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Encyclopedia > Francophobe

Francophobia is a consistent hostility toward the government, culture, history, or people of France or the Francophonie. Its antonym is francophilia. Contemporary prejudice against the French often derives from criticisms from the immediate post-World War II period and the way of life of the artistic and philosophic elite of the time. Although those prejudices are particularly widespread in the United States and United Kingdom today, Francophobia has existed in various forms and in different countries for centuries. In China, the term "Francophobia" (恐法症) was introduced in summer 2006 by local media under its literal meaning of "Fear of the French" (phobos is the Greek word for "fear"). The term was used in the context of the eight-year standing soccer rivalry between Brazil and France. Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the template to the right. ... Francophony a UK based company whose aim at portraying French speaking art and culture through a magazine and other projects. ... Antonyms, from the Greek anti (against) and onoma (name) are word pairs that are opposite in meaning, such as hot and cold, fat and thin, and up and down. ... A Francophile is term given to people with a severe mental illness: its symptoms are a craven attitude towards fighting to preserve what is claimed to be loved, a belief that the French Emprie was and is vastly superior to the British (a falsehood) and an habitual insertion of... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...

Contents

Use of the term

Given its lengthy history and various changes in relative international status, properly qualifying hostility toward France and its people with one term is difficult. Francophobia is used here as it is the historically understood term for the most pronounced and longest running hostility toward things French – that of the United Kingdom from the 17th to 19th centuries. Francophobe and Francophile (along with the now archaic Gallophobe and Gallophile) would have been well understood to British commentators of the period and the former terms are still easily grasped today. In the contemporary United States, anti-French sentiment is more likely to be used to describe the recent upsurge in that country of animosity toward the French. In former French colonies, meanwhile, resentment may fall under the larger rubric of anti-colonialism. See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ...


France as Continental Hegemon

Though French history in the broadest sense extends back more than a millennium it has existed as a recognizable nation-state (rather than a dynastic, transnational entity typical of the late Middle Ages) for less than half that period. According to Eric Hobsbawm (1990), only aristocrats and scholars spoke French before the French Revolution, whilst the vast majority of the population of the French kingdom spoke a variety of dialects. Henceforth, Hobsbawm argues that the French nation-state was constituted during the 19th century, through conscription which accounted for interactions between French citizens coming from various regions, and the Third Republic's public instruction laws, enacted in the 1880s. However, francophobia as a consistent, identifiable phenomenon may be dated to the point at which the country became the chief power of continental Europe: after breaking the back of the Habsburg Empire, together with its allies, in the Thirty Years' War, ended by the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Dr Eric John Blair Hobsbawm CH (born June 9, 1917) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Combatants Protestantism: Sweden,Denmark, France, Scotland and protestant German countries like Saxony Roman Catholic Church: Holy Roman Empire, Spain Commanders Gustav II Adolf Ferdinand II The Thirty Years War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of todays Germany, also involving most of the major European... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the...


1648 and Louis XIV

  • France was perceived as having betrayed Christian unity by allying itself with the Ottoman Turks during the conflict with the Habsburgs.
  • The interventions of Louis XIV in Italy, the United Provinces and German principalities effectively united the entire continent against the French.

A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as Christ. ... now. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...

Francophobia in Britain

Calais Gate: O! The Roast Beef of Old England by William Hogarth, portrays France as an opppressive, poverty-striken and priest-ridden culture
Calais Gate: O! The Roast Beef of Old England by William Hogarth, portrays France as an opppressive, poverty-striken and priest-ridden culture

As Britain effectively leveraged itself into the position of dominant mercantile and seafaring power, hostility toward and strategic conflict with France became inevitable. The era of Louis XIV through Napoleon's final capitulation in 1815 was, in essence, a prolonged Franco-British conflict to determine who would be the dominant European power; virtually every large conflict of the period pitted a British-led alliance versus a French-led counterpart. Anti-French hostility was also aimed at the Catholic Church, because the majority of the French people were Catholic and the majority of the English people were Protestants belonging to the Church of England. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1695, 237 KB) Description: Title: de: Vor dem Tor von Calais (Das Roastbeef von Alt-England) Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 78,5 × 94,5 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1695, 237 KB) Description: Title: de: Vor dem Tor von Calais (Das Roastbeef von Alt-England) Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 78,5 × 94,5 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location... William Hogarth, self-portrait, 1745 William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, engraver, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


