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Encyclopedia > Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt

In office
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
Vice President(s)   John N. Garner (1933-1941),
Henry A. Wallace (1941-1945),
Harry S. Truman (1945)
Preceded by Herbert Hoover
Succeeded by Harry S. Truman

Born January 30, 1882
Hyde Park, New York
Died April 12, 1945
Warm Springs, Georgia
Political party Democratic
Spouse Eleanor Roosevelt
Religion Episcopal
Signature

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. A central figure of the 20th century, he has consistently been ranked as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents in scholarly surveys. Image File history File linksMetadata FDR_in_1933. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1969 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868–November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884–December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884–December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Warm Springs is a city located in Meriwether County, Georgia. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her stature as First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945 to promote her husbands (Franklin D. Roosevelts) New Deal, as well as Civil Rights. ... Episcopal Church and Episcopal redirect here. ... Image File history File links Franklin_D._Roosevelt_signature. ... FDR may refer to: Franklin D. Roosevelt - The 32nd President of the United States. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1969 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and President Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ...


During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Roosevelt created the New Deal to provide relief for the unemployed, recovery of the economy, and reform of the economic system. His most famous legacies include the Social Security system and the regulation of Wall Street. His aggressive use of an active federal government reenergized the Democratic Party. Roosevelt built the New Deal coalition that dominated politics into the 1960s. He and his wife Eleanor Roosevelt remain touchstones for modern American liberalism. The conservatives vehemently fought back, but Roosevelt consistently prevailed until he tried to pack the Supreme Court in 1937. Thereafter, the new Conservative coalition successfully ended New Deal expansion, and closed most programs like the WPA and Civilian Conservation Corps, arguing that unemployment had disappeared. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Social Security, in the United States, refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... The Securities and Exchange Commission, commonly referred to as the SEC, is the United States governing body which has primary responsibility for overseeing the regulation of the securities industry. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... The New Deal coalition was the poop alignment of interest groups and voting blocs who supported the New Deal and voted for United States Democratic Party presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, and which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that time. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her stature as First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945 to promote her husbands (Franklin D. Roosevelts) New Deal, as well as Civil Rights. ... Modern American liberalism is a form of liberalism that began in America in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... Court packing is the name given to President Franklin Delano Roosevelts plan to create a judiciary more favorable to his New Deal policies. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ... WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created in May 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. ...


After 1938, Roosevelt championed re-armament and led the nation away from isolationism as the world headed into the war. He provided extensive support to Winston Churchill and the British war effort before the attack on Pearl Harbor pulled the U.S. into the fighting. During the war, Roosevelt, working closely with his aide Harry Hopkins, provided decisive leadership against Nazi Germany and made the United States the principal arms supplier and financier of the Allies who defeated Germany, Italy and Japan. Roosevelt led the United States as it became the Arsenal of Democracy and put 16 million American men into uniform. Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military and political policy with a policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... This article is becoming very long. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit for a short while. ...


On the homefront his term saw the vast expansion of industry, the elimination of unemployment, restoration of prosperity, new taxes that affected all income groups, price controls and rationing, 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans sent to relocation camps, and new opportunities opened for African Americans and women. As the Allies neared victory, Roosevelt played a critical role in shaping the post-war world, particularly through the Yalta Conference and the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelt's administration redefined liberalism for subsequent generations and realigned the Democratic Party based on his New Deal coalition of labor unions, farmers, ethnic, religious and racial minorities, intellectuals, the South, big city machines, and the poor and workers on relief. Homefront-United States-World War II covers all the developments inside the United States, 1940-1945. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4, 1945 to February 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union — Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, respectively. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Realigning election or critical election or realignment are terms from political history and political science. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The New Deal coalition was the poop alignment of interest groups and voting blocs who supported the New Deal and voted for United States Democratic Party presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, and which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that time. ...

Contents

Personal life

Early life

See also: Roosevelt family and Delano family

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, in the Hudson Valley in upstate New York. His father, James Roosevelt, Sr., and his mother, Sara Ann Delano, were each from wealthy old New York families, of Dutch and French ancestry respectively. Franklin was their only child. His maternal grandfather, Warren Delano, Jr., made a fortune in the opium trade in China.[1] This table shows the descent of President Theodore Roosevelt and President Franklin D. Roosevelt from their common ancestor Claes van Roosevelt. ... The Delano family in America was founded by Philippe Delano (de Lannoy), a 19-year-old Separatist of Walloon descent who arrived at Plymouth, Massachusetts on November 9, 1621 on the ship Fortune. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. ... For the magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine). ... Upstate New York is the region of New York State outside of the core of the New York metropolitan area. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... James Roosevelt (July 16, 1828 - December 8, 1900) was a United States businessman and father of President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... Sara Ann Delano Roosevelt (September 21, 1854 – September 7, 1941) was the wife of James Roosevelt, Sr. ... Opium is a narcotic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy . ...

Young Franklin Roosevelt, with his father and Helen R. Roosevelt, sailing in 1899
Young Franklin Roosevelt, with his father and Helen R. Roosevelt, sailing in 1899

Roosevelt grew up in an atmosphere of privilege. Sara was a possessive mother, while James was an elderly and remote father (he was 54 when Franklin was born). Sara was the dominant influence in Franklin's early years.[2] Frequent trips to Europe made Roosevelt conversant in German and French. He learned to ride, shoot, row, and play polo and lawn tennis. Image File history File links Fdrwithparents. ... Image File history File links Fdrwithparents. ... European redirects here. ... The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed) using various types of guns such as firearms and airguns (see Archery for more information on shooting sports that make use of bows and arrows). ... A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... now. ... A tennis net Tennis is a game played between either two players (singles) or two teams of two players (doubles). Players use a stringed racquet to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponents court. ...


Roosevelt went to Groton School, an Episcopal boarding school in Massachusetts. He was heavily influenced by the headmaster, Endicott Peabody, who preached the duty of Christians to help the less fortunate and urged his students to enter public service. Roosevelt completed his undergraduate studies at Harvard, where he lived in luxurious Adams House. While at Harvard, he saw his distant cousin Theodore Roosevelt become president, and Theodore's vigorous leadership style and reforming zeal made him Franklin's role model and hero. In 1902, he met his future wife Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, Theodore's niece, at a White House reception. (They had previously met as children, but this was their first serious encounter.) Eleanor and Franklin were fifth cousins, once removed. They were both descended from the Dutchman Claes Martensz. van Rosenvelt (Roosevelt) who arrived in New Amsterdam (Manhattan) from the Netherlands in the 1640s. Roosevelt's two grandsons, Johannes and Jacobus, began the Oyster Bay and Hyde Park branches of the Roosevelt family. Eleanor was descended from the Johannes branch, while FDR was descended from the Jacobus branch.[3] Groton School is a private Episcopalian boarding school located in Groton, Massachusetts. ... Episcopal Church and Episcopal redirect here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Endicott Peabody (1857-20 January 1944) was the American Episcopal priest who founded the Groton School for Boys in 1884. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Adams House is one of the 12 undergraduate houses at Harvard University, located near the Charles River in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her stature as First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945 to promote her husbands (Franklin D. Roosevelts) New Deal, as well as Civil Rights. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was the name of the 17th century town which grew outside of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614–1674) which was situated between 38 and 42 degrees latitude as a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic since 1624. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... Oyster Bay is the name of a hamlet on the North Shore of Long Island in Nassau County in the state of New York, USA. The hamlet is also the site of a station on the Long Island Rail Road and the eastern termination point of that branch of the...


Franklin and Eleanor married two years later in 1905.


Roosevelt entered Columbia Law School in 1905, and, never graduating, he dropped out after only two years in 1907, because he had passed the New York State Bar exam. In 1908 he took a job with the prestigious Wall Street firm of Carter, Ledyard and Milburn, dealing mainly with corporate law. Columbia University is a private university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... View up Wall Street from Pearl Street NYSE and Broad Street view from Wall Street Wall Street is the name of a narrow street in lower Manhattan running east from Broadway downhill to the East River. ... Corporations law or corporate law is the law concerning the creation and regulation of corporations. ...


Marriage and family life

See also: Roosevelt family

Roosevelt married Eleanor over the fierce resistance of his mother. They were married March 17, 1905, with Theodore Roosevelt standing in for Eleanor's deceased father Elliott. The young couple moved into a house bought for them by Roosevelt's mother, who became a frequent house guest, much to Eleanor's chagrin. Roosevelt was a charismatic, handsome, and socially active man. In contrast, Eleanor was shy and disliked social life, and at first stayed at home to raise their children. They had six children in rapid succession: This table shows the descent of President Theodore Roosevelt and President Franklin D. Roosevelt from their common ancestor Claes van Roosevelt. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (February 28, 1860- August 14, 1894) was the brother of US President Theodore Roosevelt and the father of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, who would marry her Hyde Park Roosevelt cousin and future US President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ...

Franklin and Eleanor at Campobello Island in 1903
Franklin and Eleanor at Campobello Island in 1903

The five surviving Roosevelt children all led tumultuous lives overshadowed by their famous parents. They had among them nineteen marriages, fifteen divorces and twenty-nine children. All four sons were officers in World War II and were decorated, on merit, for bravery. Their postwar careers, whether in business or politics, were disappointing. Two of them were elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (FDR, Jr. served three terms representing the Upper West Side of Manhattan, and James served six terms representing the 26th district in California) but none were elected to higher office despite several attempts. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Dall Boettiger Halsted (May 3, 1906 – December 1, 1975) was the first child of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) and his son James Roosevelt (1907-1991) in 1934. ... Elliott Roosevelt (September 23, 1910 – October 27, 1990), World War II hero and an author, was the son of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. ... John Aspinwall Roosevelt (born Washington DC March 13, 1916 - died New York City April 27, 1981) was the 6th and last child of the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his wife Anna Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Image File history File links ER_FDR_Campobello_1903. ... Image File history File links ER_FDR_Campobello_1903. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Roosevelt found romantic outlets outside his marriage. One of these was with Eleanor's social secretary Lucy Mercer, with whom Roosevelt began an affair soon after she was hired in early 1914. In September 1918, Eleanor found letters in Franklin's luggage that revealed the affair. Eleanor confronted him with the letters and demanded a divorce. While the marriage survived, Eleanor established a separate house in Hyde Park at Valkill. Lucy Page Mercer Rutherfurd, born Lucy Mercer, is best known as the mistress of Franklin Roosevelt. ... Valkill, located in Hyde Park, New York, was the home of Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, after her husband died. ...


