L. Stimson
Navy Secretary Frank Knox

At the 1938 Congressional elections the Republicans staged their first comeback since 1932, gaining seats in both Houses and reducing Roosevelt's ability to pass legislation at will. Roosevelt's campaign to have conservative Democratic Senators such as Walter F. George of Georgia replaced by pro-Administration candidates was defeated. This increased speculation that Roosevelt would retire in 1940. No American President had ever sought a third term in office, following a precedent set by George Washington. During 1940, however, with the international situation growing increasingly threatening, Roosevelt decided that only he could lead the nation through the coming crisis. Republicans (and some others) said that this was a sign of his increasing arrogance. Nevertheless, Roosevelt's huge personal popularity allowed him to be re-elected with 55 percent of the vote and 38 of the 48 states. A shift to the left within the Administration was shown by the adoption of Henry Wallace as his Vice President in place of the conservative Southerner John N. Garner. from http://www. ... from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (572x701, 56 KB)Picture of Frank Knox from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (572x701, 56 KB)Picture of Frank Knox from http://www. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Walter Franklin George ( January 29, 1878 – August 24, 1957) was an american politician from the state of Georgia. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Order: 1st President Vice President: John Adams Term of office: April 30, 1789 – March 3, 1797 Preceded by: None Succeeded by: John Adams Date of birth: February 22, 1732 Place of birth: Westmoreland, Virginia Date of death: December 14, 1799 Place of death: Mount Vernon, Virginia First Lady: Martha Washington... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Roosevelt's third term was dominated by World War II, first in Europe and then in the Pacific. The massive re-armament program begun in 1938, partly to expand and re-equip the United States Army and Navy and partly to support Britain, France, China and other friendly states, finally provided the Keynesian economic stimulus which was needed to revive the economy. From 1939 unemployment fell rapidly, as the unemployed either joined the armed forces or found work in arms factories. By 1941 there was actually a labor shortage in the arms manufacturing centers of Chicago and Detroit, accelerating the Great Migration of African-American workers from the Southern states. 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... This article refers to the largest city of Michigan. ... The Great Migration is a term used to describe the mass migration of African Americans from the southern United States to the industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest between the 1910s and 1940s. ...


The most pressing issue was the urgent necessity of assisting Britain, whose financial resources were exhausted by the end of 1940. Congress, where isolationist sentiment was in retreat, passed the Lend-Lease Act in March 1941, allowing Britain to "lease" huge amounts of military equipment on the basis of a promise that they would be paid for after the war. Britain was also forced to agree to dismantle preferential trade arrangements that kept American exports out of the British Empire. This underlined the point that the war aims of the United States and Britain were not the same. Roosevelt was a lifelong free trader and anti-imperialist, and ending European colonialism was one of his objectives. This did not prevent the forming of a close personal relationship with Churchill, who became British Prime Minister in May 1940. When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, Roosevelt extended Lend-Lease to the Soviets. During 1941 Roosevelt also agreed that the U.S. Navy would escort Allied convoys as far east as Iceland, and would fire on German ships or submarines if they attacked Allied shipping within the U.S. Navy zone. Thus by mid 1941 Roosevelt had committed the United States to the Allied side with a policy of "all aid short of war." Roosevelt met with Churchill on August 14, 1941 to develop the Atlantic Charter in what was to be the first of several strategic war conferences. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A database query syntax error has occurred. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Iceland - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Atlantic Charter - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Military strategy in the Waterloo campaign Military strategy is a collective name for planning the conduct of warfare. ... List of World War II conferences Note: links to conference, not location. ...


Pearl Harbor

Roosevelt was much less keen to involve the United States in the war developing in East Asia, where Japan occupied French Indo-China in late 1940. He authorized increased aid to China, and in July 1941 he restricted the sales of oil and other strategic materials to Japan, but also continued negotiations with the Japanese government in the hope of averting war. Through 1941 the Japanese planned their attack on the western powers, including the United States, while spinning out the negotiations in Washington. The "hawks" in the Administration, led by Stimson and Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, were in favor of a tough policy towards Japan, but Roosevelt, emotionally committed to the war in Europe, refused to believe that Japan might attack the U.S. and favored continued negotiations. The U.S. Ambassador in Tokyo, Joseph C. Grew, passed on warnings about the planned attack on the American Pacific Fleet's base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, but these were ignored by the State Department. Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... There are two notable people called Henry Morgenthau, father and son: Henry Morgenthau, Sr. ... Tokyo (東京; Tōkyō, lit. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


On 7 December 1941 the Japanese attacked the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor, destroying most of it and killing 3,000 American personnel. The American commanders at Pearl Harbor, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and General Walter Short, were taken completely by surprise, and were later made scapegoats for this disaster. The fault really lay with the War Department in Washington, who since August 1940 had been able to read the Japanese diplomatic codes and had thus been given ample warning of the imminence of the attack (though not of its actual date). The War Department had not passed these warnings on to the commanders in Hawaii, mainly because its analysts refused to believe that the Japanese would really have the effrontery to attack the United States. December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Husband Edward Kimmel (February 26, 1882 - May 14, 1958) was an admiral in the United States Navy. ... Categories: Stub | 1880 births | 1949 deaths | American World War II people | U.S. Army generals ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


