FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Frank Whittle
Frank Whittle speaking to employees of the Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory (Now known as the NASA Glenn Research Center), USA, in 1946

Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, FRS, Hon FRAeS (1 June 19079 August 1996) was an English Royal Air Force officer and is seen as the father of jet propulsion. By the end of the war, Whittle's efforts resulted in engines that would lead the world in performance through the end of the decade. Whittle and Hans von Ohain met after the war and initially Whittle was angry with him as he felt Ohain had stolen his ideas. Ohain eventually convinced him that his work was independent and after that point the two became good friends. Frank Whittle speaking to employees of NASA Glenn Research Center, USA, in 1946. ... Frank Whittle speaking to employees of NASA Glenn Research Center, USA, in 1946. ... Aerial View of Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field The Glenn Research Center is a NASA center, located in Cleveland, Ohio between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation (part of the Cleveland Metroparks). ... An Air Commodoress sleeve/shoulder insignia Air Commodore is the fourth most senior rank active in the Royal Air Force today, after the deactivation of Marshal of the Royal Air Force as a substantive rank in peacetime during defence cuts of the 1990s. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... The Royal Aeronautical Society Founded in 1866 The Royal Aeronautical Society, aka. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (December 14, 1911 – March 13, 1998) was one of the inventors of jet propulsion. ...

Contents

Early life

Whittle was born in Earlsdon, Coventry, England on June 1, 1907, the son of a mechanic. He left Leamington College in 1923 to join the RAF. Through his early days as an Aircraft apprentice (first at RAF Cranwell but latterly at RAF Halton) he maintained his interest in the Model Aircraft Society where he built replicas, the quality of which attracted the eye of his commanding officer, who also felt that Whittle was a mathematical genius. Earlsdon is a suburb of Coventry, England. ... For other places with the same name, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the United Kingdom anthem is God Save the Queen. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... , Leamington Spa, properly Royal Leamington Spa but commonly just Leamington, (pronounced Lemmington — IPA: ) is a spa town in central Warwickshire, England. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... RAF Cranwell is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire close to the village of Cranwell, near Sleaford. ... RAF Halton is one of the larger Royal Air Force (RAF) stations in the United Kingdom, located near the village of Halton, Buckinghamshire. ...


He was so impressed that he recommended Whittle for the Officer Training College at Cranwell in Lincolnshire in 1926, a rarity for a "commoner" in what was still a very class-based military structure. For Whittle this was the chance of a lifetime, not only to enter the officer corps but also because the training included flying lessons. Of the few apprentices that were accepted, only about one percent completed the course. Whittle was the exception to the rule, graduating in 1928 at the age of 21, ranked second in his class in academics and an "Exceptional to Above Average" pilot. Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. ... A commoner, in British law, is someone who is neither the Sovereign nor a noble. ...


Another requirement of the course was that each student had to produce a thesis for graduation. Whittle decided to write his thesis on future developments in aircraft design, notably high-speed flight at high altitudes and speeds over 500 mph (800 km/h). He showed that incremental improvements in existing propeller engines were unlikely to make such flight routine. Instead he described what is today referred to as a motorjet, a motor using a conventional piston engine to provide compressed air to a combustion chamber whose exhaust was used directly for thrust – essentially an afterburner attached to a propeller engine. The design was not a new one, it had been talked about for some time in the industry but Whittle's interest was to demonstrate that at increased altitudes the lower outside air pressure would increase its efficiency. For long-range flight, using an Atlantic-crossing mailplane as his example, the engine would spend most of its time at high altitude and thus could outperform a conventional powerplant. Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... The Campini Caproni CC.2 Motorjet powered aircraft. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ...


Development of the jet engine

Whittle continued working on the motorjet principle after his thesis work and eventually abandoned it when further calculations showed it would weigh as much as a conventional engine of the same thrust. While thinking about the idea he thought "Why not substitute a turbine for the piston engine?" Instead of using a piston engine to provide the compressed air for the burner, a turbine could be used to extract some power from the exhaust and power a compressor, like those used for superchargers. The leftover exhaust thrust would power the aircraft. A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to force more air (and hence more oxygen) into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than can be achieved at ambient atmospheric pressure (natural aspiration). ...