Early political career

FDR as Assistant Secretary for the Navy
FDR as Assistant Secretary for the Navy

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (399x614, 21 KB) Description Franklin Roosevelt, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing left as Asst. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (399x614, 21 KB) Description Franklin Roosevelt, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing left as Asst. ...

State Senator

In 1910, Roosevelt ran for the New York State Senate from the district around Hyde Park, which had not elected a Democrat since 1884. The Roosevelt name, with its associated wealth, prestige and influence in the Hudson Valley, and the Democratic landslide that year carried him to the state capital of Albany, New York, where he became a leader of a group of reformers who opposed Manhattan's Tammany Hall machine which dominated the state Democratic Party. Roosevelt soon became a popular figure among New York Democrats. The New York State Senate is one of two houses in the New York State Legislature and has members each elected to two-year terms. ... Flag Seal Location Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates , Government Country   State     County United States   New York     Albany Founded Incorporated 1614 1686 Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Geographical characteristics Area     City 56. ... Tammany Hall was the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ...


Assistant Secretary of the Navy

Roosevelt took the position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under Woodrow Wilson in 1912. In 1914, he was defeated in the Democratic primary for the United States Senate by Tammany Hall-backed James W. Gerard. From 1913 to 1917, Roosevelt worked to expand the Navy and founded the United States Navy Reserve. Wilson sent the Navy and Marines to intervene in Central American and Caribbean countries. In a series of speeches in his 1920 campaign for Vice President, Roosevelt claimed that he, as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, had played a significant role in Latin American politics and had even written the constitution which the U.S. imposed on Haiti in 1915.[4] Assistant Secretary of the Navy (abbrev. ... USN redirects here. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Categories: Substubs | 1867 births | 1951 deaths ... The United States Navy Reserve is the reserve component of the United States Navy. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Map of Central America Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. ... World map depicting Caribbean : West Indies redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Roosevelt developed a life-long affection for the Navy. He showed great administrative talent and quickly learned to negotiate with Congressional leaders and other government departments to get budgets approved. He became an enthusiastic advocate of the submarine and also of means to combat the German submarine menace to Allied shipping: he proposed building a mine barrage across the North Sea from Norway to Scotland. In 1918, he visited Britain and France to inspect American naval facilities; during this visit he met Winston Churchill for the first time. With the end of World War I in November 1918, he was in charge of demobilization, although he opposed plans to completely dismantle the Navy. German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Günther Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine Inside of the Argonaute, showing the typical obstructed, tiny space of a post-WWII diesel attack submarine. ... A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy ships or submarines. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Motto: , traditionally rendered in Scots as Wha daur meddle wi me?[1] and in English as No one provokes me with impunity. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard...


Campaign for Vice-President

The 1920 Democratic National Convention chose Roosevelt as the candidate for Vice President of the United States on the ticket headed by Governor James M. Cox of Ohio, helping build a national base, but the Cox-Roosevelt ticket was heavily defeated by Republican Warren Harding in the presidential election. Roosevelt then retired to a New York legal practice, but few doubted that he would soon run for public office again. Featured at the Democratic National Convention are speeches by prominent party figures. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 - July 15, 1957) was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... // The Republican Party (often referred to as the GOP, for Grand Old Party) is one of the two major political organizations in the United States two party system; the Democratic Party is the other. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th (1921-1923) President of the United States and the sixth President to die in office. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Paralytic illness

In August 1921, while the Roosevelts were vacationing at Campobello Island, New Brunswick, Roosevelt contracted an illness, at the time believed to be polio, which resulted in Roosevelt's total and permanent paralysis from the waist down. For the rest of his life, Roosevelt refused to accept that he was permanently paralyzed. He tried a wide range of therapies, including hydrotherapy, and, in 1926, he purchased a resort at Warm Springs, Georgia, where he founded a hydrotherapy center for the treatment of polio patients which still operates as the Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation. After he became President, he helped to found the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (now known as the March of Dimes). His leadership in this organization is one reason he is commemorated on the dime. Franklin D. Roosevelts paralysis has become a major part of his image today, even though during his life it was kept from public view and rarely discussed in public. ... Campobello Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy near the entrances to Passamaquoddy Bay and Cobscook Bay. ... Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is a virally induced infectious disease which spreads via the fecal-oral route. ... Warm Springs is a city located in Meriwether County, Georgia. ... The Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation is a rehabilitation facility located in Warm Springs, Georgia. ... The March of Dimes is a voluntary health charity founded in 1938 by United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to defeat polio, a disease which crippled him. ... March of Dimes official logo March of Dimes is the name of health charities in both the United States and Canada. ... A dime is a coin issued by the United States Mint with a denomination of one tenth of a United States dollar, or ten cents. ...


At a time, when media intrusion in the private lives of public figures was much less intense than it is today, Roosevelt was able to convince many people that he was in fact getting better, which he believed was essential if he was to run for public office again. Fitting his hips and legs with iron braces, he laboriously taught himself to walk a short distance by swiveling his torso while supporting himself with a cane. In private, he used a wheelchair, but he was careful never to be seen in it in public. He usually appeared in public standing upright, supported on one side by an aide or one of his sons.


In 2003, a peer-reviewed study[5] found that it was more likely that Roosevelt's paralytic illness was actually Guillain-Barré syndrome, not poliomyelitis. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system (i. ...


Governor of New York, 1928-1932

Governor Roosevelt poses with Al Smith for a publicity shot in Albany, New York, 1930
Governor Roosevelt poses with Al Smith for a publicity shot in Albany, New York, 1930

By 1928, Roosevelt believed he had recovered sufficiently to resume his political career. He had been careful to maintain his contacts in the Democratic Party and had allied himself with Alfred E. Smith, the current governor and the Democratic Party presidential nominee in 1928. Franklin D. Roosevelts terms as Governor of New York ran from 1929 through his election as President. ... Image File history File links Governor_Roosevelt_and_Al_Smith. ... Image File history File links Governor_Roosevelt_and_Al_Smith. ... The following is a list of political parties known as the Democratic Party in their respective countries. ... Al Smith waves to crowds, 1928 Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... The following is a list of political parties known as the Democratic Party in their respective countries. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


To gain the Democratic nomination for the election, Roosevelt had to make his peace with the Tammany Hall machine, which he did with some reluctance. Roosevelt was elected Governor by a narrow margin, and came to office in 1929 as a reform Democrat. As Governor, he established a number of new social programs, and began gathering the team of advisors he would bring with him to Washington four years later, including Frances Perkins and Harry Hopkins. Tammany Hall was the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ... Frances Perkins wearing a veil after the death of president Roosevelt Frances Coralie Perkins (née Fannie Coralie Perkins). ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors. ...


The main weakness of Roosevelt's gubernatorial administration was the corruption of the Tammany Hall machine in New York City. Roosevelt had made his name as an opponent of Tammany, but needed the machine's goodwill to be re-elected in 1930. As the 1930 election approached, Roosevelt set up a judicial investigation into the corrupt sale of offices. In 1930, Roosevelt was elected to a second term by a margin of more than 700,000 votes, defeating Republican Charles H. Tuttle. Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ...


1932 presidential election

Roosevelt's strong base in the most populous state made him an obvious candidate for the Democratic nomination, which was hotly contested since it seemed clear that incumbent Herbert Hoover would be defeated at the 1932 election. Al Smith was supported by some city bosses, but had lost control of the New York Democratic party to Roosevelt. Roosevelt built his own national coalition with personal allies such as newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, Irish leader Joseph P. Kennedy, and California leader William G. McAdoo. When Texas leader John Nance Garner switched to FDR, he was given the vice presidential nomination. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... William Randolph Hearst (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate, born in San Francisco, California. ... Joseph Joe Patrick Kennedy, Sr. ... William Gibbs McAdoo (October 31, 1863–February 1, 1941) was a U.S. Senator and United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ...

FDR at a political rally in 1932
FDR at a political rally in 1932

The election campaign was conducted under the shadow of the Great Depression in the United States, and the new alliances which it created. Roosevelt and the Democratic Party mobilized the expanded ranks of the poor as well as organized labor, ethnic minorities, urbanites, and Southern whites, crafting the New Deal coalition. During the campaign, Roosevelt said: "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people", coining a slogan that was later adopted for his legislative program as well as his new coalition.[6] Image File history File links FDRPoliticalRally. ... Image File history File links FDRPoliticalRally. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Economist Marriner Eccles observed that "given later developments, the campaign speeches often read like a giant misprint, in which Roosevelt and Hoover speak each other's lines."[7] Roosevelt denounced Hoover's failures to restore prosperity or even halt the downward slide, and he ridiculed Hoover's huge deficits. Roosevelt campaigned on the Democratic platform advocating "immediate and drastic reductions of all public expenditures," "abolishing useless commissions and offices, consolidating bureaus and eliminating extravagances reductions in bureaucracy," and for a "sound currency to be maintained at all hazards." On September 23, Roosevelt made the gloomy evaluation that, "Our industrial plant is built; the problem just now is whether under existing conditions it is not overbuilt. Our last frontier has long since been reached."[8] Hoover damned that pessimism as a denial of "the promise of American life . . . the counsel of despair."[9] The prohibition issue solidified the wet vote for Roosevelt, who noted that repeal would bring in new tax revenues. Marriner Stoddard Eccles (1890 - 1977) was a U.S. banker and economist. ...


Roosevelt won 57% of the vote and carried all but six states. After the election, Roosevelt refused Hoover's requests for a meeting to come up with a joint program to stop the downward spiral, claiming it would tie his hands. The economy spiralled downward until the banking system began a complete nationwide shutdown as Hoover's term ended. In February 1933, an assassin, Giuseppe Zangara, fired five shots at Roosevelt, missing him but killing Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak; historians agree that FDR was the target, not the mayor. Giuseppe Zangara Giuseppe Zangara (September 7, 1900 – March 20, 1933) fired upon the United States President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933. ... Anton Cermak Anton Cermak, in Czech Antonín Čermák, (May 9, 1873 – March 6, 1933) was the mayor of Chicago, Illinois, from 1931 until his death in 1933. ...