It has become a staple of postwar "revisionist" history that Roosevelt knew all about the planned attack on Pearl Harbor but did nothing to prevent it so that the U.S. could be brought into the war as a result of being attacked. There is no evidence to support this theory. On 5 December the Cabinet discussed the mounting intelligence evidence that the Japanese were mobilizing for war. Navy Secretary Knox told the Cabinet of the decoded messages showing that the Japanese fleet was at sea, but stated his opinion that it was heading south to attack the British in Malaya and Singapore, and to seize the oil resources of the Dutch East Indies. Roosevelt and the rest of the Cabinet accepted this view. There were intercepted Japanese messages suggesting an attack on Pearl Harbor, but delays in translating and passing on these messages through the inefficient War Department bureaucracy meant that they did not reach the Cabinet before the attack took place. There is no evidence that Roosevelt was made aware of them. All contemporary accounts describe Roosevelt, Hull and Stimson as shocked and outraged when they heard news of the attack. Revisionism is a word which has several meanings. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) National anthem: Majulah Singapura Capital Singapore1 Largest city Singapore1 Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Government President Prime minister Westminster system (de jure) Dominant-party system (de facto) Sellapan Rama Nathan Lee Hsien Loong Independence - From Malaysia August 9, 1965 Area  - Total... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ...


The Japanese took advantage of their pre-emptive destruction of most of the Pacific Fleet to rapidly occupy the Philippines and all the British and Dutch colonies in South-East Asia, taking Singapore in February 1942 and advancing through Burma to the borders of British India by May, thus cutting off the overland supply route to China. Pearl Harbor was followed immediately by declarations of war on the United States by Germany and Italy. Isolationism evaporated overnight and the country united behind Roosevelt as a wartime leader. Despite the wave of anger that swept across the United States in the wake of Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt decided from the start that the defeat of Nazi Germany had to take priority. He met with Churchill in late December and planned a broad alliance between the U.S., Britain and the Soviet Union, with the objectives of, first, halting the German advances in the Soviet Union and in North Africa, second, launching an invasion of western Europe with the aim of crushing Nazi Germany between two fronts, and only third turning to the task of defeating Japan. 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ...


Although Roosevelt was constitutionally the Commander-in-Chief of the United States armed forces, he had never worn a uniform and he did not interfere in operational military matters in anything like the way Churchill did in Britain, let alone take direct command of the forces as Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin did. He placed great trust in the Army Chief of Staff, General George Marshall, and later in his Supreme Commander in Europe, General Dwight Eisenhower, and left almost all strategic and tactical decisions to them, within the broad framework for the conduct of the war decided by the Cabinet in agreement with the other Allied powers. He had less confidence in his commander in the Pacific, General Douglas MacArthur, who he rightly suspected of planning to run for President against him. But since the war in the Pacific was mainly a naval war, this did not greatly matter until later in the war. Given his close personal interest in the Navy, Roosevelt tended to intervene more in naval matters, but strong Navy commanders like Admirals Ernest King in the Atlantic theater and Chester Nimitz in the Pacific enjoyed his confidence. Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), a German politician who was the founder of the Third Reich (1933-1945), is widely regarded as one of the most significant and reviled leaders in world history. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall ( December 31, 1880– October 16, 1959), was an American military leader and statesman best remembered for his leadership in the Allied victory in World War II and for his work establishing the post-war reconstruction effort for Europe, which became known as the Marshall... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ... Admiral Ernest Joseph King (November 23, 1878 - June 25, 1956) was the Commander in Chief of the United States Navy during World War II. As such, he was Chester Nimitzs immediate superior but himself was subordinate to Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal. ... Chester Nimitz Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the nations leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navy Bureau of Navigation in...


The Japanese-American issue

The neutrality of this section is disputed.

Following the outbreak of the Pacific War Roosevelt came under immediate pressure to remove or intern the estimated 120,000 people of Japanese origin or descent living in California, many of them American-born, in the grounds that they were a threat to security. Pressure came from California Governor Culbert Olsen (a Democrat), the Hearst newspapers and General John L. De Witt, the U.S. Army Commander in California, whose simple attitude was that "a Jap is a Jap." Opponents of the suggestion were Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes, Attorney-General Francis Biddle and FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who said that there was no evidence of Japanese-American involvement in espionage or sabotage. On February 7, 1942 Biddle met with Roosevelt and set out the Justice Department's objections to the proposal. Roosevelt then ordered that a plan be drawn up to evacuate the Japanese-Americans from California in the event of a Japanese landing or air attacks on the west coast, but not otherwise. But on February 11 he met with Secretary of War Stimson, who persuaded him to approve an immediate evacuation. No evidence was ever produced to support fears of Japanese-American espionage. A comment by De Witt shows the irrationality of the anti-Japanese agitation at this time: "The very fact that no sabotage has taken place to date is a disturbing and confirming indication that such action will be taken." Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, attending a grand meeting with all the... William Randolph Hearst (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate, born in San Francisco, California. ... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ... The Nuremberg judges, left to right: John Parker, Francis Biddle, Alexander Volchkov, Iola Nikitchenko, Geoffrey Lawrence, Norman Birkett Francis Beverley Biddle (May 9, 1886–October 4, 1968) was a judge during the Nuremberg trials after World War II. He was the primary American judge during the proceedings. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Hoover in 1961 John Edgar Hoover ( January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was appointed Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) on May 10, 1924, and remained so until his death in 1972, having been appointed to that position for life by Lyndon Johnson. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