Earlier, in July 1926, A. A. Griffith published a paper on compressors and turbines, which he had been studying at the RAE. He showed that such designs up to this point had been flying "stalled", and that by making the compressor blades into an aerofoil shape, their efficiency could be dramatically improved. The paper went on to describe how the increased efficiency of these sorts of compressors and turbines would allow a jet engine to be produced, although he felt the idea was impractical, and instead suggested using the power as a turboprop. At the time most superchargers used a centrifugal compressor, so there was limited interest in the paper. Alan Arnold Griffith (b 13 June 1893 - 13 Oct 1963) was a British engineer, who, among many other contributions, is best known for his work on stress and fracture in metals that is now known as metal fatigue, as well as being one of the first to develop a strong... This article needs cleanup. ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... A centrifugal compressor, also called a radial blower, squirrel cage, or squirrel wheel compressor, consists of an axle to which is mounted a cylindrical assembly of compressor blades. ...


In late 1929 Whittle sent his concept to the Air Ministry to see if it would be any interest. With little knowledge of the topic they turned to the only other person who had written on the subject and passed the paper on to Griffith. Griffith appears to have been convinced that Whittle's "simple" design could never achieve the sorts of efficiencies needed for a practical engine. After pointing out an error in one of Whittle's calculations, he went on to comment that the centrifugal design would be too large for aircraft use and that using the jet directly for power would be rather inefficient. The RAF returned comment to Whittle, where they referred to the design as "impracticable." The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ...


Others in the RAF were not so sure. In particular Johnny Johnson convinced him to patent the idea in January 1930. Since the RAF was not interested in the concept they did not declare it secret, which meant that Whittle was able to retain the rights to the idea, which would have otherwise been the property of the RAF. This rejection would later turn out to be a stroke of luck. Johnnie Johnson (born July 8, 1924) is a Rock and Roll Hall of Fame member, piano player and blues musician. ...


Meanwhile Whittle moved onto the Officers' Engineering Course at RAF Henlow, Bedfordshire in 1932 and then to Peterhouse, Cambridge in 1934, graduating in 1936 with a First in the Mechanical Sciences Tripos. RAF Henlow is a Royal Air Force station near Luton. ... Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... Full name Peterhouse Motto - Named after St Peter Previous names The Scholars of the Bishop of Ely St Peter’s College Established 1284 Sister College(s) Merton College Master The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn Location Trumpington Street Undergraduates 253 Postgraduates 125 Homepage Boatclub The chapel cloisters, through which Old Court... The University of Cambridge, England, divides the different kinds of honours bachelors degree by Tripos, a word which has an obscure etymology, but which may be traced to the three-legged stool candidates once used to sit on when taking oral examinations. ...


Power jets

Whittle's jet engine patent lapsed in 1935 because he could not afford the renewal fee of £5. Soon after this he was approached by two ex-RAF men, Rolf Dudley-Williams and J. Tinling, who wanted to expand the development of his engine. The three incorporated as Power Jets Ltd. in 1936 with a bank loan of £2,000. Work was started on an experimental engine at a factory in Rugby, Warwickshire belonging to British Thomson-Houston, a steam turbine company. The RAF still saw no value in the effort but although Whittle was still a pilot they placed him on the Special Duty List and agreed to allow him to work on the design as long as it took no more than six hours a week. Sir Rolf Dudley Dudley-Williams, 1st Baronet (originally (Rolf) Dudley Williams, 17 June 1908 – 8 October 1987) was a British aeronautical engineer and politician. ... James Collingwood Burdett Tinling (24 March 1900 - 1983)was an ex-RAF officer who joined with Rolf Dudley-Williams and Frank Whittle in 1936 to set up Power Jets Ltd, which manufactured the worlds first working jet engine. ... Rugby is a market town in the county of Warwickshire in the West Midlands of England, on the River Avon. ... British Thomson-Houston (BTH) was a British engineering and heavy industrial company, known primarily for their electrical systems and steam turbines. ...

The Gloster E.28/39, the first British aircraft to fly with a turbojet engine
The Gloster E.28/39, the first British aircraft to fly with a turbojet engine

Funding development of the first engine, known as the WU (Whittle Unit) was a serious problem. Although privately funded, most potential investors shied from a project that appeared to be semi-secret yet had no RAF (Royal Air Force) backing. Something seemed to be amiss; if the project was going to work, why didn't the RAF fund it? Once again it seemed not everyone was so sceptical of Whittle's ideas and in October 1936 Henry Tizard, the rector of Imperial College London and chairman of the Aeronautical Research Committee, sent details of Whittle's engine to Griffith once again. Griffith had by this time started construction of his own engine design; perhaps in order to avoid tainting his efforts, he returned a much more positive review. He remained highly critical of some features, notably the use of jet thrust, seemingly ignoring the fact that its performance at high speed and altitude was the crucial aspect of the programme. Image File history File links Gloster_E28-39_first_prototyp_lr. ... Image File history File links Gloster_E28-39_first_prototyp_lr. ... The Gloster E.28/39, (also referred to as the Gloster Whittle, Gloster Pioneer, or Gloster G.40) was the first jet engined aircraft to fly in the United Kingdom. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... Sir Henry Thomas Tizard (1885 - 1959) was a British scientist and inventor. ... Imperial College London (also known as Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a British university institution and a constituent college of the University of London. ...