First term, 1933-1937

See also: New Deal
President and Mrs. Roosevelt on Inauguration Day, 1932
President and Mrs. Roosevelt on Inauguration Day, 1932

When Roosevelt was inaugurated in March 1933, the U.S. was at the nadir of the worst depression in its history. A quarter of the workforce was unemployed. Farmers were in deep trouble as prices fell by 60%. Industrial production had fallen by more than half since 1929. In a country with limited government social services outside the cities, two million were homeless. The banking system had collapsed completely. Beginning with his inauguration address, he began blaming the economic downturn on businessmen, the quest for profit, and the self-interest basis of capitalism: Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Roosevelt_inauguration_1932. ... Image File history File links Roosevelt_inauguration_1932. ...

Primarily this is because rulers of the exchange of mankind's goods have failed through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted their failure, and have abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men. True they have tried, but their efforts have been cast in the pattern of an outworn tradition. Faced by failure of credit they have proposed only the lending of more money. Stripped of the lure of profit by which to induce our people to follow their false leadership, they have resorted to exhortations, pleading tearfully for restored confidence. They know only the rules of a generation of self-seekers. They have no vision, and when there is no vision the people perish. The money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civilization. We may now restore that temple to the ancient truths. The measure of the restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social values more noble than mere monetary profit.

Historians categorized Roosevelt's program as "relief, recovery and reform". Relief was urgently needed by tens of millions of unemployed. Recovery meant boosting the economy back to normal. Reform meant long-term fixes of what was wrong, especially with the financial and banking systems. Roosevelt's series of radio talks, known as fireside chats, presented his proposals directly to the American public.[10] FDR shortly after giving one of his famous fireside chats The fireside chats were a series of 30 evening radio talks given by United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944. ...


First New Deal, 1933-1934

Roosevelt's "First 100 Days" concentrated on the first part of his strategy: immediate relief. From March 9 to June 16, 1933, he sent Congress a record number of bills, all of which passed easily. To propose programs, Roosevelt relied on leading Senators such as George Norris, Robert F. Wagner and Hugo Black, as well as his own Brain Trust of academic advisers. Like Hoover, he saw the Depression as partly a matter of confidence, caused in part by people no longer spending or investing because they were afraid to do so. He therefore set out to restore confidence through a series of dramatic gestures. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... George William Norris (July 11, 1861 - September 2, 1944) was a U.S. political figure. ... Portrait of Robert F. Wagner in the U.S. Senate Reception Room Robert Ferdinand Wagner (8 June 1877–4 May 1953) was a U.S. Senator from New York. ... Hugo Black Hugo LaFayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1937 - 1971). ... The Brain Trust was the name given to a group of diverse academics who served as advisers to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the early period of his tenure. ...


FDR's natural air of confidence and optimism did much to reassure the nation. His inauguration on March 4, 1933 occurred in the middle of a bank panic, hence the backdrop for his famous words: "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself."[11] The very next day he announced a plan to allow banks to reopen, which they largely did by the end of the month. This was his first proposed step to recovery. March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers during the depression in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age 32, March 1936.
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Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers during the depression in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age 32, March 1936.
  • Relief measures included the continuation of Hoover's major relief program for the unemployed under the new name, Federal Emergency Relief Administration. The most popular of all New Deal agencies, and Roosevelt's favorite, was the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), which hired 250,000 unemployed young men to work on rural local projects. Congress also gave the Federal Trade Commission broad new regulatory powers and provided mortgage relief to millions of farmers and homeowners. Roosevelt expanded a Hoover agency, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, making it a major source of financing to railroads and industry. Roosevelt made agriculture relief a high priority and set up the first Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA). The AAA tried to force higher prices for commodities by paying farmers to take land out of crops and to cut herds.
  • Reform of the economy was the goal of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) of 1933. It tried to end cutthroat competition by forcing industries to come up with codes that established the rules of operation for all firms within specific industries, such as minimum prices, agreements not to compete, and production restrictions. Industry leaders negotiated the codes which were then approved by NIRA officials. Industry needed to raise wages as a condition for approval. Provisions encouraged unions and suspended anti-trust laws. The NIRA was found to be unconstitutional by unanimous decision of the U.S. Supreme Court on May 27, 1935. Roosevelt opposed the decision, saying "The fundamental purposes and principles of the NIRA are sound. To abandon them is unthinkable. It would spell the return to industrial and labor chaos."[12] In 1933, major new banking regulations were passed. In 1934, the Securities and Exchange Commission was created to regulate Wall Street, with 1932 campaign fundraiser Joseph P. Kennedy in charge.
  • Recovery was pursued through "pump-priming" (that is, federal spending). The NIRA included $3.3 billion of spending through the Public Works Administration to stimulate the economy, which was to be handled by Interior Secretary Harold Ickes. Roosevelt worked with Republican Senator George Norris to create the largest government-owned industrial enterprise in American history, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), which built dams and power stations, controlled floods, and modernized agriculture and home conditions in the poverty-stricken Tennessee Valley. The repeal of prohibition also brought in new tax revenues and helped him keep a major campaign promise.

Roosevelt tried to keep his campaign promise by cutting the regular federal budget, including 40% cuts to veterans' benefits and cuts in overall military spending. He removed 500,000 veterans and widows from the pension rolls and slashed benefits for the remainder. Protests erupted, led by the Veterans of Foreign Wars. Roosevelt held his ground, but when the angry veterans formed a coalition with Senator Huey Long and passed a huge bonus bill over his veto, he was defeated. He succeeded in cutting federal salaries and the military and naval budgets. He reduced spending on research and education—there was no New Deal for science until World War II began. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (6205x8066, 5528 KB) Image:Lange-MigrantMother. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (6205x8066, 5528 KB) Image:Lange-MigrantMother. ... Dorothea Lange in 1936; photographer: Paul S. Taylor Dorothea Lange (May 26, 1895 – October 11, 1965) was an influential documentary photographer. ... Migrant Mother, taken by Dorothea Lange in 1936. ... Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was the new name given by the Roosevelt Administration to the Emergency Relief Administration set up by Herbert Hoover in 1932. ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. ... FTC headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Federal Trade Commission (or FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. ... The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) was an independent agency of the U.S. government, chartered during the administration of Herbert Hoover in 1932. ... The United States Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) (P.L. 73-10 of May 12, 1933) restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area. ... NRA Blue Eagle poster. ... Media:Example. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (commonly known as the SEC) is a United States government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the Federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry. ... Joseph Joe Patrick Kennedy, Sr. ... The Public Works Administration of 1933 was a New Deal agency that made contracts with private firms for construction of public works. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ... George William Norris (July 11, 1861 - September 2, 1944) was a U.S. political figure. ... The introduction to this article is too long. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Prohibition is any of several periods during which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... The Veterans of Foreign Wars, or VFW, is an American organization whose members are current or former members of the U.S. armed forces. ... Huey Pierce Long, Jr. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


Roosevelt also kept his promise to push for repeal of Prohibition. In April 1933, he issued an Executive Order redefining 3.2% alcohol as the maximum allowed. That order was followed up by Congressional action in the drafting and passage of the 21st Amendment later that year.


Second New Deal, 1935-1936

Dust storms were frequent during the depression; this one occurred in Texas in 1935.
Dust storms were frequent during the depression; this one occurred in Texas in 1935.

After the 1934 Congressional elections, which gave Roosevelt large majorities in both houses, there was a fresh surge of New Deal legislation. These measures included the Works Progress Administration (WPA) which set up a national relief agency that employed two million family heads. However, even at the height of WPA employment in 1938, unemployment was still 12.5% according to figures from Michael Darby.[13]The Social Security Act, established Social Security and promised economic security for the elderly, the poor and the sick. Senator Robert Wagner wrote the Wagner Act, which officially became the National Labor Relations Act. The act established the federal rights of workers to organize unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes. Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas. ... Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas. ... WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created in May 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ... United States Social Security Card Social Security is a social insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration under the authority of the United States federal government. ... Social Security, in the United States, refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Portrait of Robert F. Wagner in the U.S. Senate Reception Room Robert Ferdinand Wagner (8 June 1877–4 May 1953) was a U.S. Senator from New York. ... National Labor Relations Act - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) is a 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of... Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ...


While the First New Deal of 1933 had broad support from most sectors, the Second New Deal challenged the business community. Conservative Democrats, led by Al Smith, fought back with the American Liberty League, but it failed to mobilize much grass roots support[citation needed]. By contrast, the labor unions, energized by the Wagner Act, signed up millions of new members and became a major backer of Roosevelt's reelections in 1936, 1940 and 1944.[14] Al Smith waves to crowds, 1928 Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... The American Liberty League was a U.S. organization formed in 1934 by conservative Democrats such as Al Smith (the 1928 Democratic nominee), Jouett Shouse (former high party official and U.S. Representative), and John Jacob Raskob (former Democratic national chairman and the foremost opponent of prohibition), Dean Acheson (future...


Economic environment

See also: Unemployment and the New Deal and Effects of the Great Depression The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Government spending increased from 8.0% of gross national product (GNP) under Hoover in 1932 to 10.2% of the GNP in 1936. Because of the depression, the national debt as a percentage of the GNP had doubled under Hoover from 16% to 33.6% of the GNP in 1932. While Roosevelt balanced the "regular" budget, the emergency budget was funded by debt, which increased to 40.9% in 1936, and then remained level until World War II, at which time it escalated rapidly.[15] Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ...


Deficit spending had been recommended by some economists, most notably by John Maynard Keynes of Britain. Some economists in retrospect have argued that the National Labor Relations Act and Agricultural Adjustment Administration were ineffective policies because they relied on price fixing.[16] The GNP was 34% higher in 1936 than in 1932 and 58% higher in 1940 on the eve of war. That is, the economy grew 58% from 1932 to 1940 in 8 years of peacetime, and then grew 56% from 1940 to 1945 in 5 years of wartime. However, the economic recovery did not absorb all the unemployment Roosevelt inherited. In his first term, unemployment fell by two-thirds from 25% when he took office to 9.1% in 1937 but then stayed high until it vanished during the war.[17] John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the Bretton Woods Conference John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced canes, IPA ) (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well... The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) is a 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of... The United States Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) (P.L. 73-10 of May 12, 1933) restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area. ...