On February 19 Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, authorizing the military to relocate people from "combat zones" (such as California) on security grounds, without specifically mentioning the Japanese-Americans. As a result, 120,000 people, half of them American citizens, were interned without charge or trial. Roosevelt also wanted the 140,000 Japanese-Americans in Hawaii deported to the mainland, but the territory authorities, including the Army, objected on the grounds that they were indispensable to the Islands' economy, and the plan was dropped. By contrast, there was no mass internment of German or Italian-Americans, though 11,000 German aliens and German American citizens were placed in internment camps up to 1950. Also, up to 900,000 German and Italian-Americans were forced to cary identification papers, had their movement restricted and had their personal property seized. Roosevelt also forced several Latin American countries to send their German aliens to Internment camps in the United States. Japanese-Americans continued to serve in the U.S. armed forces throughout the war, although they were not employed in the Pacific theater. Conditions in the camps, in Idaho, Wyoming, Utah and Colorado, were tolerable, but those interned naturally resented this treatment and there were repeated disturbances in the camps, which resulted in 15,000 people being interned in a higher-security center at Tule Lake, California. In 1944 the Supreme Court upheld the legality of the executive order, which remained in force until December 1944. February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... United States Executive Order 9066 was signed into law on February 19, 1942 (during World War II), by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, using his authority as Commander-in-Chief to exercise war powers. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Ickes lobbied Roosevelt through 1944 to release the internees, but Roosevelt refused to act until after the November presidential election. This shows that his motivation was in part simply political expediency. He was not prepared to defend Japanese-American civil rights if it meant a fight with influential Democrats, or the Army, or the Hearst press, nor if it meant he might lose California to the Republicans in 1944. It cannot be denied, however, that Roosevelt's action were at least in part motivated by racism. In 1925 he had written about Japanese immigration: "Californians have properly objected on the sound basic grounds that Japanese immigrants are not capable of assimilation into the American population... Anyone who has traveled in the Far East knows that the mingling of Asiatic blood with European and American blood produces, in nine cases out of ten, the most unfortunate results." 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Events January-May January 3 - Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy. ...


Civil rights and refugees

A. Philip Randolph
A. Philip Randolph

Roosevelt's attitudes to race were also tested by the issue of African-American (or "Negro," to use the term of the time) service in the armed forces. The Democratic Party at this time was dominated by Southerners who were opposed to any concession to demands for racial equality. During the New Deal years, there had been a series of conflicts over whether African-Americans were eligible for the various government benefits and programs. Typically, the young idealists who ran the programs tried to make these benefits available regardless of race. Southern Governors or Congressmen would then complain to Roosevelt, who would intervene to uphold segregation. The Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps, for example, segregated their work forces by race at Roosevelt's insistence after Southern Governors protested at unemployed whites being required to work alongside blacks. Roosevelt's personal racial attitudes were conventional for his time and class. He was not an visceral racist like most white Southerners, but he accepted the common stereotype of African-Americans as lazy, if good-natured, children. He did little to advance civil rights, despite prodding from Eleanor and liberals in his Cabinet such as Frances Perkins. stamp, This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Negro means the color black in both Spanish and Portuguese languages, being derived from the Latin word niger of the same meaning. ... Segregation means separation. ... The Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 with the signing of Executive Order 7034. ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was created in President Franklin Delano Roosevelts first month in office (on March 31, 1933). ...


The war brought the issue to the forefront. The armed forces had been segregated ever since the Civil War. African-Americans in the Army served only in rear-echelon or service roles, the Navy was almost entirely white and the Marine Corps wholly so. Neither the Secretary of War, Henry Stimson, not the Navy Secretary, Frank Knox, were Southerners (Stimson came from a New York abolitionist family), but they were aware that the officer corps of both services were drawn heavily from Southern military families, and feared disturbances or even mutiny if segregation of the armed forces were imposed. "Colored troops do very well under white officers," said Stimson, "but every time we try to lift them a little beyond where they can go, disaster and confusion follow." Knox was blunter: "In our history we don't take Negroes into a ship's company." The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ...