Even with these problems Power Jets were able to complete the WU, which ran successfully on April 12, 1937. Tizard pronounced it "streets ahead" of any other advanced engine he had seen and managed to interest the Air Ministry enough to fund development with a contract for £6,000 to develop a flyable version. Nevertheless it was a year before all of the funds were available, greatly delaying development. is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ...


Meanwhile testing continued with the WU, which showed an alarming tendency to race out of control. Due to the dangerous nature of the work being carried out, in 1938 development was largely moved from Rugby to the BTH's semi-disused Ladywood foundry at nearby Lutterworth in Leicestershire. There was a successful run of the WU there in March 1938. Although the potential of the engine was obvious, the Air Ministry remained focused on the production of piston engine designs. , Lutterworth is a market town in the Harborough district of Leicestershire, England. ... Leicestershire ( IPA: (RP), IPA: (locally)), abbreviation Leics. ...


All of these delays and the lack of funding slowed the project. In Germany, Hans von Ohain had started work on a prototype in 1935 and had by this point passed the prototype stage and was building the first flyable design, the Heinkel HeS 3. There is little reason to believe that Whittle's efforts would not have been at the same level or more advanced had the Air Ministry taken a greater interest in the design. When the war started in September 1939, Power Jets had a payroll of only 10 and Griffith's efforts at the RAE and Metropolitan Vickers were similarly small. Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (December 14, 1911 – March 13, 1998) was one of the inventors of jet propulsion. ... The HeS 3 was the worlds first operational jet engine to power an aircraft. ... Metropolitan-Vickers, Metrovick, or Metrovicks, was a British heavy industrial firm of the early-to-mid 20th century formerly known as British Westinghouse. ...


The stress of the continual on-again-off-again development and problems with the engine had a serious toll on Whittle. He suffered from stress-related ailments such as eczema and heart palpitations, while his weight dropped to 9 stone (126 pounds/57 kg). In order to keep to his sixteen-hour workdays, he sniffed Benzedrine during the day and then took tranquilizers and sleeping pills at night to offset the effects and allow him to sleep. Over this period he became irritable and developed an "explosive" temper. For the beetle, see Exema. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Following the outbreak of World War II the Air Ministry changed priorities and once again looked at the various advanced projects underway. By 1939, Power Jets could barely afford to keep the lights on when yet another visit was made by Air Ministry personnel. This time Whittle was able to run the WU at high power for 20 minutes without any difficulty. One of the members of the team was the Director of Scientific Research, H. E. Wimperis, who walked out of the demonstration utterly convinced of the importance of the project. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


A contract for full-scale development was immediately sent to Power Jets, along with a number of tenders to various companies to set up production lines for up to 3,000 engines a month in 1942. Power Jets had no manufacturing capability, so the Air Ministry offered shared production and development contracts with BTH, Vauxhall and Rover. However, the contract was eventually taken up by Rover only. They also sent out a contract for a simple airframe to carry the engine, which was quickly taken up by Gloster. For information about the football team see Vauxhall Motors F.C. Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... // Rover was a British automobile manufacturer and later a marque based at the former Austin Longbridge plant in Birmingham. ... The Gloster Aircraft Company was formed at Brockworth ( Gloucester ) in 1915 as the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company. ...


Whittle had already studied the problem of turning the massive WU into a flyable design and with the new contract work started in earnest on the "Whittle Supercharger Type W.1." However, Rover was unable to deliver the W.1 production engine before Gloster's experimental airframe was ready. Whittle then cobbled together an engine built from various test parts and called it the W.1X, which ran for the first time on December 14 1940. This engine powered the Gloster E.28/39 for taxi testing when it took to the air for a short hop on April 7 1941. is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1940: Events March March 16 - Britain suffers its first civilian air-raid casualties of the war after a raid by KG 26 on Scapa Flow March 25 - the US government grants permission to the countrys aircraft manufacturers to sell advanced... The Gloster E.28/39, (also referred to as the Gloster Whittle, Gloster Pioneer, or Gloster G.40) was the first jet engined aircraft to fly in the United Kingdom. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1941: Events Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to fly a bomber across the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Film of the early secret E.28 tests exists. It illustrates the vivid memories of ordinary folk living nearby who were interviewed by the BBC a decade later. They recall their amazement that an aeroplane could fly with no propellers and the questions is raised in local pubs at the time: how could it possibly work? Did the mystery aircraft somehow suck itself through the air like a supercharged vacuum cleaner? It was difficult for laypeople still used to conventional aircraft to imagine that jet propulsion could work. An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada...


