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Encyclopedia > Frankfurt plane

The Frankfurt plane (also called the auriculo-orbital plane) was established at the World Congress on Anthropology in Frankfurt, Germany in 1884, and decreed as the anatomical position of the human skull. It was decided that a plane passing through the inferior margin of the left orbit (the point called the left orbitale) and the upper margin of each ear canal (the point called the porion) was most nearly parallel to the surface of the earth, and also close to the position the head is normally carried in the living subject. Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The anatomical planes The anatomical position is a schematic convention for describing the relative morphology of the human body. ... A hippopotamus skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of Craniates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. ... Earth (often referred to as the Earth, or the earth) whose Latin name is Tellus (often incorrectly referred to as Terra, meaning soil) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ...


Note that in the normal subject, both orbitales and both porions lie in a single plane. However, due to pathology, this is not always the case. The formal definition specifies only three points, which must all lie on a plane.


For the purposes of comparison, the skulls of other species, notably hominids and primates may be studied in the Frankfurt plane, but it is not considered to be the anatomical position for other species. Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ...


The Frankfurt plane may also be used as a reference point in related fields. For example, in prosthodontics, the Frankfurt-Mandibular plane Angle (FMA) is the angle formed at the intersection of the Frankfurt plane with the mandibular plane. Prosthodontics is one of the nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA) and requires 3-4 years of additional formal training in an ADA approved program. ...


See also

  • Reid's base line

External links


 
 

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