But by 1940 the African-American vote had shifted almost totally from Republican to Democrat, and African-American leaders like Walter White of the NAACP and T. Arnold Hill of the Urban League had become recognized as part of the Roosevelt coalition. In June 1941, the urging of A. Philip Randolph, the leading African-American trade unionist, Roosevelt signed an executive order establishing the Fair Employment Practice Commission and prohibiting discrimination by any government agency, including the armed forces. In practice the services, particularly the Navy and the Marines, found ways to evade this order—the Marine Corps remained all-white until 1943. In September 1942, at Eleanor's instigation, Roosevelt met with a delegation of African-American leaders, who demanded full integration in the forces, including the right to serve in combat roles and in the Navy, the Marine Corps and the United States Army Air Force. Roosevelt, with his usual desire to please everyone, agreed, but then did nothing to implement his promise. It was left to his successor, Harry S. Truman, to fully desegregate the armed forces. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Walter Francis White (July 1, 1893, Atlanta, Georgia - March 21, 1955, New York, New York) was a spokesman for blacks in the United States for almost a quarter of a century and executive secretary (1931–55) of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League is a non-profit, nonpartisan, civil rights and community-based movement that advocates on behalf of Black Americans and against racial discrimination. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 _ May 16, 1979) was a socialist active in the labor movement and the US civil rights movement. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... USAAF recruitment poster. ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Roosevelt's attitudes to American Jews were even more complex. Sara Roosevelt was a virulent anti-Semite, an attitude common among upper-class Americans at a time when Jewish immigrants were flooding into the United States and their children were advancing rapidly into the business and professional classes. Roosevelt inherited his mother's attitudes, and freely expressed them in private throughout his life. In a common paradox of the time, some of his closest political associates, such Felix Frankfurter, Bernard Baruch and Samuel I. Rosenman, were Jewish, and he happily cultivated the important Jewish vote in New York City. He appointed Henry Morgenthau, Jr. as the first Jewish Secretary of the Treasury and appointed Frankfurter to the Supreme Court. But he once told Morgenthau and a Catholic economist, Leo T. Crowley: "This is a Protestant country, and the Catholics and the Jews are here on sufferance." The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Justice Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter ( November 15, 1882– February 22, 1965) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... Bernard Mannes Baruch ( August 19, 1870 – June 20, 1965) was an American financier and presidential adviser. ... Samuel Irving Rosenman (1896 - 1973) was a U.S. lawyer. ... Henry Morgenthau, Jr. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ...


Roosevelt's anti-Semitism became an important factor in deciding government policy on the Jewish refugee issue before and during World War II. During his first term Roosevelt condemned Hitler's persecution of German Jews, but said "this is not a governmental affair" and refused to make any public comment. As the Jewish exodus from Germany increased after 1937, Roosevelt was asked by American Jewish organizations and Congressmen to allow these refugees to settle in the U.S. At first he suggested that the Jewish refugees should be "resettled" elsewhere, and suggested Venezuela, Ethiopia or West Africa—anywhere but the United States. In 1939 he suggested a refugee quota of 27,000 German and Austrian Jews per year, at a time when up to 5 million Jews were trying to escape from Europe. Morgenthau, Harold Ickes and Eleanor pressed him to adopt a more generous policy but he was afraid of provoking the isolationists—men such as Charles Lindbergh who exploited anti-Semitism as a means of attacking Roosevelt's policies. In practice very few Jewish refugees came to the United States—only 22,000 German refugees were admitted in 1940, not all of them Jewish. The State Department official in charge of refugee issues, Breckinridge Long, was a visceral anti-Semite who did everything he could to obstruct Jewish immigration. Despite frequent complaints, Roosevelt refused to shift him. 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela)1 is a country in northern South America. ... The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ityopiya, Amharic ኢትዮጵያ) is a country situated in the Horn of Africa. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Charles Lindbergh with the Spirit of St. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Even after 1942, when Roosevelt was made aware, by Rabbi Stephen Wise, the Polish envoy Jan Karski and others, of the Nazi extermination of the Jews, and when isolationism was no longer a factor in American politics, he refused to allow any systematic attempt to rescue European Jewish refugees and bring them to the United States. In May 1943 he wrote to Cordell Hull (whose wife was Jewish): "I do not think we can do other than stictly comply with the present immigration laws." In January 1944, however, Morgenthau succeeded in persuading Roosevelt to allow the creation of a War Refugee Board in the Treasury Department. This allowed an increasing number of Jews to enter the U.S. in 1944 and 1945. By this time, however, it was too late to save anything but a fragment of the European Jewish communities which had been destroyed by Hitler's Holocaust. In any case after 1945 the focus of Jewish aspirations shifted from migration to the United States to settlement in Palestine, where the Zionist movement hoped to create a Jewish state. But Roosevelt was also opposed to this idea. When he met King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia in January 1945, he assured him he did not support a Jewish state in Palestine. He suggested that since the Nazis had killed three million Polish Jews, there should now be plenty of room in Poland to resettle all the Jewish refugees. Roosevelt's attitudes to both African-Americans and Jews remain a striking contrast with his social liberalism and generosity of spirit on most other issues. 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Stephen Samuel Wise (1874 - 1949) was a U.S. rabbi and Zionist leader. ... Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article deals with the Nazi Holocaust. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term Palestine may refer to: Palestine: A geographical region in the Middle East, centered on Jerusalem. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Ibn Saud Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal Al Saud (1880 - November 9, 1953), also known by several abbreviated forms of this name, or simply as Ibn Saud was first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Strategy and diplomacy

Chiang Kai-shek of China, Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill of Britain at the Cairo Conference in 1943

As Churchill rightly saw, the entry of the United States into the war meant that victory of the Allied powers was assured. Even though Britain was exhausted by the end of 1942, the alliance between the manpower of the Soviet Union and the industrial resources of the United States was bound to defeat Germany and Japan in the long run. But mobilizing those resources and deploying them effectively was a difficult task. The United States took the straightforward view that the quickest way to defeat Germany was to transport its army to Britain, invade France across the English Channel and attack Germany directly from the west. Churchill, wary of the huge casualties he feared this would entail, favored a more indirect approach, advancing northwards from the Mediterranean, where the Allies were fully in control by early 1943, into either Italy or Greece, and thus into central Europe. Churchill also saw this as a way of blocking the Soviet Union's advance into east and central Europe, a political issue which Roosevelt and his commanders refused to take into account. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Chiang Kai-shek ( October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Chiang, Roosevelt, and Churchill in Cairo, 11/25/1943 Photocopy of the Cairo Declaration, an unsigned press release The Cairo Conference of November 22- 26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The English Channel ( French:La Manche) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. ... -1... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ...