The "full" W.1 of 3.8 kN (850 lbf) thrust ran on April 12, 1941 and on May 15, 1941 the W.1-powered E.28/39 took off from Cranwell at 7.40 pm, flying for seventeen minutes and reaching a maximum speed of around 545 km/h (340 mph). Within days it was reaching 600 km/h (370 mph) at 7,600 metres, exceeding the performance of the contemporary Spitfires, astounding considering this was the first such engine. Success of the design was now evident to all and nearly every engine company in England started their own crash efforts to catch up with Power Jets. The kilonewton, symbol kN, is an SI unit of force. ... The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Supermarine Spitfire was an iconic British single-seat fighter, which was used by the British Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s. ...

The W2/700 engine flew in the Gloster E.28/39, the first British aircraft to fly with a turbojet engine, and the Gloster Meteor.
The W2/700 engine flew in the Gloster E.28/39, the first British aircraft to fly with a turbojet engine, and the Gloster Meteor.

A newer design known as the W.2 was then started. Like the W.1 it featured a "reverse flow" design of the burners, in which the heated air from the flame cans was piped back towards the front of the engine before entering the turbine area. This allowed the engine to be "folded", with the flame cans lying around the turbine area, and therefore making for a shorter engine. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x938, 171 KB) Summary Whittle W2/700 Engine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x938, 171 KB) Summary Whittle W2/700 Engine. ... The Gloster E.28/39, (also referred to as the Gloster Whittle, Gloster Pioneer, or Gloster G.40) was the first jet engined aircraft to fly in the United Kingdom. ... The Gloster Meteor was the Allies first operational jet fighter. ...


Power Jets also spent some time in May 1940 drawing up the W.2Y, a similar design with a "straight through" airflow that resulted in a longer engine and (more critically) driveshaft but with a somewhat simpler layout. In order to reduce the weight of the driveshaft as much as possible, the W.2Y used a large cylindrical shaft almost as large as the turbine disk, "necked down" at either end where it connected to the turbine and compressor.


The Air Ministry was eager to obtain an operational jet aircraft and authorised BTH to press ahead with a twin-engined jet interceptor, which would evolve into the Gloster Meteor. The Meteor was intended to use either the W.2 or the similar Halford H.1 (later named "Goblin") but de Havilland later decided to keep all the Halfords for their design, the de Havilland Vampire. The Gloster Meteor was the Allies first operational jet fighter. ... Cutaway Goblin II A cutaway diagram of the internal workings of the de Havilland Goblin, as fitted to the Vampire. ... For other uses, see De Havilland (disambiguation). ... The de Havilland DH.100 Vampire was the second jet-engined aircraft commissioned by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War (the first being the Gloster Meteor), although it did not see combat in that conflict. ...


Rover

In 1941 Rover set up a new laboratory for Whittle's team along with a production line at their disused Barnoldswick factory but they also set up a parallel effort with their own engineers at Waterloo Mill, Clitheroe. Here Adrian Lombard attempted to develop the W.2 into a production quality design, dispensing with Whittle's "reverse flow" burners and developing a longer but simpler "straight-through" engine instead. Work at Barnoldswick continued on Whittle's original design, now known as the W.2B/23, while Lombard's new design became the W.2B/26. Whittle was upset by this course of events, feeling that all work should concentrate on producing a single design as soon as possible. For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


By late 1941 it was obvious to all that the arrangement between Power Jets and Rover was not working. Whittle was frustrated by Rover's inability to deliver production-quality parts, as well as with their "we know better than you" attitude and became increasingly vocal. Rover was losing interest in the project after the delays and constant harassment from Power Jets.