The dimensions of this conflict in Britain were as much cultural as strategic. Indeed, British nationalism in its nascent phases was in large part a contra-France phenomenon and the attitudes involved extended well beyond who won what on various battlefields:

  • A growing group of British nationalists in the 17th and 18th centuries resented the veneration that was often accorded French culture and the French language; the French were broadly seen as effeminate.
  • France was the strongest Catholic power and "anti-Papist" suspicions were always strong in Britain.
  • The French political system appeared absolutist and conformist, contrasting Anglo-Saxon notions of liberty and individualism which British nationalists invoked.
  • The permeation of anti-French sentiment throughout society - as epitomised by the apocryphal story of the Hartlepool monkey hangers, whose belief that the French were literally inhuman led them to have allegedly executed a pet monkey in the belief that it was an invading Frenchman (although the story is based upon the disputed premise that those involved had never seen a monkey before).

French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hartlepool (pronounced HART-le-pool) is a town and North Sea port in North East England. ... Monkey Hanger is the affectionate term by which Hartlepudlians are often known by other residents of Great Britain. ...

The French Revolution

The revolutionary ideas that emerged in France in 1789 and subsequent years were not well-received by monarchists and aristocrats on the rest of the continent and in Britain. France, the leading European power for two centuries, had suddenly and violently overthrown the feudal foundations of continental order and, it was feared, the revolution might spread. Objections were many: Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...

  • That the legitimacy of hereditary monarchy had been vitiated.
  • That violent, uneducated peasants and urban poor had gained power over their traditional social masters.
  • That the revolution was anti-religious.

These concerns were not unique to Europe. Despite the positive view some Americans had of The French Revolution it awakened or created anti-French feelings among many Federalists. The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church perforce underwent radical restructuring. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The Age of Napoleon

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El Dos de Mayo, 1808
El Dos de Mayo, 1808

Napoleon's conquests and the subsequent occupations led many Europeans to resent the French. Beyond the obvious dislike of occupation, resentment also stemmed from the fact that the armies of Napoleon carried the ideas and reforms of the French Revolution through the Code Napoléon. Britain, being one of the few nations able to stand up to Napoleon, were at almost constant war with France leading to a rise on Francophobia. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1551, 206 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung der Aufständischen am 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1551, 206 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung der Aufständischen am 3. ... Combatants Allies: • Great Britain (until 1801)/United Kingdom(from 1801) • Prussia • Austria • Sweden • Russia • Portugal • Spain • and others • France • Denmark-Norway • Poland Casualties Full list The Napoleonic Wars comprised a series of global conflicts fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France (1799 - 1815). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... First page of the 1804 original edition The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des français, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It entered into force on March 21, 1804. ...


Goya painted several famous pictures depicting the violence of the Peninsula wars. The Peninsular War (1808-1814) was a major conflict during the Napoleonic Wars. ...


Napoleon also tried to recolonialize Haiti and re-enslave the Haitians — a policy which led to a long bitter bloody struggle there, ending in ultimate failure for the French. However, in 1825, France imposed a huge reparations fine of 150 million gold francs on Haiti, to compensate former French slaveowners for their losses (60 million of this was eventually paid by 1883).


France as imperial power

France's colonial empire earned it many enemies, among rival colonial countries, especially Great Britain, and especially amongst colonized people.


France in Africa and Asia

Asia

Throughout the colonization of French Indochina, many groups actively planned terrorist actions against French people living in the area. The French colonists were given the special epithet thực dân (originally meaning colonist, but evolving to refer to the oppressive regime of the French) in Vietnamese; it is still universally used in discussions about the colonial era. After the French were defeated in Vietnam, those who collaborated with them (called tay sai – agents) were vilified. Those who left for France with the French were known as Việt gian (Viet traitors) and had all their property confiscated. Although anti-French feelings in Vietnam have abated, the use of words like thực dân to describe the French is still normal. French Indochina was a federation of protectorates in Southeast Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Intervention in Africa

France played a questionable role in many of its former African colonies. A pun developed to describe the relationship—"Françafrique" (fr:Françafrique), which can be read either as "France-Africa" or "Money France" ("France à fric").