Since the U.S. would be providing most of the manpower and funds, Roosevelt's views prevailed, and through 1942 and 1943 plans for a cross-Channel invasion were advanced. But Churchill succeeded in persuading Roosevelt to undertake the invasions of French Morocco and Algeria (Operation Torch) in November 1942, of Sicily (Operation Husky) in July 1943, and of Italy (Operation Avalanche) in September 1943). This entailed postponing the cross-Channel invasion from 1943 to 1944. Following the American defeat at Anzio, however, the invasion of Italy became bogged down, and failed to meet Churchill's expectations. This undermined his opposition to the cross-Channel invasion (Operation Overlord), which finally took place in June 1944. Although most of France was quickly liberated, the Allies were blocked on the German border in December 1944, and final victory over Germany was not achieved until May 1945, by which time the Soviet Union, as Churchill feared, had occupied all of eastern and central Europe as far west as the Elbe River in central Germany. 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, or Algeria, is a nation in north Africa, and the second largest country on the African continent. ... Operation Torch (from November 8, 1942) was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Anzio (2003 pop. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ...


Meanwhile in the Pacific the Japanese advance reached its maximum extent by June 1942, when Japan sustained a major naval defeat at the hands of the U.S. at the Battle of Midway. The Japanese advance to the south and south-east was halted at the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942 and the Battle of Guadalcanal between August 1942 and February 1943. MacArthur and Nimitz then began a slow and costly progress through the Pacific islands, with the objective of gaining bases from which strategic air power could be brought to bear on Japan and from which Japan could ultimately be invaded. In the event this did not prove necessary, because the almost simultaneous declaration of war on Japan by the Soviet Union and the use of the atomic bomb on Japanese cities brought about Japan's surrender in September 1945. 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Battle of Midway Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date June 4– June 6, 1942 Place Vicinity of Midway Island Result US Strategic and Tactical Victory The Battle of Midway, fought in World War II, took place on June 5, 1942 ( June 4 in US time zones). ... Battle of the Coral Sea Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date May 4 – May 8, 1942 Place Coral Sea, between Australia, New Guinea, and the United States, Japan Commanders Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Battle of Guadalcanal Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 7, 1942 - February 9, 1943 Place Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands Result Allied victory The Battle of Guadalcanal was one of the most important battles of World War II. The assault on the Japanese-occupied island of Guadalcanal by... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


By late 1943 it was apparent that the Allies would ultimately defeat Nazi Germany, and it became increasingly important to make high-level political decisions about the course of the war and the postwar future of Europe. Roosevelt met with Churchill and the Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek at the Cairo Conference in November 1943, and then went to Tehran to confer with Churchill and Stalin. At the Tehran Conference Roosevelt and Churchill told Stalin about the plan to invade France in 1944, and Roosevelt also discussed his plans for a postwar international organization. Stalin was pleased that the western Allies had abandoned any idea of moving into the Balkans or central Europe via Italy, and he went along with Roosevelt's plan for the United Nations, which involved no costs to him. Stalin also agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan when Germany was defeated. At this time Churchill and Roosevelt were acutely aware of the huge and disproportionate sacrifices the Soviets were making on the eastern front while their invasion of France was still six months away, so they did not raise awkward political issues which did not require immediate solutions, such as the future of Germany and eastern Europe. 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Chiang Kai-shek ( October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Chiang, Roosevelt, and Churchill in Cairo, 11/25/1943 Photocopy of the Cairo Declaration, an unsigned press release The Cairo Conference of November 22- 26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Tehran (also spelled Teheran) (تهران in Persian), population 8,000,000 (metropolitan: 10,000,000), is the capital of Iran and one of the major world cities. ... From left to right, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill The Tehran Conference was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 that took place in Tehran, Iran. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. ...


By the beginning of 1945, however, with the Allied armies advancing into Germany, consideration of these issues could be put off any longer. In February Roosevelt, despite his steadily deteriorating health, traveled to Yalta, in the Soviet Crimea, to meet again with Stalin and Churchill. This meeting, the Yalta Conference, is often portrayed as a decisive turning point in modern history, but in fact most of the decisions made there were retrospective recognitions of realities which had already been established by force of arms. The decision of the western Allies to delay the invasion of France from 1943 to 1944 had allowed the Soviet Union to occupy all of eastern Europe, including Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, as well as eastern Germany. Since Stalin was in full control of these areas, there was little Roosevelt and Churchill could do to deter him imposing his will on them, as he was rapidly doing by establishing Communist-controlled governments in all these countries. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Yalta is a town in the Crimea in southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea, that was the site of the Yalta Conference. ... The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian transliteration: Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, pronounced cry-MEE-ah in English) is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. ... The Republic of Bulgaria is a republic in the southeast of Europe. ... Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ...