During the war, the economy operated under such different conditions that comparison is impossible with peacetime. However, Roosevelt saw the New Deal policies as central to his legacy, and in his 1944 State of the Union Address, he advocated that Americans should think of basic economic rights as a Second Bill of Rights. 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... The Second Bill of Rights was a proposal made by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his State of the Union Address on January 11, 1944 to add a second bill of rights to the United States Constitution. ...


The U.S. economy grew rapidly during Roosevelt's term.[18] However, coming out of the depression, this growth was accompanied by continuing high levels of unemployment; as the median joblessness rate during the New Deal was 17.2%. Throughout his entire term, including the war years, average unemployment was 13%.[19][20] Total employment during Roosevelt's term expanded by 18.31 million jobs, with an average annual increase in jobs during his administration of 5.3%.[21] The United States has the largest national economy in the world, with a GDP for 2006 of 13. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ...


Roosevelt's administration also saw significant changes to the income tax in the U.S. tax system. Just prior to Roosevelt's election in 1932, Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1932, increasing the top marginal tax rate on individual income from 25% to 63% and enacting a wide range of additional excise taxes. In 1936, the Roosevelt administration added a higher top rate of 79% on individual income greater than $5 million, and that rate was increased again in 1939. During World War II, the top marginal tax rate was moved up to 91%. More significantly for most Americans, the overall rate structure was heavily compressed in 1943, with the highest rate made applicable to individuals with income of $200,000 or more, and withholding taxes were introduced.[22] An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income of persons, corporations or other legal entities. ... The Revenue Act of 1932 raised United States tax rates across the board, with the rate on top incomes rising from 25 percent to 63 percent. ... In the tax system and in economics, the marginal tax rate refers to the increase in ones tax obligation as ones taxable income rises: marginal tax rate = Δ(tax obligation)/Δ(taxable income) This can be measured either by looking at the published tax tables (to get the official marginal... In the tax system and in economics, the marginal tax rate refers to the increase in ones tax obligation as ones taxable income rises: marginal tax rate = Δ(tax obligation)/Δ(taxable income) This can be measured either by looking at the published tax tables (to get the official marginal...

GDP in United States January 1929 to January 1941
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GDP in United States January 1929 to January 1941
Unemployment (% Labor Force)
Year Lebergott Darby[23]
1933 24.9 20.6
1934 21.7 16.0
1935 20.1 14.2
1936 16.9 9.9
1937 14.3 9.1
1938 19.0 12.5
1939 17.2 11.3
1940 14.6 9.5
1941 9.9 8.0
1942 4.7 4.7
1943 1.9 1.9
1944 1.2 1.2
1945 1.9 1.9

Image File history File links Gdp29-41. ... Image File history File links Gdp29-41. ...

Foreign policy, 1933-36

The rejection of the League of Nations treaty in 1919 marked the dominance of isolationism from world organizations in American foreign policy. Despite Roosevelt's Wilsonian background, he and Secretary of State Cordell Hull acted with great care not to provoke isolationist sentiment. Roosevelt's "bombshell" message to the world monetary conference in 1933 effectively ended any major efforts by the world powers to collaborate on ending the worldwide depression, and allowed Roosevelt a free hand in economic policy.[24] The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military and political policy with a policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ... Secretary Hull Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) served as United States Secretary of State from 1933-1944 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. ...


The main foreign policy initiative of Roosevelt's first term was the Good Neighbor Policy, which was a re-evaluation of U.S. policy towards Latin America. Since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, this area had been seen as an American sphere of influence. American forces were withdrawn from Haiti, and new treaties with Cuba and Panama ended their status as United States protectorates. In December 1933, Roosevelt signed the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, renouncing the right to intervene unilaterally in the affairs of Latin American countries.[25] The Good Neighbor policy was the policy of the United States Administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in relation to Latin America and Europe during 1933-45, when the active U.S. intervention of previous decades was moderated in pursuit of hemispheric solidarity against external threats. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... U.S. President James Monroe. ... A sphere of inluence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States was a treaty signed at Montevideo on December 26, 1933, at the Seventh International Conference of American States. ...


Landslide re-election, 1936

In the 1936 presidential election, Roosevelt campaigned on his New Deal programs against Kansas Governor Alf Landon, who accepted much of the New Deal but objected that it was hostile to business and involved too much waste. Roosevelt and Garner won 61% of the vote and carried every state except Maine and Vermont. The New Deal Democrats won even larger majorities in Congress. Roosevelt was backed by a coalition of voters which included traditional Democrats across the country, small farmers, the "Solid South", Catholics, big city machines, labor unions, northern African Americans, Jews, intellectuals and political liberals. This coalition, frequently referred to as the New Deal coalition, remained largely intact for the Democratic Party until the 1960s.[26] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alfred M. Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, notable nationally for his 1936 nomination as the Republican opponent of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None[1] Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... A political machine is an unofficial system of political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... Labor unions in the United States today function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries, but are strongest among public sector employees such as teachers and police. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, speculate on, or ask and answer questions with regard to a variety of different ideas. ... American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. ... The following is a list of political parties known as the Democratic Party in their respective countries. ...


Second term, 1937-1941

Roosevelt's ebullient public personality helped bolster the nation's confidence.
Roosevelt's ebullient public personality helped bolster the nation's confidence.

In dramatic contrast to the first term, very little major legislation was passed in the second term. There was a United States Housing Authority (1937), a second Agricultural Adjustment Act and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938, which created the minimum wage. When the economy began to deteriorate again in late 1937, Roosevelt responded with an aggressive program of stimulation, asking Congress for $5 billion for WPA relief and public works. This managed to eventually create a peak of 3.3 million WPA jobs by 1938. (AP/Wide World Photos) This work is copyrighted. ... The United States Housing Authority, or USHA, was an agency created during 1937 as part of the New Deal. ... Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, ch. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ...


The Supreme Court was the main obstacle to Roosevelt's programs during his first term, overturning many of his programs. In particular in 1935 the Court unanimously ruled that the National Recovery Act (NRA) was an unconstitutional delegation of legislative power to the president. Roosevelt stunned Congress in early 1937 by proposing a law allowing him to appoint five new justices, a "persistent infusion of new blood". [27] This "court packing" plan ran into intense political opposition from his own party, led by Vice President Garner, since it seemed to upset the separation of powers and give the President control over the Court. Roosevelt's proposals were defeated. The Court also drew back from confrontation with the administration by finding the Labor Relations Act and the Social Security Act to be constitutional. Deaths and retirements on the Supreme Court soon allowed Roosevelt to make his own appointments to the bench with little controversy. Between 1937 and 1941, he appointed eight liberal justices to the court.[28] The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ... -1... Court packing is the name given to President Franklin Delano Roosevelts plan to create a judiciary more favorable to his New Deal policies. ... The separation of powers (or trias politica, a term coined by French political enlightenment thinker Montesquieu) is a model for the governance of democratic states. ...


Roosevelt had massive support from the rapidly growing labor unions, but now they split into bitterly feuding AFL and CIO factions, the latter led by John L. Lewis. Roosevelt pronounced a "plague on both your houses", but the disunity weakened the party in the elections from 1938 through 1946. [29] AFL has a number of references: Football leagues Australian Football League — professional competition in Australian Rules Football. ... CIO may mean: Central Intelligence Organization, secret police in Zimbabwe Chief Information Officer, a corporate title Congress of Industrial Organizations, a United States trade union confederation. ... John Llewellyn Lewis (February 12, 1880 – June 11, 1969) was an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960. ...


Determined to overcome the opposition of conservative Democrats in Congress (mostly from the South), Roosevelt involved himself in the 1938 Democratic primaries, actively campaigning for challengers who were more supportive of New Deal reform. His targets denounced Roosevelt for trying to take over the Democratic party and used the argument that they were independent to win reelection. Roosevelt failed badly, managing to defeat only one target, a conservative Democrat from New York City. [30]


In the November 1938 election, Democrats lost six Senate seats and 71 House seats. Losses were concentrated among pro-New Deal Democrats. When Congress reconvened in 1939, Republicans under Senator Robert Taft formed a Conservative coalition with Southern Democrats, virtually ending Roosevelt's ability to get his domestic proposals enacted into law. The minimum wage law of 1938 was the last substantial New Deal reform act passed by Congress. [31] Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ...


Foreign policy, 1937-1941

The rise to power of Adolf Hitler in Germany aroused fears of a new world war. In 1935, at the time of Italy's invasion of Ethiopia, Congress passed the Neutrality Act, applying a mandatory ban on the shipment of arms from the U.S. to any combatant nation. Roosevelt opposed the act on the grounds that it penalized the victims of aggression such as Ethiopia, and that it restricted his right as President to assist friendly countries, but public support was overwhelming so he signed it. In 1937, Congress passed an even more stringent act, but when the Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937, public opinion favored China, and Roosevelt found various ways to assist that nation.[32] Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Italy Ethiopia Commanders Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Strength 800,000 (only ~330,000 mobilized) 500,000 (some ill-equipped) Casualties 15,000 dead or wounded 275,000[1] The Second Italo–Abyssinian War lasted seven months in 1935–1936. ... Several United States laws have been called Neutrality Acts: The Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibited American citizens from selling arms to belligerents in international war. ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ...


In October 1937, he gave the Quarantine Speech aiming to contain aggressor nations. He proposed that warmongering states be treated as a public health menace and be "quarantined."[33]Meanwhile he secretly stepped up a program to build long range submarines that could blockade Japan. When World War II broke out in 1939, Roosevelt rejected the Wilsonian neutrality stance and sought ways to assist Britain and France militarily. He began a regular secret correspondence with Winston Churchill discussing ways of supporting Britain. The Quarantine Speech given by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1937 in Chicago calling for an international quarantine of the aggressor nations as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and isolationism that was prevalent at the time. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


Roosevelt turned to Harry Hopkins for foreign policy advice, who became his chief wartime advisor. They sought innovative ways to help Britain, whose financial resources were exhausted by the end of 1940. Congress, where isolationist sentiment was in retreat, passed the Lend-Lease Act in March 1941, allowing the U.S. to "lend" huge amounts of military equipment in return for "leases" on British naval bases in the Western Hemisphere. In sharp contrast to the loans of World War I, there would be no repayment after the war. Roosevelt was a lifelong free trader and anti-imperialist, and ending European colonialism was one of his objectives. Roosevelt forged a close personal relationship with Churchill, who became Prime Minister of the UK in May 1940. Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ... The Prime Minister is in practice the most important political office in the United Kingdom. ...