Rolls-Royce

In 1940, Stanley Hooker of Rolls-Royce had met with Whittle and later introduced him to Rolls' CEO, Ernest Hives. Hooker led Rolls' supercharger division, which was naturally suited to jet engine work. Hives agreed to supply key parts to help the project and it was Rolls engineers who helped solve the surging problems seen in the early engines. In early 1942 Whittle contracted Rolls for six engines as well, known as the WR.1, identical to the existing W.1. Sir Stanley Hooker Sir Stanley George Hooker (b. ... Rolls-Royce Limited was a British car and aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Henry Royce and C.S. Rolls on 15 March 1906 and was the result of a partnership formed in 1904. ... Ernest Walter Hives Ernest Walter Hives, 1st Baron Hives, (b 1886, d 1965), was the onetime head of the Rolls-Royce Aero Engine division. ...


The problems at Rover became a "public secret" and eventually Spencer Wilkes of Rover met with Hives and Hooker at the Swan and Royal pub near the Barnoldswick factory. They decided to trade the jet factory at Barnoldswick for Rolls' tank engine factory in Nottingham. A handshake sealed the deal. The handover took place on January 1 1943, although the official date was later. Rolls soon closed Rover's parallel plant at Clitheroe, although they continued development of the W.2B/26 that had been developed there. The Rolls-Royce Meteor was a British tank engine developed from the Rolls-Royce Merlin aero-engine. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Testing and production was immediately stepped up. In December Rover had tested the W.2B for a total of 37 hours but within the next month Rolls-Royce tested it for 390 hours. The W.2B passed its first 100 hour test at full performance of 725 kgf (7.11 kN) on May 7, 1943. The prototype Meteor airframe was already complete and took to the air on June 12, 1943. Production versions started rolling off the line in October, first known as the W.2B/23, then the RB.23 (for Rolls-Barnoldswick) and eventually the Rolls-Royce Welland. Barnoldswick was too small for full-scale production and turned back into a pure research facility under Hooker, while a new factory was set up in Newcastle-under-Lyme. The W.2B/26, as the Rolls-Royce Derwent, opened the new line and soon replaced the Welland, allowing the production lines at Barnoldswick to shut down in late 1944. The deprecated unit kilogram-force (kgf) or kilopond (kp) is the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity (defined as exactly 9. ... The kilonewton, symbol kN, is an SI unit of force. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gloster Meteor was the Allies first operational jet fighter. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Welland was Englands first production jet engine. ... Newcastle-under-Lyme, known simply as castle to many local people, is a busy market town/small city in Staffordshire, England, not to be confused with the larger city of Newcastle upon Tyne. ... Rolls-Royce Derwent The Rolls-Royce Derwent is a 1940s British centrifugal compressor turbojet engine. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Despite lengthy delays (Hitler initially demanded the Me 262 be a bomber), the Luftwaffe beat the British efforts into the air by nine months, which in turn, had also been delayed at Rover. Since their German counterparts were forced to deal with a serious shortage of high temperature alloys, the Junker engines (axial-flow designed by Dr. Anselm Franz) would typically last 10-25 hours (longer with an experienced pilot) and sometimes exploded on their first startup. Thus the engines that powered the Meteor were much more reliable by comparison. The equivalent British engine would run for 150 hours between overhauls and had twice the power-to-weight ratio and half the specific fuel consumption. By the end of the war every major engine company in Britain was working on jet designs based on the Whittle pattern or licensed outright. The Korean war saw US F-86 Sabres using an axial flow engine inspired by Dr. Franz's design doing battle with Soviet made MiG-15s using a copy of the Rolls-Royce Nene engine. By the late 1950s though, most engines powering US and USSR fighters were no longer descended from Whittle's work but used rather, engines based on the axial flow design. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anselm Franz (1900-1994) was a pioneering jet engine engineer, known for the development of the Jumo 004 turbojet in Germany during World War II, and his work on turboshaft designs in the US after the war. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ... Specific fuel consumption, often shortened to SFC, is an engineering term that is used to describe the fuel efficiency of an engine design w/ a mechanical output. ... The Nene or RB.41, was Rolls-Royces third jet engine to enter production, designed and built in an astonishingly short five month period in 1944, first running on October 27th, 1944. ...


Continued development

With the W.2 proceeding smoothly, Whittle was sent to Boston, Massachusetts in mid-1942 to help the General Electric jet programme. GE, the primary supplier of turbochargers in the US, was well suited to quickly starting jet production. A combination of the W.2B design and a simple airframe from Bell Aircraft flew in autumn of 1942 as the Bell XP-59A Airacomet. Nickname: Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Settled 1630 Incorporated (city) 1822 Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area  - City  89. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American company. ... Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc. ... The Bell Aircraft Corporation was an aircraft manufacturer of the United States, a builder of several types of fighter aircraft for World War II but most famous for the Bell X-1, the first supersonic aircraft, and for many types of helicopters. ... The Bell P-59 was a fighter aircraft built in the United States during World War II. Its prototype, the XP-59 became the first jet-powered aircraft to fly in the US when it took off for the first time on October 1, 1942. ...