Churchill, aware that Britain had gone to war in 1939 in defense of Polish independence, and also of his promises to the Polish government in exile in London, did his best to insist that Stalin agree to the establishment of a non-Communist government and the holding of free elections in liberated Poland, although he was unwilling to confront Stalin over the issue of Poland's postwar frontiers, on which he considered the Polish position to be indefensible. But Roosevelt was not interested in having a fight with Stalin over Poland, for two reasons. The first was that he believed that Soviet support was essential for the projected invasion of Japan, in which the allies ran the risk of huge casualties. He feared that if Stalin was provoked over Poland he might renege on his Tehran commitment to enter the war against Japan. The second was that he saw the United Nations as the ultimate solution to all postwar problems, and he feared the United Nations project would fail without Soviet cooperation. 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ...


Towards posterity

The "Big Three" Allied leaders at Yalta: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
The "Big Three" Allied leaders at Yalta: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

Although Roosevelt was only 62 in 1945, his health had been in decline since at least 1940. The strain of his paralysis and the physical exertion needed to compensate for it for over 20 years had taken their toll, as had many years of stress and a lifetime of chain-smoking. He had been diagnosed with high blood pressure and advised to modify his diet (though not to stop smoking). Had it not been for the war, he would certainly have retired at the 1944 elections, but under the circumstances both he and his advisors felt there was no alternative to his running for a fourth term. Aware of the risk that Roosevelt would die during his fourth term, the party regulars insisted that Henry Wallace, who was seen as too pro-Soviet, be dropped as Vice President. Roosevelt at first resisted but finally agreed to replace Wallace with the little known Harry S. Truman. In the November elections Roosevelt and Truman won 53 percent of the vote and carried 36 states. After the elections Cordell Hull, the longest serving Secretary of State in American history, retired and was succeeded by Edward Stettinius Jr.. Churchill, Roosevelt and Joseph Djugashvili(Stalin) at the Yalta conference - reduced size verson of Media:Crc ros sta. ... Churchill, Roosevelt and Joseph Djugashvili(Stalin) at the Yalta conference - reduced size verson of Media:Crc ros sta. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ...


After the Yalta conference relations between the western Allies and Stalin deteriorated rapidly, and so did Roosevelt's health. When he addressed Congress on his return from Yalta, many were shocked to see how old, thin and sick he looked. He spoke from his wheelchair, an unprecedented concession to his physical incapacity. But he was still mentally fully in command. "The Crimean Conference," he said firmly, "ought to spend the end of a system of unilateral action, the exclusive alliances, the spheres of influence, the balances of power, and all the other expedients that have been tried for centuries—and have always failed. We propose to substitute for all these, a universal organization in which all peace-loving nations will finally have a chance to join." Many in his audience doubted that the proposed United Nations would achieve these objectives, but there was no doubting the depth of Roosevelt's commitment to these ideals, which he had inherited from Woodrow Wilson.


Roosevelt is often accused of being naively trusting of Stalin, but in the last months of the war he took an increasingly tough line. During March and early April he sent strongly worded messages to Stalin accusing him of breaking his Yalta commitments over Poland, Germany, prisoners of war and other issues. When Stalin accused the western Allies of plotting a separate peace with Hitler behind his back, Roosevelt replied: "I cannot avoid a feeling of bitter resentment towards your informers, whoever they are, for such vile misrepresentations of my actions or those of my trusted subordinates."


On March 30 Roosevelt went to Warm Springs to rest before his anticipated appearance at the April 25 San Francisco founding conference of the United Nations. Among the guests was Lucy Mercer, his lover from 30 years previously (by then Mrs Lucy Rutherford), and the artist Elizabeth Shoumatoff, who was painting a portrait of him. On the morning of April 12 he was sitting in a leather chair signing letters, his legs propped up on a stool, while Shoumatoff worked at her easel. Just before lunch was to be served, he dropped his pen and complained of a sudden headache. Then he slumped forward in his chair and lost consciousness. A doctor was summoned and he was carried to bed—it was immediately obvious that he had suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage. At 3.31pm he was pronounced dead. March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in Leap years). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... This article is about the city in California. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a condition in the brain in which a blood vessel leaks. ...


Roosevelt's death was greeted with shock and grief across the United States and around the world. At a time when the press did not pry into the health or private lives of Presidents, his declining health had not been known to the general public. Roosevelt had been President for more than 12 years, much longer than any other man, and had led the country through some of its greatest crises to the brink of its greatest triumph, the complete defeat of Nazi Germany, and to within sight of the defeat of Japan as well. Although in the decades since his death there have been many critical reassessments of his career, few commentators had anything but praise for a commander in chief who had been robbed by death of a victory which was only a few weeks away.


Roosevelt's legacies to the United States were a greatly expanded role for government in the management of the economy, an expectation that the state would intervene to protect the poor and the disadvantaged from adversity, a Social Security system promising protection from cradle to grave, a greatly strengthened trade union movement, and a coalition of voters supporting the Democratic Party which would survive intact until the 1960s and in part until the 1980s, when it was finally shattered by Ronald Reagan, a Roosevelt Democrat in his youth who became a conservative Republican. Internationally, Roosevelt's monument was the United Nations, an organization whose history would certainly have disappointed him in many respects, but which offered at least the hope of an end to the international anarchy which led to two world wars in his lifetime. Order: 40th President Vice President: George H.W. Bush Term of office: January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles...