In May 1940, a stunning German blitzkrieg overran Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, leaving Britain vulnerable to invasion. Roosevelt, who was determined to defend Britain, took advantage of the rapid shifts of public opinion. A consensus was clear that military spending had to be dramatically expanded. There was no consensus on how much the U.S. should risk war in helping Britain. FDR appointed two interventionist Republican leaders, Henry L. Stimson and Frank Knox, as Secretaries of War and the Navy respectively. The fall of Paris shocked American opinion, and isolationist sentiment declined. Both parties gave support to his plans to rapidly build up the American military, but the isolationists warned that Roosevelt would get the nation into an unnecessary war with Germany. He successfully urged Congress to enact the first peacetime draft in United States history in 1940 (it was renewed in 1941 by one vote in Congress). Roosevelt was supported by the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, and opposed by the America First Committee. One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... The Selective Service Act (40 Stat. ... The Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (CDAAA) was an American political action group formed in May, 1940. ... The America First Committee was the foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War. ...


Roosevelt used his personal charisma to build support for intervention. America should be the "Arsenal of Democracy," he told his fireside audience.[34] In August, Roosevelt openly defied the Neutrality Acts with the Destroyers for Bases Agreement, which gave 50 American destroyers to Britain in exchange for base rights in the British Caribbean islands. This was a precursor of the March 1941 Lend-Lease agreement which began to direct massive military and economic aid to Britain, the Republic of China and the Soviet Union. This article is actively undergoing a major edit for a short while. ... The Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom, September 2, 1940, transferred 50 obsolete destroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared...


Third term, 1941-1945

The two-term tradition had been an unwritten rule since George Washington declined to run for a third term in 1796, but Roosevelt, after blocking the presidential ambitions of cabinet members Jim Farley and Cordell Hull, decided to run for a third term. In his campaign against Republican Wendell Willkie, Roosevelt stressed both his proven leadership experience and his intention to do everything possible to keep the United States out of war. Roosevelt won the 1940 election with 55% of the popular vote and 38 of the 48 states. A shift to the left within the Administration was shown by the naming of Henry A. Wallace as Vice President in place of the conservative Texan John Nance Garner, who had become a bitter enemy of Roosevelt after 1937. George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799) led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... James (Jim) Aloysius Farley (May 30, 1888–June 9, 1976) was an American politician who served as head of the Democratic National Committee and Postmaster General. ... Secretary Hull Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) served as United States Secretary of State from 1933-1944 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ...

Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet at Argentia, Newfoundland aboard HMS Prince of Wales during their 1941 secret meeting to develop the Atlantic Charter.
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Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet at Argentia, Newfoundland aboard HMS Prince of Wales during their 1941 secret meeting to develop the Atlantic Charter.

Roosevelt's third term was dominated by World War II, in Europe and in the Pacific. Roosevelt slowly began re-armament in 1938 since he was facing strong isolationist sentiment from leaders like Senators William Borah and Robert Taft who supported re-armament. By 1940, it was in high gear, with bipartisan support, partly to expand and re-equip the United States Army and Navy and partly to become the "Arsenal of Democracy" supporting Britain, France, China and (after June 1941), the Soviet Union. As Roosevelt took a firmer stance against the Axis Powers, American isolationists—including Charles Lindbergh and America First—attacked the President as an irresponsible warmonger. Unfazed by these criticisms and confident in the wisdom of his foreign policy initiatives, FDR continued his twin policies of preparedness and aid to the Allied coalition. On December 29, 1940, he delivered his Arsenal of Democracy fireside chat, in which he made the case for involvement directly to the American people, and a week later he delivered his famous Four Freedoms speech in January 1941, further laying out the case for an American defense of basic rights throughout the world. Image File history File links Prince_of_Wales-5. ... Image File history File links Prince_of_Wales-5. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... William Edgar Borah (NSHC statue) William Edgar Borah (June 29, 1865 – January 19, 1940) was an American politician. ... Robert A. Taft Robert Alphonso Taft (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft political family of Ohio, was a United States Senator and sought to be the Presidential candidate of the Republican Party in 1940 and 1952. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... USN redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Charles Lindbergh Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr. ... America First was a series of 20th Century isolation movements that opposed United States involvement in international affairs. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The Four Freedoms are a set of freedoms United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt famously outlined in his State of the Union Address delivered to the 77th Congress on January 6, 1941 (the address is also known as the Four Freedoms speech). ...


The military buildup caused nationwide prosperity. By 1941, unemployment had fallen to under 1 million. There was a growing labor shortage in all the nation's major manufacturing centers, accelerating the Great Migration of African-American workers from the Southern states, and of underemployed farmers and workers from all rural areas and small towns. The homefront was subject to dynamic social changes throughout the war, though domestic issues were no longer Roosevelt's most urgent policy concerns. The Great Migration was the movement of millions of African Americans out of the rural Southern United States from 1914 to 1950. ...


When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, Roosevelt extended Lend-Lease to the Soviets. During 1941, Roosevelt also agreed that the U.S. Navy would escort Allied convoys as far east as Britain and would fire upon German ships or submarines if they attacked Allied shipping within the U.S. Navy zone. Moreover, by 1941, U.S. Navy aircraft carriers were secretly ferrying British fighter planes between the UK and the Mediterranean war zones, and the British Royal Navy was receiving supply and repair assistance at American naval bases in the United States. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Thus, by mid-1941, Roosevelt had committed the U.S. to the Allied side with a policy of "all aid short of war."[35] Roosevelt met with Churchill on August 14, 1941, to develop the Atlantic Charter in what was to be the first of several wartime conferences. In July 1941, Roosevelt ordered Secretary of War Henry Stimson to begin planning for total American military involvement. The resulting "Victory Program," under the direction of Albert Wedemeyer, provided the President with the estimates necessary for the total mobilization of manpower, industry, and logistics to defeat the "potential enemies" of the United States.[36] The program also planned to dramatically increase aid to the Allied nations and to have ten million men in arms, half of whom would be ready for deployment abroad in 1943. Roosevelt was firmly committed to the Allied cause and these plans had been formulated before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.[37] August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Churchill meets FDR aboard USS Augusta at their 1941 secret meeting at Argentia, Newfoundland. ... List of World War II conferences of the Allied forces In total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 5. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... General Albert Coady Wedemeyer (1897–1989) born July 9, 1897, Omaha, Neb. ...


Pearl Harbor

Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941
Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941
See also: Attack on Pearl Harbor and Europe first

Roosevelt tried to keep Japan out of the war. After Japan occupied northern French Indo-China in late 1940, he authorized increased aid to the Republic of China. In July 1941, after Japan occupied the remainder of Indo-China, he cut off the sales of oil. Japan thus lost more than 95% of its oil supply. Roosevelt continued negotiations with the Japanese government in the hope of averting war. Meanwhile he started shifting the long-range B-17 bomber force to the Philippines, where it could threaten fire-bombing Japanese cities. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (923x1162, 169 KB) Description President Franklin Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (923x1162, 169 KB) Description President Franklin Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines... Europe first (sometimes known as Germany first) was the key element of the grand strategy employed by the United States and the United Kingdom during World War II. According to this policy, the United States and the United Kingdom would use the preponderance of their resources to subdue Germany and... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared...


On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor, destroying or damaging most of it and killing more than 2,400 American military personnel and civilians. The Japanese took advantage of their preemptive destruction of most of the Pacific Fleet to rapidly occupy the Philippines and the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, taking Singapore in February 1942 and advancing through Burma to the borders of British India by May, cutting off the overland supply route to the Republic of China. Antiwar sentiment in the United States evaporated overnight and the country united behind Roosevelt. December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ...


Despite the wave of anger that swept across the U.S. in the wake of Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt decided from the start that the defeat of Nazi Germany had to take priority. On December 11, 1941 the United States declared war on Germany and Italy, according to Kolleen Ostgaard and her colleagues.[38] The War Powers Act was passed on December 18, 1941 (http://www.usmm.org/fdr/wsalaw.html).[39]Roosevelt met with Churchill in late December and planned a broad informal alliance between the U.S., Britain, China and the Soviet Union, with the objectives of halting the German advances in the Soviet Union and in North Africa; launching an invasion of western Europe with the aim of crushing Nazi Germany between two fronts; and saving China and defeating Japan. Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... In the Gregorian Calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), at which point there will be 13 days remaining to the end of the year. ... This article is about the year. ...


War strategy

Chiang Kai-shek of China, Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill at the Cairo Conference in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek of China, Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill at the Cairo Conference in 1943
See also: Origins of the Cold War

The "Big Three" (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin), together with Chiang Kai-shek and Charles de Gaulle, oversaw an alliance in which British, American and French troops concentrated in the West, Russian troops fought on the Eastern front, and Chinese, British and American troops fought in the Pacific. The Allies formulated strategy in a series of high profile conferences as well as contact through diplomatic and military channels. Roosevelt guaranteed that the U.S. would be the "Arsenal of Democracy" by shipping $50 billion of Lend Lease supplies, primarily to Britain and also to the USSR, China and other Allies. File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Chiang, Roosevelt, and Churchill in Cairo, 11/25/1943 The Cairo Conference of November 22-26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia. ... The Origins of the Cold War are widely regarded to lie most directly within the immediate post-World War II relations between the superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union in the years 1945 - 1947, leading to the developed Cold War that endured until the collapse of the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stalin redirects here. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ) (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970), in France commonly referred to as Général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ... President Roosevelt signs H.R. 1776, the lend-lease bill to give aid to Britain and China Lend-Lease was the major United States program 1941-1945 which enabled the United States to give the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war...


The Pentagon (that is the Joint Chiefs of Staff) took the view that the quickest way to defeat Germany was to open a western front in France across the English Channel. Churchill, wary of the casualties he feared this would entail, favored a more indirect approach, advancing northwards from the Mediterranean Sea. Roosevelt rejected this plan. Stalin advocated opening a Western front at the earliest possible time, as the bulk of the land fighting in 1942-44 was on Soviet soil. Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... Map of the English Channel Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The Allies undertook the invasions of French Morocco and Algeria (Operation Torch) in November 1942, of Sicily (Operation Husky) in July 1943, and of Italy (Operation Avalanche) in September 1943. The strategic bombing campaign was escalated in 1944, pulverizing all major German cities and cutting off oil supplies. It was a 50-50 British-American operation. Roosevelt picked Dwight D. Eisenhower, and not George Marshall, to head the Allied cross-channel invasion, Operation Overlord that began on D-Day, June 6, 1944. Most of France was quickly liberated, the Allies were blocked on the German border in the "Battle of the Bulge" in December 1944; when Roosevelt died Allied forces were closing in on Berlin. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... For other people named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and...

Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and FDR at Cairo, 1945; FDR promised American friendship
Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and FDR at Cairo, 1945; FDR promised American friendship

Meanwhile, in the Pacific, the Japanese advance reached its maximum extent by June 1942, when the U.S. Navy scored a decisive victory at the Battle of Midway. American (and Australian) forces then began a slow and costly progress through the Pacific islands, with the objective of gaining bases from which strategic air power could be brought to bear on Japan and from which Japan could ultimately be invaded. Roosevelt gave way in part to insistent demands from the public and Congress that more effort be devoted against Japan; he always insisted on Germany first. Image File history File links Azizfdr. ... Image File history File links Azizfdr. ... `Abd al-`Azīz Āl Sa`ūd (November 26 (?), 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic: عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength Three carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft Four carriers, Seven battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier...


Post-war planning

By late 1943, it was apparent that the Allies would ultimately defeat Nazi Germany, and it became increasingly important to make high-level political decisions about the course of the war and the postwar future of Europe. Roosevelt met with Churchill and the Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek at the Cairo Conference in November 1943, and then went to Tehran to confer with Churchill and Stalin. At the Tehran Conference, Roosevelt and Churchill told Stalin about the plan to invade France in 1944, and Roosevelt also discussed his plans for a postwar international organization. For his part, Stalin insisted on the redrawing of the eastern frontier of Poland along the so-called Curzon line and its western frontier the Oder and Niesse rivers, something which was not communicated to the Polish government-in-exile until two years later at Yalta. Stalin was evidently pleased that the western Allies had abandoned any idea of moving into the Balkans or central Europe via Italy, and he went along with Roosevelt's plan for the United Nations. He also agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan when Germany was defeated. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... European redirects here. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Chiang, Roosevelt, and Churchill in Cairo, 11/25/1943 The Cairo Conference of November 22-26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population (as of 2005) 7,314,000 (metropolitan: 12,151,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometers, is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ... From left to right, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill The Tehran Conference (codename SEXTANT) was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 that took place in Tehran, Iran. ... Balkan peninsula with northwest border Isonzo-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern China. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ...

The "Big Three" Allied leaders at Yalta in February, 1945: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
The "Big Three" Allied leaders at Yalta in February, 1945: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

By the beginning of 1945, however, with the Allied armies advancing into Germany and the Soviets in control of Poland, the issues had to come out into the open. In February, Roosevelt, despite his steadily deteriorating health, traveled to Yalta, in the Soviet Crimea, to meet again with Stalin and Churchill. This meeting, the Yalta Conference, is often portrayed as a decisive turning point in modern history, though most of the decisions made there recognized realities which had already been established by force of arms and some had already been made. The Soviet Union was soon to occupy all of eastern Europe, and there was little Roosevelt and Churchill could do to prevent Stalin from taking permanent control. New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4, 1945 to February 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union — Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, respectively. ...


Fourth term and death, 1945

Although Roosevelt was only 62 in 1944, his health had been in decline since at least 1940. The strain of his paralysis and the physical exertion needed to compensate for it for over 20 years had taken their toll, as had many years of stress and a lifetime of chain-smoking. He had been diagnosed with high blood pressure and long-term heart disease and was advised to modify his diet (although not to stop smoking). Aware of the risk that Roosevelt would die during his fourth term, the party regulars insisted that Henry A. Wallace, who was seen as too pro-Soviet, be dropped as Vice President. After considering James F. Byrnes of South Carolina and being turned down by Indiana Governor Henry F. Schricker, Roosevelt replaced Wallace with the little known Senator Harry S. Truman. In the 1944 election, Roosevelt and Truman won 53% of the vote and carried 36 states, against New York Governor Thomas Dewey. Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Heart disease is one of a number of different diseases which afflict the heart. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was a confidant of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and one of the most powerful men in American domestic and foreign policy in the mid-2006s. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Henry Frederick Schricker (August 30, 1883 - December 28, 1966) was governor of the U.S. state of Indiana from 1941 to 1945 and from 1949 to 1953. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884–December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Dewey Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ...


After the Yalta conference in February 1945, relations between the western Allies and Stalin deteriorated rapidly, and so did Roosevelt's health. When he addressed Congress on his return from Yalta, many were shocked to see how old, thin and sick he looked. He spoke while seated in the well of the House, an unprecedented concession to his physical incapacity. But mentally he was still in full command. "The Crimean Conference," he said firmly, "ought to spell the end of a system of unilateral action, the exclusive alliances, the spheres of influence, the balances of power, and all the other expedients that have been tried for centuries — and have always failed. We propose to substitute for all these, a universal organization in which all peace-loving nations will finally have a chance to join."[40]

Roosevelt's funeral procession
Roosevelt's funeral procession

During March and early April 1945, he sent strongly worded messages to Stalin accusing him of breaking his Yalta commitments over Poland, Germany, prisoners of war and other issues. When Stalin accused the western Allies of plotting a separate peace with Hitler behind his back, Roosevelt replied: "I cannot avoid a feeling of bitter resentment towards your informers, whoever they are, for such vile misrepresentations of my actions or those of my trusted subordinates."[41] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1182, 204 KB) Description Franklin Roosevelts funeral procession with horse-drawn casket, Pennsylvania Ave. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1182, 204 KB) Description Franklin Roosevelts funeral procession with horse-drawn casket, Pennsylvania Ave. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


On March 30, 1945, Roosevelt went to Warm Springs to rest before his anticipated appearance at the founding conference of the United Nations. On the morning of April 12, Roosevelt said, "I have a terrific headache." He was to never speak again. The doctor diagnosed that he had suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage, and as Allen Drury once said “so ended an era, and so began another”. Lucy Mercer, his former mistress, was with him at the time of his death. In his latter years at the White House, Roosevelt was increasingly overworked and his daughter Anna Roosevelt Boettiger had moved in to provide her father companionship and support. Anna had also arranged for her father to meet with the now widowed Lucy Mercer Rutherfurd. When Eleanor heard about her husband's death, she was also faced with the hurtful news that Anna had been arranging these meetings with Lucy and that Lucy had been with Franklin when he died. March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Warm Springs may refer to: Warm Springs, Georgia Warm Springs, Oregon Hot spring Warm Springs Indian Reservation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... A cerebral hemorrhage or hemorrhagic stroke is a form of stroke that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or bleeds. ... Allen Stuart Drury (September 2, 1918 _ September 2, 1998) was a U.S. novelist. ... Lucy Page Mercer Rutherfurd, born Lucy Mercer, is best known as the mistress of Franklin Roosevelt. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Dall Boettiger Halsted (May 3, 1906 – December 1, 1975) was the first child of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ...


Roosevelt's death was met with shock and grief across the U.S. and around the world. At a time when the press did not pry into the health or private lives of presidents, his declining health had not been known to the general public. Roosevelt had been President for more than 12 years, longer than any other person, and had led the country through some of its greatest crises to the impending defeat of Nazi Germany and to within sight of the defeat of Japan as well.


Less than a month later, on May 8, came the moment Roosevelt fought for: V-E Day. President Harry Truman dedicated V-E Day and its celebrations to Roosevelt's memory, paying tribute to his commitment towards ending the war in Europe. May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day or VE Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Third Reich. ... For the victim of Mt. ...


Civil rights issues

See also: Franklin D. Roosevelt's record on civil rights

Roosevelt's record on civil rights has been the subject of much controversy. He was a hero to large minority groups, especially African-Americans, Catholics and Jews. African-Americans and Native Americans fared well in the New Deal relief programs, although they were not allowed to hold significant leadership roles in the WPA and CCC. Roosevelt needed the support of Southern Democrats for his New Deal programs, and therefore decided not to push for anti-lynching legislation that might threaten his ability to pass his highest priority programs. Roosevelt was highly successful in attracting large majorities of African-Americans, Jews and Catholics into his New Deal Coalition. Beginning in 1941 Roosevelt issued a series of executive orders designed to guarantee racial, religious and ethnic minorities a fair share of the new wartime jobs. He pushed for admission of African-Americans into better positions in the military. In 1942 Roosevelt made the final decision in ordering the internment of Japanese Americans and other ethnic groups during World War II. Beginning in the 1960s he was charged[42] with not acting decisively enough to prevent or stop the Holocaust which killed 6 million Jews. Critics cite episodes such as when in 1939, the 950 Jewish refugees on board the SS St. Louis were denied asylum and not allowed into the United States. Franklin D. Roosevelts record on civil rights has been the subject of much controversy. ... Lynch mob redirects here. ... The New Deal coalition was the poop alignment of interest groups and voting blocs who supported the New Deal and voted for United States Democratic Party presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, and which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that time. ... On June 25, 1941, President Roosevelt created the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) by signing Executive Order 8802. ... United States Executive Order 9066 was a presidential executive order issued during World War II by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, using his authority as Commander-in-Chief to exercise war powers to send ethnic groups to internment camps. ... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas Japanese American Internment refers to the forced removal of approximately 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans (62 percent of whom were United States citizens)[1][2] from the West Coast of the United States during World War II. While approximately 10,000 were... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... SS was a German ocean liner which sailed out of Hamburg into the Atlantic Ocean in the summer of 1939 carrying 963 Jewish refugees, mostly wealthy, seeking asylum from the Holocaust during World War II. The passengers were refused entry to Cuba, despite prior agreement to accept the passengers. ...


Legacy

A 1999 survey of academic historians by CSPAN found that historians consider Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, and Roosevelt the three greatest presidents by a wide margin, and other surveys are consistent.[43] Roosevelt is the sixth most admired person in the 20th century, according to Gallup.[44] C-SPAN, which originally stood for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, was the first United States cable television network dedicated to 24-hour coverage of government and public affairs. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799) led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... The Gallup polling organization has annually asked U.S. citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals who they most admire. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...