Historically, France is accused of complicity in the installation of dictatorships, directly (supplies of materiel, mercenaries, soldiers) or indirectly (silence as assent).[citation needed] This includes the validation or support of faked elections (Chad, Togo).[citation needed]


Anti-French sentiment continues[citation needed] based on perceived economic exploitation and the maintenance of client relationships which have often encouraged political and military destabilization (for instance Elf Aquitaine in Congo and Angola, Bolloré in Côte d'Ivoire). France has also sheltered exiled former dictators. Elf logo Elf Aquitaine is a former French oil company merged with TotalFina to form TotalFinaElf. ...

  • The SDECE fatally poisoned Cameroonian rebel leader Félix Moumié in Geneva, Switzerland, bolstering the regime of President Ahmadou Ahidjo.
  • French troops restored Gabonese President Léon M'ba to power in February 1964 following a briefly successful coup d'état with troops from Dakar and Brazzaville; the French military also facilitated the succession of Omar Bongo to the presidency at M'ba's death in 1967 and dispatched troops to Port-Gentil in May 1990 during popular protests following the death of an opposition leader in a government hotel. The latter incidents occurred in an atmosphere of hostility towards the authoritarian regime of President Omar Bongo. (Reed, Michael C. "Gabon: A neo-colonial enclave of enduring French interest." Journal of Modern African Studies, Jun. 1987; [1])
  • Illegal arms shipments were supplied by France to support the secessionist Republic of Biafra in the Nigerian Civil War.
  • Camille Gourvenec, an expatriate French intelligence official, commanded Chad's Nomad and National Guard and directed the CCER secret service for President François Tombalbaye. It is additionally alleged that the French government was involved in the 1973 assassination in Paris of Outel Bono, the most vocal critic of Tombalbaye's dictatorship. (Decalo, Historical Dictionary of Chad)
  • French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and the despotic self-proclaimed Emperor of the Central African Empire, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, had a close personal relationship and went on hunting trips together. French companies supplied materials for Bokassa's Napoleonic coronation in 1977, attended by a representative of Giscard. France later turned on Bokassa and overthrew him, but allowed him to take up exile in Paris. [2]
  • French mercenary Bob Denard engineered several coups d'état and assassinations in the Comoros on behalf of France.
  • In October 1990, President François Mitterrand authorized a military intervention in Rwanda by troops stationed in the Central African Republic. At the time, the government of Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana, a dictator at the head of a one-party state, was under siege from an invasion by Rwandan Patriotic Front that eventually failed. In 1994, a force was sent to back the government against an RPF campaign, this time successful. (Meredith, The Fate of Africa, 2005)
  • The Republic of Djibouti is home to the largest French military base in Africa. The French government backed President Hassan Gouled Aptidon's one-party state and continues to support his nephew, Ismail Omar Guelleh.
  • France's intervention in the civil war in Côte d'Ivoire has triggered anti-French violence by the "Young Patriots" and other groups.

The Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage (External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service, SDECE) was Frances external intelligence agency from November 6, 1944 to April 2, 1982 when it was replaced by the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure. ... Félix-Roland Moumié was a Cameroonian Marxist leader, assassinated in Geneva in 1960 by the SDECE (French secret services) with thalium [1]. Félix-Roland Moumié succeeded to Ruben Um Nyobe, killed in September 1958, as leader of the Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC - or also Union du... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German: //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo (August 24, 1924 _ November 30, 1989) was the president of Cameroon from 1960 until 1982. ... Léon Mba (1902 - November 28, 1967) was the first President of Gabon (1960 - 1967). ... February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... Image of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, taken by NASA. Brazzaville is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is located on the Congo River. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Port-Gentil (1993 est. ... Look up May in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the year. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Former countries ... Combatants Nigerian federal government Republic of Biafra Commanders Yakubu Gowon Odumegwu Ojukwu Casualties 1,000,000 soldiers and civillians Estimated 2,000,000 civilians The Nigerian Civil War, July 6, 1967 – January 13, 1970, was a political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the southeastern provinces of Nigeria as... Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ... François (Ngarta) Tombalbaye (June 15, 1918 - April 13, 1975) was the first president of Chad. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Outel Bono (died 26 August 1973) was a Chadian medical doctor and politician. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing [IPA: vÉ‘leÊ€i mÉ‘Ê€i ʀəne Ê’iskÉ‘Ê€ dÉ›stɛ̃] (born 2 February 1926 in Koblenz, Germany) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... The Central African Empire was the name of the Central African Republic when president Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa in 1977. ... Emperor Bokassa I, also known as Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa and Jean-Bédel Bokassa (IPA: , (February 22, 1921–November 3, 1996), was the military ruler of the Central African Republic from January 1, 1966 and the emperor of the Central African Empire from December 4, 1976, until his overthrow... Colonel Bob Denard, known in Arabic as Said Mustapha Mahdjoub (born April 7, 1929 in Bordeaux, France as Gilbert Bourgeaud) is perhaps the most famous and influential mercenary in the last fifty years. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the year. ... (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) was a French politician. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Politics of Rwanda Categories: Rwandese political parties | Politics stubs ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Hassan Gouled Aptidon (born 1916), was the President of Djibouti (1977 - 1999) and Prime Minister between May and July, 1977. ... U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Djibouti President Ismail Omar Guelleh shake hands at the Presidential residence in Djibouti Ismaïl Omar Guelleh (born November 27, 1947) is the second president of Djibouti. ... Armed insurgents French troops try to separate the belligerents. ...

The case of Algeria

The French actions in the Algerian War of Independence inspired condemnation and horror by many around the world. France appeared unwilling or unable to admit that its Empire was untenable, archaic and rooted on blind force. Atrocities in Algeria contributed to anti-French sentiments in the Islamic world well into the 1990s. The 1995 bombings in France were an attempt by the terrorist group GIA to prevent France from helping the Algerian government to fight it. Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Messali Hadj Ferhat Abbas Ahmed Ben Bella Pierre Mendès-France General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Charles de Gaulle Bachaga Said Boualam Commander Pierre Lagaillarde General Raoul Salan Strength 40,000 400... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... In 1995, the GIA Islamist militant group staged a series of attacks against the French public, targeting public transportation. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ...


In the Suez Crisis of 1956 the French also angered many, as it was seen as an excuse to make an opportunistic grab of a financial resource of a poor nation. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 300,000 Casualties 177 Israeli KIA 16 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 33 French WIA 1,650 KIA 4,900 WIA...


France as vocal Middle Power

World War II

The behaviour of the French before and during World War II is contested on several points.

  • The French government (like the British) actively pursued the policy of appeasement and accepted Hitler's various violations of the Versailles treaty and his demands at Munich in 1938. The policy of appeasement – which was wildly popular in much of Western Europe – should be understood however in the context of the massive losses of World War I, fought in large part on French soil and leading to approximately 1.4 million French dead including civilians (see World War I casualties), and four times as many casualties.
  • The French army resisted for only about six weeks after the Germans invaded in May 1940, even though it had the largest army in Europe at the time. This has been variously interpreted by critics as overconfidence in the Maginot Line and deficiencies in the French military, or as defeatism on the part of the French government. Curiously however, similar criticisms are rarely levelled against the Poles, the Dutch or the Belgians, nor for that matter against the British forces who were on the Western Front with the French in 1939-40 and whose rout and flight to Dunkirk was part of the defeat. Modern military historians admit French failures, but against the might of the German Blitzkrieg, the charge of cowardice is belied by the savage fighting of the French and the 130,000 French dead in the first six weeks of the war (twice the number of American losses at Normandy in 1944).
  • The Vichy government had an overt policy of collaborating with the Nazis in order to suffer less repression, which included the payment of a massive war tribute and the sending of hundreds of thousands of French citizens into forced labor for the German military machine. The Vichy government also aided the deportation of -mainly foreign- Jews at the request of the German occupiers, as part of a -not entirely successful- trade-off to protect Jews of french nationality.
  • Many French people collaborated with the German invader throughout the occupation (although many French also became members of the French Resistance and the Free French Forces under Charles de Gaulle). It can be noted, though, that similar collaboration occurred in the other countries of occupied Western Europe, including the Channel Islands (British dependencies).