Whittle's developments at Power Jets continued, resulting in the improved W.2/500 and later the W.2/700. Both were fitted for testing on Meteors, the W.2/700 later being fitted with an afterburner ("reheat" in British terminology), as well as experimental water-injection to cool the engine and allow for higher power settings without melting the turbine. Whittle also turned his attention to the axial-flow championed by Griffith, designing the L.R.1. Other developments included the use of fans to provide more mass-flow, either at the front of the engine as in a modern turbofan or at the rear, which is much less common but somewhat simpler. For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ...


Whittle's work had caused a minor revolution within the British engine manufacturing industry and even before the E.28/39 flew most companies had set up their own research efforts. In 1939, Metropolitan-Vickers set up a project to develop an axial-flow design as a turboprop but later re-engineered the design as a pure jet known as the Metrovick F.2. Rolls-Royce had already copied the W.1 to produce the low-rated WR.1 but later stopped work on this project after taking over Rover's efforts. de Havilland started a jet fighter project in 1941, the Spider Crab—later called Vampire—along with their own engine to power it: Frank Halford's Goblin (Halford H.1). Armstrong Siddeley also developed an axial-flow design, the ASX but reversed Vickers' thinking and later modified it into a turboprop instead, the Python. Metropolitan-Vickers, or Metrovick, was a British heavy industrial firm of the early-to-mid 20th century formerly known as British Westinghouse. ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... The Metrovick F.2 was one of the earliest jet engines, and the first British design to be based on an axial compressor. ... Rolls-Royce Limited was a British car and aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Henry Royce and C.S. Rolls on 15 March 1906 and was the result of a partnership formed in 1904. ... For other uses, see De Havilland (disambiguation). ... The de Havilland DH.100 Vampire was the second jet-engined aircraft commissioned by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War (the first being the Gloster Meteor), although it did not see combat in that conflict. ... Major Frank Bernard Halford, (1894–1955), was an aircraft engine designer. ... Cutaway Goblin II A cutaway diagram of the internal workings of the de Havilland Goblin, as fitted to the Vampire. ... The Armstrong-Siddeley automobiles (and later aircraft engines) were an English marque manufactured from 1919 (after the company was formed in 1917 by a merger between two Coventry_based companies, Armstrong-Whitworth and Siddeley-Deasy) to 1960. ... The ASX, likely short for Armstrong-Siddeley eXperimental, was an early axial flow jet engine built by Armstrong-Siddeley that first ran in April 1943. ... The Armstrong-Siddeley Python was an early British turboprop engine designed and built by the Armstrong Siddeley company. ...


With practically every engine company producing their own designs, Power Jets was no longer able to generate realistic income. In April 1944 Power Jets was nationalised, becoming the National Gas Turbine Establishment at the original Ladywood experimental site. In 1946 it was reorganised with the RAE divisions joining them.


After the War

Whittle, disenfranchised, quit what was left of Power Jets in 1948. Long a socialist, his experiences with nationalisation changed his mind and he later campaigned for the Conservative Party (especially for his friend Dudley Williams, who was Managing Director of Power Jets and became Conservative Member of Parliament for Exeter. He also retired from the RAF, complaining of ill health, leaving with the rank of Air Commodore. Shortly afterwards he received £100,000 from the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors, partly to pay him for turning over all of his shares of Power Jets when it was nationalised. He was made a Knight of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) in that same year. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Sir Rolf Dudley Dudley-Williams, 1st Baronet (originally (Rolf) Dudley Williams, 17 June 1908 – 8 October 1987) was a British aeronautical engineer and politician. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Exeter is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander...


He soon joined BOAC as a technical advisor on aircraft gas turbines. He travelled extensively over the next few years, viewing jet engine developments in USA, Canada, Africa, Asia and the Middle East. He left BOAC in 1952 and spent the next year working on a biography, Jet: The Story of a Pioneer. He was awarded the Royal Society of Arts' Albert Medal that year. After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ... The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ... The Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts was instituted in 1864 as a memorial to Prince Albert, who had been President of the Society for 18 years. ...