The Four Freedoms engraved on a wall at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Washington
The Four Freedoms engraved on a wall at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Washington

Both during and after his terms, critics of Roosevelt questioned not only his policies and positions, but also the consolidation of power that occurred because of his lengthy tenure as president, his service during two major crises, and his enormous popularity. The rapid expansion of government programs that occurred during Roosevelt's term redefined the role of the government in the United States, and Roosevelt's advocacy of government social programs was instrumental in redefining liberalism for coming generations.[45] Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 754 KB)Photo of a wall with the Four Freedoms at the FDR Memorial. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 754 KB)Photo of a wall with the Four Freedoms at the FDR Memorial. ... The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is a United States Presidential Memorial built not only to the memory of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, but also to the era he represents. ... Both during and after his terms, there was much criticism of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... During his presidency from 1933 to 1945, Franklin D. Roosevelt established a series of programs which he called the New Deal. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


Roosevelt firmly established the United States' leadership role on the world stage, with pronouncements such as his Four Freedoms speech forming a basis for the active role of the United States in the war and beyond. The decisions made at the Yalta Conference established international alliances and boundaries that continue to affect world diplomacy today. The Four Freedoms are a set of freedoms United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt famously outlined in his State of the Union Address delivered to the 77th Congress on January 6, 1941 (the address is also known as the Four Freedoms speech). ...


According to Paul Buhle and Dave Wagner, The President's Mystery, a 1936 film based on a story idea by Roosevelt, "is occasionally described as the most 'political' film that the Hollywood Left could get past the Hays Office and the studio chiefs during the Depression." The film was shelved on the grounds it was "Roosevelt commie crap" to the mind of Republic Pictures mogul Herbert Yates, but released after Roosevelt's landslide victory.[46] Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ... The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of guidelines governing the production of motion pictures. ... Republic Pictures Corporation (aka Republic Entertainment) is an independent film, television, and video distribution company that was originally a movie production-distribution corporation with studio facilities, best known for its specialization in quality B pictures, westerns and movie serials. ... Herbert John Yates (1880-1966) was the founder and president of Republic Pictures, famous for being the home of John Wayne, Gene Autry, and Roy Rogers. ...


After Franklin's death, Eleanor Roosevelt continued to be a forceful presence in U.S. and world politics, serving as delegate to the conference which established the United Nations and championing civil rights. Many members of his administration played leading roles in the administrations of Truman, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson, each of whom embraced Roosevelt's political legacy.[47] The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917–November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy, or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ...


Roosevelt's home in Hyde Park is now a National historic site and home to his Presidential library. His retreat at Warm Springs, Georgia is a museum operated by the state of Georgia. The Roosevelt memorial has been established in Washington, D.C. next to the Jefferson Memorial on the Tidal Basin, and his image appears on the Roosevelt dime. Many parks, schools, roads, an aircraft carrier and a Paris Metro station have been named in his honor, as well as smaller places such as a high school in Puerto Cortés, Honduras. Twelve days after his death in 1945, Thomas Jefferson College in Chicago was renamed after FDR with Eleanor's blessing. The Home Of Franklin D Roosevelt National Historic Site preserves the Springwood estate in Hyde Park, New York, United States of America. ... National Historic Site is a designation for a protected area of historic significance. ... The Franklin D. Roosevelt Library is the first of the United States presidential libraries. ... The Little White House was Franklin Delano Roosevelts retreat near Warm Springs, Georgia. ... The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is a United States Presidential Memorial built not only to the memory of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, but also to the era he represents. ... Jefferson Memorial at dusk, illuminated Rudolph Evans statue with the Declaration of Independence preamble to the right The front steps of the Jefferson Memorial The Jefferson Memorial at night, reflected on the Potomac River. ... The Tidal Basin is a partially man-made inlet adjacent to the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. It is part of West Potomac Park and is surrounded by the Jefferson Memorial and the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. ... A dime is a coin issued by the United States Mint with a denomination of one tenth of a United States dollar, or ten cents. ... USS (CVB/CVA/CV-42) was a Midway class aircraft carrier that served in the United States Navy from 1945 to 1977. ... Franklin D. Roosevelt is a station of the Paris Métro serving both Lines 1 and 9. ... Aerial view of Puerto Cortés, the bay area is on the right and the lagoon on the top El Malecón Bridge La Laguna, a view from El Malecón Puerto Cortés is a city in the Cortés department of Honduras. ... Roosevelt University downtown campus (Auditorium Building) Roosevelt University   Roosevelt University is a four-year, private institute of higher education with full service campuses in Chicagos Loop and northwest suburban Schaumburg. ...


Administration, Cabinet, and Supreme Court appointments 1933-1945

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933–1945
Vice President John Nance Garner 1933–1941
Henry A. Wallace 1941–1945
Harry S. Truman 1945
State Cordell Hull 1933–1944
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 1944–1945
War George H. Dern 1933–1936
Harry H. Woodring 1936–1940
Henry L. Stimson 1940–1945
Treasury William H. Woodin 1933–1934
Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 1934–1945
Justice Homer S. Cummings 1933–1939
William F. Murphy 1939–1940
Robert H. Jackson 1940–1941
Francis B. Biddle 1941–1945
Post James A. Farley 1933–1940
Frank C. Walker 1940–1945
Navy Claude A. Swanson 1933–1939
Charles Edison 1940
Frank Knox 1940–1944
James V. Forrestal 1944–1945
Interior Harold L. Ickes 1933–1945
Agriculture Henry A. Wallace 1933–1940
Claude R. Wickard 1940–1945
Commerce Daniel C. Roper 1933–1938
Harry L. Hopkins 1939–1940
Jesse H. Jones 1940–1945
Henry A. Wallace 1945
Labor Frances C. Perkins 1933–1945
Official White House Portrait
Official White House Portrait

President Roosevelt appointed nine Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States, more than any other President except George Washington, who appointed eleven. By 1941, eight of the nine Justices were Roosevelt appointees. The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1969 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884–December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ... Secretary Hull Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) served as United States Secretary of State from 1933-1944 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... George Henry Dern (born 1872) was an American politician, and the 54th War Secretary. ... Harry Hines Woodring (May 31, 1890 - September 9, 1967) was a U.S. political figure. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... John W. Snow, the current Secretary of the Treasury. ... Woodin, 1933, Time Woodins signature, as used on American currency William Hartman Woodin (1868–1934) was a U.S. industrialist. ... Henry Morgenthau Jr. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Homer Stille Cummings (1870 - 1956) was a U.S. political figure. ... For the Australian rules footballer, see Frank Murphy (footballer). ... Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892–October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940–1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–1954). ... The Nuremberg judges, left to right: John Parker, Francis Biddle, Alexander Volchkov, Iona Nikitchenko, Geoffrey Lawrence, Norman Birkett candice(May 9, 1886 – October 4, 1968) is a hater Biddle was one of four sons of Algernon Biddle, a law professor at the University of Pennsylvania. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... James (Jim) Aloysius Farley (May 30, 1888–June 9, 1976) was an American politician who served as head of the Democratic National Committee and Postmaster General. ... Frank Comerford Walker (May 30, 1886–September 13, 1959) was a United States political figure. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Claude Augustus Swanson (March 31, 1862–July 7, 1939) was an American politician. ... Charles Edison (August 3, 1890–July 31, 1969), son of Thomas Edison, was a businessman, Assistant and then Acting Secretary of the Navy, and governor of New Jersey. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense (September 17, 1947–March 28, 1949). ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Claude Raymond Wickard (1893-1967), born in Indiana, Secretary of Agriculture under President Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1940 to 1945. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Categories: Stub | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1867 births | 1943 deaths ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors. ... Jesse Holman Jones Jesse Holman Jones (also known as Jesse H. Jones) (April 5, 1874 – June 1, 1956) was a Houston, Texas politician and entrepreneur. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Frances Perkins wearing a veil after the death of president Roosevelt Frances Coralie Perkins (née Fannie Coralie Perkins). ... Image File history File links Fr32. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799) led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ...

Further information: List of nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States

Hugo Black Hugo LaFayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1937 - 1971). ... Stanley Forman Reed ( December 31, 1884 – April 2, 1980) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1938 to 1957. ... Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882 – February 22, 1965) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... For the Australian rules footballer, see Frank Murphy (footballer). ... Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as the dean of Columbia Law School, Attorney General of the United States, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and later Chief Justice of the United States. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes James Francis Byrnes ( May 2, 1879 - April 9, 1972) was a confidante of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and at one point was suggested as his running mate for Vice President. ... Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892–October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940–1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–1954). ... Wiley Blount Rutledge (July 20, 1894 - September 10, 1949) was a U.S. educator and jurist. ... To become a Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States, an individual must be nominated by the President of the United States and approved by the U.S. Senate, with at least half of that body approving in the affirmative. ...

Media

FDR video montage. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Roosevelt Pearl Harbor. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... Vorbis is an open and free lossy audio compression codec project headed by the Xiph. ... Roosevelt Infamy. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Bold textItalic text [edit] Headline text A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1024 or 1000 bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... Vorbis is an open and free lossy audio compression codec project headed by the Xiph. ...

See also

Both during and after his terms, there was much criticism of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... Franklin D. Roosevelts record on civil rights has been the subject of much controversy. ... Franklin D. Roosevelts terms as Governor of New York ran from 1929 through his election as President. ... Franklin D. Roosevelts paralysis has become a major part of his image today, even though during his life it was kept from public view and rarely discussed in public. ... This table shows the descent of President Theodore Roosevelt and President Franklin D. Roosevelt from their common ancestor Claes van Roosevelt. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Court packing is the name given to President Franklin Delano Roosevelts plan to create a judiciary more favorable to his New Deal policies. ...