For these reasons, when the war ended, the United States, USSR and Great Britain conceived of France as one of the defeated powers and Charles de Gaulle was not invited to Yalta or Potsdam. Yet the Grand Alliance allowed France a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council and a share in the occupation of Berlin. Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München, (pronounced listen) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern). ... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maÊ’ino], named after French minister of defence André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy in the wake of World War I. Generally the term... Organization The French armed forces are divided into four branches: French Army, including Chasseurs Alpins Foreign Legion Marine troops light aviation engineers Navy, including Naval Air naval fusiliers and naval commandos Air Force, including territorial Air Defense air fusiliers National Gendarmerie (military police force) Every year on Bastille Day, a... Defeatism is acceptance and content with defeat without struggle. ... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Denmark. ... Location of Dunkirk in the arrondissement of Dunkirk Location within France Dunkirks seafront Map of Dunkirk courtesy of the Calgary Highlanders. ... One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (absent) (Heeresgruppe B) Friedrich Dollmann () Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000... For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Bold textItalic textLink title // Headline text Headline text Headline text == The cross of Lorraine used by the French Resistance as a symbolic reference to Joan of Arc. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ) (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970), in France commonly referred to as Général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the organ of the United Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ...


Gaullism

Starting with Charles de Gaulle's insistence that France should be part of the peace negotiations at the end of World War II and not be occupied by the Americans, and throughout the time he spent at the head of the country, de Gaulle lent France what some thought was more importance than it deserved. He promoted national independence, with, as some practical consequences, some reluctance for international organizations such as NATO or the European Economic Community (EEC). The basic tenets were that France should not have to rely on any foreign country for its survival (thus the creation of the French nuclear deterrent) and that France should refuse subservience to any foreign power, be it the United States or the Soviet Union. He also put a lot of pressure on the European institutions for France to remain a major power in the Union. He also twice blocked British entry into the EEC, citing Britain's "special relationship" with the United States. Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


De Gaulle is often cited with leading what is sometimes perceived as the overestimation of France's importance in its liberation from the Germans.


Anti-French sentiment in Australasia and the Pacific

France has remained a colonial power in the Pacific, well after other European countries divested their imperial legacies. France controls the relatively small and isolated colonies of New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna Islands and French Polynesia. There have been sporadic anti-French demonstrations in French Polynesia, and briefly in the 1980s a pro-independence insurgency in New Caledonia, led by the Front de Libération Nationale Kanak Socialiste. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The Collectivity of Wallis and Futuna (French: Collectivité de Wallis et Futuna) is a group of mainly three volcanic tropical islands (Wallis, Futuna, and Alofi) with fringing reefs located in the South Pacific Ocean. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


More politically volatile has been the issue of nuclear testing in the Pacific. Since 1960 around 200 nuclear tests have occurred around the Pacific, to the opprobrium of other Pacific states, Australia and New Zealand. Anti-French sentiment has not been cooled by a series of scandals involving French security forces seeking to foil the activity of protestors. In 1972 the Greenpeace vessel Vega was rammed at Moruroa. The following year Greenpeace protestors were detained by the French, and the skipper of the Vega was severely beaten. In response there were anti-French demonstrations in Australia and New Zealand, with the ACTU leader Bob Hawke making the passing observation: The French are bastards. Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Greenpeace is an international environmental organization founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1971. ... Moruroa Moruroa Moruroa (Mururura, Mururoa) (21°50′S 138°55′W.) is an atoll which forms part of the Tuamoto archipelago in French Polynesia in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) is the peak national body representing workers in Australia. ... Robert James Lee Hawke AC (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian trade union leader turned politician who became the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia. ...


Protests rose again in 1985 after the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior in Auckland, New Zealand. Australia ceased military cooperation with France and embargoed the export of uranium to France, while the public in the region boycotted French goods. Rainbow Warrior II Rainbow Warrior is the name of a series of ships operated by Greenpeace. ... The Auckland Metropolitan Area, or Greater Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest urban area in New Zealand. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ...