Majority support for the essentials of the Roosevelt domestic program survived their author by 35 years. The Republican administrations of Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon did nothing to overturn the Roosevelt-era social programs. It was not until the administration of Ronald Reagan (198189) that ideological conservatives in the Republican Party were able to undermine the Roosevelt legacy—although Reagan was fulsome in his praise of Roosevelt personally. Bill Clinton, with his program of welfare reform, was the first Democratic president to repudiate elements of the Roosevelt program, and this has continued under George W. Bush. But this has not undermined Roosevelt's posthumous reputation as a great president. A 1999 survey of academic historians by CSPAN found that historians consider Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, and Roosevelt the three greatest presidents by a wide margin. [1] (http://www.americanpresidents.org/survey/historians/performance.asp). A 2000 survey by The Washington Post found Washington, Lincoln, and Roosevelt to be the only "great" Presidents. Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22, 1994 Place... Order: 40th President Vice President: George H.W. Bush Term of office: January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Order: 42nd President Vice President: Al Gore Term of office: January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001 Preceded by: George H. W. Bush Succeeded by: George W. Bush Date of birth: August 19, 1946 Place of birth: Hope, Arkansas First Lady: Hillary Rodham Clinton Political party: Democratic William Jefferson Clinton (born... Welfare reform is the name for a political movement in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to institute changes in that system, generally in a more conservative direction. ... Order: 43rd President Vice President: Dick Cheney Term of office: January 20, 2001 – present Preceded by: Bill Clinton Succeeded by: Incumbent Date of birth: July 6, 1946 Place of birth: New Haven, Connecticut First Lady: Laura Welch Bush Political party: Republican George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... C-SPAN, which originally stood for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, was the first United States cable television network dedicated to 24-hour coverage of government and public affairs. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th (1861–1865) President of the United States, and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Order: 1st President Vice President: John Adams Term of office: April 30, 1789 – March 3, 1797 Preceded by: None Succeeded by: John Adams Date of birth: February 22, 1732 Place of birth: Westmoreland, Virginia Date of death: December 14, 1799 Place of death: Mount Vernon, Virginia First Lady: Martha Washington... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternative meaning: The Washington Post (march) Washington Post logo Screenshot from Washington Post website The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C. It gained worldwide fame in the early 1970s for its Watergate investigation by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein which played a major role...


Cabinet members

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933–1945
Vice President John Nance Garner 1933–1941
Henry A. Wallace 1941–1945
Harry S. Truman 1945
State Cordell Hull 1933–1944
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 1944–1945
War George H. Dern 1933–1936
Harry H. Woodring 1936–1940
Henry L. Stimson 1940–1945
Treasury William H. Woodin 1933–1934
Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 1934–1945
Justice Homer S. Cummings 1933–1939
William F. Murphy 1939–1940
Robert H. Jackson 1940–1941
Francis B. Biddle 1941–1945
Post James A. Farley 1933–1940
Frank C. Walker 1940–1945
Navy Claude A. Swanson 1933–1939
Charles Edison 1940
Frank Knox 1940–1944
James V. Forrestal 1944–1945
Interior Harold L. Ickes 1933–1945
Agriculture Henry A. Wallace 1933–1940
Claude R. Wickard 1940–1945
Commerce Daniel C. Roper 1933–1938
Harry L. Hopkins 1939–1940
Jesse H. Jones 1940–1945
Henry A. Wallace 1945
Labor Frances C. Perkins 1933–1945