References

  1. ^ Patrick D. Reagan, Designing a New America: The Origins of New Deal Planning, 1890-1943 (2000) p. 29
  2. ^ Eleanor and Franklin, Lash (1971), 111 et seq.
  3. ^ http://www.nps.gov/elro/who-is-er/q-and-a/q6.htm
  4. ^ Arthur Schlesinger, The Crisis of the Old Order, 364, citing to 1920 Roosevelt Papers for speeches in Spokane, San Francisco, and Centralia. The role Roosevelt actually played in the development of Haiti's constitution has been disputed, but the remark was at best a politically awkward overstatement and caused some controversy in the campaign.
  5. ^ Goldman, AS et al, What was the cause of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's paralytic illness?. J Med Biogr. 11: 232-240 (2003)
  6. ^ Great Speeches, Franklin D Roosevelt (1999) at 17.
  7. ^ Kennedy, 102.
  8. ^ Great Speeches, Franklin D Roosevelt (1999).
  9. ^ More, The Politics of Economic Growth in Postwar America, (2002) p. 5.
  10. ^ Leuchtenburg, (1963) ch 1, 2
  11. ^ See the text of the address at Wikisource.[1].
  12. ^ Ellis Hawley, The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly (1966) p. 124
  13. ^ Darby, Michael R.Three and a half million U.S. Employees have been mislaid: or, an Explanation of Unemployment, 1934-1941. Journal of Political Economy 84, no. 1 (1976): 1-16.
  14. ^ Leuchtenberg 1963
  15. ^ Historical Statistics (1976) series Y457, Y493, F32. The increase in debt during the depression and World War II are shown on the chart below.
    National debt from four years before Roosevelt took office to five years after the time that he died in office
    Enlarge
    National debt from four years before Roosevelt took office to five years after the time that he died in office
  16. ^ Parker.
  17. ^ Smiley 1983.
  18. ^ Historical Stats. U.S. (1976) series F31
  19. ^ Historical Statistics US (1976) series D-86; Smiley 1983
  20. ^ Smiley, Gene, "Recent Unemployment Rate Estimates for the 1920s and 1930s," Journal of Economic History, June 1983, 43, 487-93.
  21. ^ Presidents and job growth. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  22. ^ United States Internal Revenue Code, 26 USC ɠ 1, Legislative History.
  23. ^ Derby counts WPA workers as employed; Lebergott as unemployed source: Historical Statistics US (1976) series D-86; Smiley 1983 Smiley, Gene, "Recent Unemployment Rate Estimates for the 1920s and 1930s," Journal of Economic History, June 1983, 43, 487-93.
  24. ^ Leuchtenberg (1963) pp 199-203.
  25. ^ Leuchtenberg (1963) pp 203-210.
  26. ^ Leuchtenberg (1963) pp 183-196.
  27. ^ Pusey, Merlo J. F.D.R. vs. the Supreme Court, American Heritage Magazine, April 1958,Volume 9, Issue 3
  28. ^ Leuchtenberg (1963) pp 231-39
  29. ^ Leuchtenberg (1963) pp 239-43.
  30. ^ Leuchtenberg (1963)
  31. ^ Leuchtenberg (1963) ch 11.
  32. ^ Leuchtenberg (1963) ch 12.
  33. ^ See Quarantine speech on wikisource[2].
  34. ^ Full text of the speech from Wikisource.
  35. ^ Churchill, The Grand Alliance (1977) at 119.
  36. ^ The Victory Program, Mark Skinner Watson (1950), 331-366.
  37. ^ Wedemeyer Reports!, Albert C. Wedemeyer (1958), 63 et seq.
  38. ^ Churchill and Roosevelt at War: The War They Fought and the Peace They Hoped to Make, Sainsbury.
  39. ^ The First War Powers act specifically authorized the censoring of international communications, and on December 19 Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8985, which established the Office of Censorship and conferred on its director the power to censor international communications.
  40. ^ Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945, Robert Dallek (1995) at 520.
  41. ^ War in Italy 1943-1945, Richard Lamb (1996) at 287.
  42. ^ In works such as Arthur Morse's While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy (New York, 1968), David S. Wyman's Paper Walls: America and the Refugee Crisis, 1938-1941 (Boston, 1968), and Henry L. Feingold's The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 (New Brunswick, NJ, 1970)
  43. ^ American PresidentsSee, also, for example:
  44. ^ Leuchtenburg, William E. The FDR Years: On Roosevelt and His Legacy, Chapter 1, Columbia University Press, 1997
  45. ^ Schlesinger, Arthur Jr, Liberalism in America: A Note for Europeans from The Politics of Hope, Riverside Press, Boston, 1962.
  46. ^ Buhle and Wagner. Radical Hollywood: The Untold Story Behind America's Favorite Films. New York City: The New Press, 2002, p. 154, 156. ISBN 1-56584-718-0
  47. ^ William E Leuchtenburg, In the Shadow of FDR: From Harry Truman to George W. Bush (2001)

Primary sources

  • Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1951 (1951) full of useful data; online
  • Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970 (1976)
  • Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds.; Public Opinion, 1935-1946 (1951), massive compilation of many public opinion polls from USA
  • Gallup, George Horace, ed. The Gallup Poll; Public Opinion, 1935-1971 3 vol (1972) summarizes results of each poll as reported to newspapers.
  • Loewenheim, Francis L. et al, eds; Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence (1975)
  • Moley, Raymond. After Seven Years (1939), memoir by key Brain Truster
  • Nixon, Edgar B. ed. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Foreign Affairs (3 vol 1969), covers 1933-37. 2nd series 1937-39 available on microfiche and in a 14 vol print edition at some academic libraries.
  • Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Rosenman, Samuel Irving, ed. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (13 vol, 1938, 1945); public material only (no letters); covers 1928-1945.
  • Zevin, B. D. ed.; Nothing to Fear: The Selected Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1932-1945 (1946) selected speeches
  • Documentary History of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration 20 vol. available in some large academic libraries.
  • Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Myron C. Taylor, ed. Wartime Correspondence Between President Roosevelt and Pope Pius XII. Prefaces by Pius XII and Harry Truman. Kessinger Publishing (1947, reprinted, 2005). ISBN 1-4191-6654-9

Biographies

  • Alter, Jonathan. "The Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope" (2006)
  • Black, Conrad. Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Champion of Freedom, 2003.
  • Burns, James MacGregor. Roosevelt (1956, 1970), 2 vol; interpretive scholarly biography, emphasis on politics; vol 2 is on war years
  • Freidel, Frank. Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with Destiny (1990), One-volume scholarly biography; covers entire life
  • Freidel, Frank. Franklin D. Roosevelt (4 vol 1952-73), the most detailed scholarly biography; ends in 1934.
  • Davis, Kenneth S. FDR: The Beckoning of Destiny, 1982-1928 (1972)
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns. No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II (1995)
  • Jenkins, Roy. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (2003) short bio from British perspective
  • Lash, Joseph P. Eleanor and Franklin: The Story of Their Relationship Based on Eleanor Roosevelt's Private Papers (1971), history of a marriage.
  • Morgan, Ted, FDR: A biography, (1985), a popular biography
  • Ward, Geoffrey C. Before The Trumpet: Young Franklin Roosevelt, 1882-1905 (1985); A First Class Temperament: The Emergence of Franklin Roosevelt, (1992), covers 1905-1932.

Scholarly secondary sources

  • Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope (2006)
  • Beasley, Maurine, et al eds. The Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia (2001)
  • Graham, Otis L. and Meghan Robinson Wander, eds. Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times. (1985). encyclopedia
  • Kennedy, David M. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. (1999), wide-ranging survey of national affairs
  • Leuchtenberg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1940. (1963). A standard interpretive history of era.
  • Leuchtenburg, William E. In the Shadow of FDR: From Harry Truman (2001), his long-term influence
  • Parmet, Herbert S. and Marie B. Hecht; Never Again: A President Runs for a Third Term (1968) on 1940 election
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr., The Age of Roosevelt, 3 vols, (1957-1960), the classic narrative history. Strongly supports FDR. Online at vol 2 vol 3

Foreign Policy and World War II

  • Beschloss, Michael R. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941-1945 (2002).
  • Burns, James MacGregor. Roosevelt: Soldier of Freedom (1970), vol 2 covers the war years.
  • Wayne S. Cole, "American Entry into World War II: A Historiographical Appraisal," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 43, No. 4. (Mar., 1957), pp. 595-617. in JSTOR
  • Dallek, Robert. Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945 (2nd ed. 1995) broad survey of foreign policy
  • Heinrichs, Waldo. Threshold of War. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and American Entry into World War II (1988).
  • Kimball, Warren. The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as World Statesman (1991)
  • Langer, William and S. Everett Gleason. The Challenge to Isolation, 1937-1940 (1952). The Undeclared War, 1940-1941 (1953). highly influential two-volume semi-official history
  • Larrabee, Eric. Commander in Chief: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, His Lieutenants, and Their War. History of how FDR handled the war
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (1994). Overall history of the war; strong on diplomacy of FDR and other main leaders
  • Woods, Randall Bennett. A Changing of the Guard: Anglo-American Relations, 1941-1946 (1990)

Criticisms

  • Barnes, Harry Elmer. Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace: A Critical Examination of the Foreign Policy of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Its Aftermath (1953). "revisionist" blames FDR for inciting Japan to attack.
  • Best, Gary Dean. The Retreat from Liberalism: Collectivists versus Progressives in the New Deal Years (2002) criticizes intellectuals who supported FDR
  • Best, Gary Dean. Pride, Prejudice, and Politics: Roosevelt Versus Recovery, 1933-1938 Praeger Publishers. 1991; summarizes newspaper editorials
  • Conkin, Paul K. New Deal (1975), critique from the left
  • Flynn, John T. The Roosevelt Myth (1948), former Socialist condemns all aspects of FDR
  • Moley, Raymond. After Seven Years (1939) insider memoir by Brain Truster who became conservative
  • Russett, Bruce M. No Clear and Present Danger: A Skeptical View of the United States Entry into World War II 2nd ed. (1997) says US should have let USSR and Germany destroy each other
  • Powell, Jim. FDR's Folly: How Roosevelt and His New Deal Prolonged the Great Depression. (2003), a rhetorical attack on all FDR's policies
  • Robinson, Greg. By Order of the President: FDR and the Internment of Japanese Americans (2001) says FDR's racism was primarily to blame.
  • Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. Three New Deals: Reflections on Roosevelt's America, Mussolini's Italy, and Hitler's Germany, 1933-1939 (2006) compares populist and paternalist features
  • Smiley, Gene. Rethinking the Great Depression (1993) short essay by economist who blames both Hoover and FDR
  • Wyman, David S. The Abandonment Of The Jews: America and the Holocaust Pantheon Books, 1984. Attacks Roosevelt for passive complicity in allowing Holocaust to happen

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Political Offices
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1920 (lost)
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Governor of New York
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January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Warm Springs is a city located in Meriwether County, Georgia. ...


 
 

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