Returning to work in 1953, he accepted a position as a Mechanical Engineering Specialist in one of Shell Oil's subsidiaries. Here he developed a new type of drill that was self-powered by a turbine running on the mud pumped into the hole that was used as a lubricant during drilling. Normally a well is drilled by attaching rigid sections of pipe together and powering the cutting head by spinning the pipe but Whittle's design meant that the drill had no strong mechanical connection to the head frame, allowing for much lighter piping to be used. A Shell petrol station sign in the UK The Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies (called Shell Oil in North America), has its headquarters split between the Shell Centre in London, United Kingdom and The Hague, Netherlands. ...


Whittle left Shell in 1957 but the project was picked up in 1961 by Bristol Siddeley Engines, who set up Bristol Siddeley Whittle Tools to further develop the concept. In 1966 Rolls Royce purchased Bristol Siddeley but the financial pressures and eventual bankruptcy due to cost overruns of the RB211 project led to the slow wind-down and eventual disappearance of Whittle's "turbo-drill". The design would eventually appear only in the late 1990s, when it was combined with continuous coiled pipe to allow uninterrupted drilling at any angle. The "continuous-coil drilling" can drill straight down into a pocket of oil and then sideways through the pocket to allow the oil to flow out faster. Bristol Siddeley was a British aero-engine manufacturer formed in 1959 from the merger of Bristol Aero Engines and Armstrong-Siddeley Motors. ... RB211 powered Lockheed L-1011 The Rolls Royce RB.211 family is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines made by Rolls-Royce capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force (166 to 270 kilonewtons) thrust. ...


In 1976 Whittle emigrated to the US and the next year he accepted the position of NAVAIR Research Professor at the US Naval Academy Annapolis. His research concentrated on the boundary layer before his professorship became part-time from 1978 to 1979. The part time post enabled him to write a textbook on gas turbine thermodynamics. It was at this time that he met von Ohain, who was working at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. At first upset because he believed von Ohain had developed his engine after seeing Whittle's patent, he eventually became convinced that von Ohain's development was his own. The two became good friends and often toured the US giving talks together. In 1991 von Ohain and Whittle were awarded the Charles Stark Draper Prize for their work on turbojet engines. Teamwork: Fourth Class Midshipmen lock arms and use ropes made from uniform items as they brace themselves climbing the Herndon Monument The United States Naval Academy, or USNA, is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. ... In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is that layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface. ... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Riverside, Fairborn, Beavercreek, and Dayton, Ohio. ... The Charles Stark Draper Prize is awarded by the National Academy of Engineering for the advancement of engineering and the education of the public about engineering. ...


Later life

Frank Whittle married Dorothy Lee in May 1930 and they had two sons. While at Cranwell he lodged in a bungalow at Dorrington. The marriage was dissolved in 1976 and Whittle re-married to Hazel Hall. He died on 8 August, 1996 of lung cancer, at his home in Columbia, Maryland, USA. Dorrington is a village in Shropshire, England. ... The People Tree statue has become a symbol of Columbia, Maryland. ...


Memorials

Statue of Sir Frank Whittle under the Whittle Arches, Coventry
Statue of Sir Frank Whittle under the Whittle Arches, Coventry

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ...

In Whittle's birthplace, Coventry, England

  • The "Whittle Arch" statue is a large double wing-like structure situated outside the Coventry Transport Museum, in Millennium Place, Coventry, England.
    The Whittle Arches in Coventry
    The Whittle Arches in Coventry
  • A statue of Whittle by Faith Winter is situated under the Whittle Arch in Millennium Place, Coventry. It was unveiled on the 1 June 2007 by his son during a televised event. It shows Whittle at RAF Cranwell looking towards the sky observing the first test flight of a Gloster-Whittle E28/39 on 15 May 1941.
  • In the Walsgrave suburb of Coventry, there is a school named after Whittle. It was called Frank Whittle Primary up until 1997, before being re-named Sir Frank Whittle primary school. A jet engine replica sits in the reception of the school, Whittle himself donating it before his death.
  • There is a commemorative plaque on the house in Newcombe Road, Earlsdon, Coventry, where he was born and brought up in.
  • On Hearsall Common, near to Whittle's birthplace in Coventry, a plaque commemorates where Whittle gained inspiration when he saw an aircraft land.
  • Coventry University has named one its buildings after him.
  • The main hangar at the Midland Air Museum is called the The Sir Frank Whittle Jet Heritage Centre.