President of the United States - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Dick Cheney 46th and current Vice President (2001- ) The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner ( November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States. ... Henry Agard Wallace ( October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States. ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Secretary Hull Cordell Hull ( October 2, 1871– July 23, 1955) was United States Secretary of State from 1933- 1944 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and was the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Harry Hines Woodring (May 31, 1887/90 - September 9, 1967) was a U.S. political figure. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... William Hartman Woodin (1868 - 1934) was a U.S. industrialist. ... Henry Morgenthau, Jr. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Homer Stille Cummings (1870 - 1956) was a U.S. political figure. ... William Francis Murphy culminated his political career as a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... Justice Jackson Robert Houghwout Jackson ( February 13, 1892 - October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General ( 1940 - 1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court ( 1941 - 1954). ... The Nuremberg judges, left to right: John Parker, Francis Biddle, Alexander Volchkov, Iola Nikitchenko, Geoffrey Lawrence, Norman Birkett Francis Beverley Biddle (May 9, 1886–October 4, 1968) was a judge during the Nuremberg trials after World War II. He was the primary American judge during the proceedings. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Claude Augustus Swanson (March 31, 1862–July 7, 1939) was an American politician. ... Charles Edison (August 3, 1890 - July 31, 1969), son of Thomas Edison, was a businessman, Assistant and then Acting Secretary of the Navy, and governor of New Jersey. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892–May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense (1947 - 1949). ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... Henry Agard Wallace ( October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States. ... Claude Raymond Wickard (1893-1967), born in Indiana, Secretary of Agriculture under President Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1940 to 1945. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Categories: Stub | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1867 births | 1943 deaths ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors and one of the key architects of the New Deal. ... Jesse Holman Jones Jesse Holman Jones (also known as Jesse H. Jones) (April 5, 1874 – June 1, 1956) was a Houston, Texas politician and entrepreneur. ... Henry Agard Wallace ( October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of Labor is the head of the United States Department of Labor. ... Frances Perkins wearing a veil after the death of president Roosevelt Frances Coralie Perkins (April 10, 1882--May 14, 1965) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Hugo Black Hugo LaFayette Black ( February 27, 1886 - September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States ( 1937 - 1971). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... Stanley Forman Reed ( December 31, 1884 – April 2, 1980) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1938 to 1957. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Justice Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter ( November 15, 1882– February 22, 1965) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... William Orville Douglas ( October 16, 1898 - January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... William Francis Murphy culminated his political career as a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Harlan Fiske Stone ( October 11, 1872– April 22, 1946) was the dean of Columbia Law School, Attorney General of the United States, Associate Justice and later Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... July 3 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes James Francis Byrnes ( May 2, 1879 - April 9, 1972) was a confidante of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and at one point was suggested as his running mate for Vice President. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 3rd October Organization is also the name of a Marxist terrorist group . ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Justice Jackson Robert Houghwout Jackson ( February 13, 1892 - October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General ( 1940 - 1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court ( 1941 - 1954). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in Leap years). ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Wiley Blount Rutledge ( 1894 - 1949) was a U.S. educator and jurist. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...

Media

FDR video montage (info)
Collection of video clips of the president. (7.2 MB, ogg/Theora format).
Problems seeing the videos? Media help.


Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 83 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about a unit of data measurement. ... If you are visiting this page because your computer cant play a sound file, see How to play Ogg files OGG is also the abbreviated title of the British mockumentary Operation Good Guys Ogg is a patent-free, fully open multimedia bitstream format designed for efficient streaming and storage. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...


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Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Aftermath of World War I A 1919 sheet music cover A popular Tin Pan Alley song of 1919 asked, concerning the United States troops returning from World War I, How Ya Gonna Keep Em Down On the Farm After Theyve Seen Paree?. In fact, many did not remain down... The Franklin D. Roosevelt Library is the first of the United States presidential libraries. ... During the Great Depression, which took place between 1929 and 1936, President Franklin D. Roosevelts instituted a series of programs called the New Deal. ...

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File links The following pages link to this file: Abraham Lincoln Aristotle Ayn Rand Adolf Hitler Al Gore Animal Farm Aldous Huxley Arthur Koestler Arthur Schopenhauer Animal Albert Einstein Art Abortion Apocalypse Now Alfred Hitchcock Alexander Graham Bell Andy Warhol Afrika Bambaataa Arthur C. Clarke Atheism Arthur Conan Doyle A... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

Preceded by:
Thomas R. Marshall
Democratic Party Vice Presidential candidate
1920 (lost)
Succeeded by:
Charles W. Bryan
Preceded by:
Alfred E. Smith
Governor of New York
1929–1932
Succeeded by:
Herbert H. Lehman
Preceded by:
Al Smith
Democratic Party Presidential candidate
1932 (won), 1936 (won), 1940 (won), 1944 (won)
Succeeded by:
Harry S. Truman
Preceded by:
Herbert Hoover
President of the United States
March 4, 1933April 12, 1945
Succeeded by:
Harry S. Truman


Thomas Riley Marshall ( March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Dick Cheney 46th and current Vice President (2001- ) The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Charles Wayland Bryan ( February 10, 1887 - March 4, 1945), was the much younger brother of perennial U.S. Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan. ... Alfred Emanuel Smith ( December 30, 1873– October 4, 1944), often known as Al Smith, was Governor of New York and a U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Herbert Henry Lehman ( March 28, 1878 - December 5, 1963) was a Governor and Senator from New York. ... Al Smith - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... President of the United States - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Herbert Clark Hoover ( August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) is best known as being the 31st ( 1929- 1933) President of the United States. ... President of the United States - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...




  Results from FactBites:
 
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1811 words)
Roosevelt allied himself firmly with reform elements in the party by his vigorous campaign for Woodrow Wilson in the election of 1912.
Roosevelt was reelected governor in 1930, and, to deal with the growing problems of the economic depression, he in 1932 surrounded himself with a small group of intellectuals (later called the Brain Trust) as well as with other experts in many fields.
Roosevelt’s inaugural address held words of hope and vigor to reassure the troubled country—“Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself”—and at the same time to prepare it for a prompt and unprecedented emergency program—“This Nation asks for action, and action now.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (906 words)
On January 30, 1882, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York to James Roosevelt, the son of a wealthy family, and Sara Delano Roosevelt, the second wife of James Roosevelt.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt dropped out of Columbia Law School in 1907 when he was offered a chance to join the New York bar and work for a law firm on Wall Street until 1910.
At the Democratic convention of 1924, Franklin Delano Roosevelt ran for the New York governorship at the urging of Alfred E. Smith, who was nominated for the presidency, as well as identified with Tammany Hall.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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