The end of the Cold War led to a French moratorium on nuclear testing, but it was lifted in 1995 by Jaques Chirac. After a Greenpeace vessel was boarded by the French navy personnel with tear gas, anti-French sentiments were reignited in Australia. Protestors besieged the French embassy in Canberra, while the French honorary Consulate in Perth was fire-bombed. Mayors tore up sister city relationships with their French partners. Delifrance was forced to downplay its entry into the Australian market. The Herald Sun ran an article entitled 'Why the French are Bastards'. A group of Australians chose a more direct and reasoned means of protest by running a full page advertisement in Le Monde, reminding the French public of both the strength of hostility in Australia of the nuclear testing, and the large numbers of ANZAC soldiers who fell in France's defence in the First World War. Nevertheless France detonated six nuclear bombs in 1995 and 1996. For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Jacques (René) Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... For other articles with similar names, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Perth is the capital of the Australian state of Western Australia. ... This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ... Délifrance Logo Délifrance is a bakery company that serves French bakery products in over 50 countries on 5 continents. ... The Herald Sun is a newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, that is published by The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, a subsidiary of Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... Le Monde is a French daily evening newspaper with a circulation in 2002 of 389,200. ... An ANZAC soldier gives water to a wounded Turk The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli, in the Middle East and on the Western Front. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


The French press returned the score by discussing Australia's own human rights record, and its supposed ambitions to dominate the Pacific (one cartoon by Plantu portrayed an Australian wearing a very British bowler hat). Others wondered why Australians were not as energetic about Chinese nuclear tests at Lop Nor. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Jean Plantureux (Paris, march 23, 1951 - ), who goes by the professional name Plantu, is a cartoonist specializing in political satire. ... The bowler hat is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown created for Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester of Holkham, in 1850. ... Lop Nur (alternately Lop Nor or Lo-pu po) is a group of small salt lakes and marshes in the desert in Malan, Xinjiang, in Northwestern China. ...


Anti-French sentiment in the United States

Main article: Anti-French sentiment in the United States

The opposition of France to the Iraq War triggered a significant rise in anti-French movement in the United States, of which the wide-spread joke that french fries should be renamed to freedom fries became an internationally known expression. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Chips (United Kingdom and Commonwealth) or French fried potatoes – shortly French fries or fries – (North America) are long, narrow pieces of potato that have been deep fried. ... Freedom fries was a short-lived name used by some in the United States for French fries. ...


The swell of anti-French sentiment in the United States during the 2000s was marked but did have historical roots in longstanding American resentment toward France. What is unique in this recent case is the degree to which many media personalities and politicians have openly expressed anti-French sentiments.


Since the 1960s, DC Comics have portrayed practically every French character as clumsy, foolish or as actual supervillains. Examples of DC characters that fit under this category include Monsieur Mallah, Andre Le Blanc, Madame Rouge and Brain. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... Monsieur Mallah is the name of a DC Comics supervillain. ... André LeBlanc is the name of a DC Comics jewelry thief. ... Madame Rouge is a fictional DC Comics supervillain. ... The Brain is a DC Comics supervillain. ...


Anti-francophone sentiment in Belgium

Dutch speakers in Belgium, where Dutch is the official language in Flanders and an official language alongside French in Brussels have expressed annoyance at the perceived lack of respect given to the Dutch language by some French speakers resident in Flanders and Brussels. Although it is estimated that 80% of the population of Brussels has French as their first language, only 51% of the inhabitants of Brussels claim to be bilingual according to a survey conducted by the Universite Catholique de Louvain in Louvain-La-Neuve and published in June 2006.[1] [2] Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians... Nickname: The Capital Of Europe, Comic City City of a 100 Museums Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 797 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area    - City 162 (Region) km²  (62. ... The Université catholique de Louvain, sometimes known as UCL, is Belgiums largest French-speaking university. ... Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant. ...


See also

A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. ... 112 Gripes about the French was a handbook issued by the US military authorities to GIs arriving in France after the liberation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Franco-American relations refers to interstate relations between France and the United States. ... Pardon my French or Excuse my French is a common English-speaking phrase associating French with profanity. ... Screenshot of the fake Google page When searched for on Google, and by pressing the Im feeling lucky button, the phrase French Military Victories links to a fake error page saying Did you mean: French military defeats ? No standard web pages containing all your search terms were found. ... Freedom fries was a short-lived name used by some in the United States for French fries. ... Quebec bashing is a term often used to refer to anti-Quebec coverage in the press. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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