The Museums entrance The Coventry Transport Museum (formerly known as the Museum of British Road Transport) is a major motor museum, located in Coventry, England. ... For other places with the same name, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... RAF Cranwell is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire close to the village of Cranwell, near Sleaford. ... The Gloster E.28/39, (also referred to as the Gloster Whittle, Gloster Pioneer, or Gloster G.40) was the first jet engined aircraft to fly in the United Kingdom. ... Walsgrave-On-Sowe was a village located about 3 miles north-east of Coventry, West Midlands in England. ... Earlsdon is a suburb of Coventry, England. ... // Hearsall common is located in Earlsdon, a district of Coventry in the West Midlands, Central England. ... Coventry University is a post-1992 university in Coventry, UK. Under the terms of the Further and Higher Education Act of 1992, the institutions name was changed from Coventry Polytechnic to Coventry University. ... The Sir Frank Whittle Jet Heritage Centre at the MAM The Midland Air Museum (MAM) is situated outside Coventry in Warwickshire, England. ...

Outside Coventry

  • A full scale model of the E.28/39 Whittle has been erected just outside the northern boundary of Farnborough Airfield in Hampshire, England.
  • A similar memorial has been erected in the middle of a roundabout outside Lutterworth where much of Whittle's development was carried out.
  • The Sir Frank Whittle Medal is awarded annually by the Royal Academy of Engineering.
  • Two roads in Derby are named Sir Frank Whittle Road and Sir Frank Whittle Way, as a tribute to his work at Rolls-Royce.
  • Whittle Parkway in Burnham, near Slough, Berkshire is named after him.
  • One of the main buildings at the Royal Air Force College Cranwell is called Whittle Hall.
  • Cambridge University Engineering Department has a Whittle Laboratory.
  • A road in Rugby is named Whittle Close.
  • Whittle Close in Clitheroe is named after him.
Sir Frank Whittle's memorial at Farnborough Aerodrome
Sir Frank Whittle's memorial at Farnborough Aerodrome

Sir Frank Whittle Way is also a new road at Blackpool Business park in Blackpool named in memory of Sir Frank Whittle Farnborough Airport or TAG London Farnborough Airport (IATA: FAB, ICAO: EGLF) (previously called RAE Farnborough) is an airport situated in Farnborough, Hampshire in England. ... Hampshire, sometimes historically Southamptonshire or Hamptonshire, (abbr. ... A roundabout or rotary is a type of road junction (or traffic calming device) at which traffic enters a stream around a central island after first yielding (giving way) to the circulating traffic. ... , Lutterworth is a market town in the Harborough district of Leicestershire, England. ... The Sir Frank Whittle Medal is awarded annually by the Royal Academy of Engineering to an engineer, normally resident in the United Kingdom, for outstanding and sustained achievement which has contributed to the well-being of the nation. ... The Royal Academy of Engineering is a British learned society concerned with engineering. ... Derby (pronounced dar-bee ) is a city in the East Midlands of England. ... Rolls-Royce Limited was a British car and aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Henry Royce and C.S. Rolls on 15 March 1906 and was the result of a partnership formed in 1904. ... Burnham lies north of the River Thames, and sits on the border with Berkshire, between the towns of Maidenhead and Slough. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in England. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rugby is a market town in the county of Warwickshire in the West Midlands of England, on the River Avon. ... Arms of Clitheroe Town Council Clitheroe is a small civil parish of the borough of Ribble Valley, Lancashire, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FrankwhittleE28-39farnborough. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FrankwhittleE28-39farnborough. ...


See also

This article outlines some of the important developments in the early history of the development of the jet engine. ...

References

  • John Golley (1997). Genesis of the Jet: Frank Whittle and the Invention of the Jet Engine. Crowood Press. ISBN 1-85310-860-X.
  • David S Brooks (1997). Vikings at Waterloo: Wartime Work on the Whittle Jet Engine by the Rover Company. Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust. ISBN 1-872922-08-2

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Frank Whittle

  Results from FactBites:
 
Frank Whittle (496 words)
Sir Frank Whittle (June 1, 1907 - August 9, 1996) was one of the key figures in the early development of the jet engine.
Whittle returned to England where Rolls-Royce were given charge of engine construction and Whittle was in control of development.
Whittle retired from the RAF with the rank of Air Commodore in 1948 and was made a Knight of the British Empire (KBE) in that same year.
Sir Frank Whittle (391 words)
Sir Frank Whittle entered Leamington College on a scholarship at the age of 11 and became an apprentice in the Royal Air Force College as a pilot officer in 1928.
Whittle received knighthood for achievements in the fields of jet propulsion and aircraft development.
Sir Frank Whittle retired from the R.A.F. with the rank of Air Commodore and later served as technical advisor to British Overseas Airways and Professor at the U.S. Naval Academy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m