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Encyclopedia > Franco Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
Part of the wars of German unification

The Prussian 7th Cuirassiers charge the French guns at the Battle of Mars-La-Tour, August 16, 1870.
Date July 19, 1870May 10, 1871
Location France and Germany
Result German victory; Treaty of Frankfurt
Casus
belli
Spanish succession dispute
Territorial
changes
North German Confederation and other German states unite to form German Empire; Germany annexes Alsace-Lorraine; End of the Second French Empire; Formation of the French Third Republic
Combatants
Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states
(later German Empire)
Commanders
Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder
Strength
400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000
Casualties
150,000 dead or wounded
284,000 captured
350,000 civilian
70,000 dead or wounded
200,000 civilian
Franco-Prussian War
WissembourgSpicheren – Wœrth – Borny-Colombey – Strasbourg – Mars-la-Tour – GravelotteMetzBeaumontNoisevilleSedanBellevueCoulmiersAmiens – Beaune-la-Rolande – HallueBapaumeLe MansLisaineSt. QuentinParisBelfort

The Franco-Prussian War (July 19, 1870May 10, 1871) was declared by France on Prussia, which was backed by the North German Confederation and the south German states of Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria. The conflict marked the culmination of tension between the two powers following Prussia's rise to dominance in Germany, which before 1870 was still a loose federation of independent territories. The unification of Germany can refer to: the 1871 formation of the German Empire under Otto von Bismarck. ... Download high resolution version (1100x758, 127 KB)From Canadian Illustrated News, Battle of Mars-la-tour [The War] , Date: 19 November, 1870 , Pagination: vol. ... Battle of Mars-La-Tour Conflict Franco-Prussian War Date August 16, 1870 Place Mars-La-Tour, France Result Prussian victory The Battle of Mars-La-Tour was fought on 16 August 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War near the town of Mars-La-Tour in north-east France. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed May 10, 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Germany is a federation of 16 states called Länder (singular Land, which may be translated as country) or unofficially Bundesländer (singular Bundesland, German federal state). ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Napoléon III of France, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth, Graf von Moltke (known as Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke before 1870) (October 26, 1800 – April 24, 1891), was a German Field Marshal, thirty years chief of the staff of the Prussian army, widely regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s... The Battle of Wissembourg or Weissenburg was the first battle of the Franco-Prussian War. ... Battle of Spicheren Conflict Franco-Prussian War Date August 6, 1870 Place near Saarbrucken, France Result German victory The Battle of Spicheren, also known as the Battle of Forbach, was a battle during the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants Prussia Baden Bavaria Württemberg France Commanders Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Patrice MacMahon Strength 88,000 50,000 Casualties 10,000 dead, wounded, or missing 11,000 dead or wounded 9,000 captured The Battle of WÅ“rth, also known as the Battle of Reichshoffen or as the Battle... The Siege of Strasbourg took place during Franco-Prussian War. ... Battle of Mars-La-Tour Conflict Franco-Prussian War Date August 16, 1870 Place Mars-La-Tour, France Result Prussian victory The Battle of Mars-La-Tour was fought on 16 August 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War near the town of Mars-La-Tour in north-east France. ... Combatants Prussia France Commanders Helmuth von Moltke François Achille Bazaine Strength 188,332 732 guns 112,800 520 guns Casualties 20,163 dead, wounded, missing or captured 7,855 dead or wounded, 4,420 captured The Battle of Gravelotte (August 18, 1870) was a battle of the Franco-Prussian... Combatants Prussia France Commanders Prince Friedrich Karl François Bazaine Strength 134,000 180,000 Casualties unknown 180,000 surrendered The Siege of Metz lasting from September 3 – October 23, 1870 was a crushing defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants Prussia Second French Empire Commanders George of Saxony Pierre Louis Charles de Failly Casualties 3,500 soldiers 4,800 soldiers 42 guns The Battle of Beaufort on August 30, 1870 was a defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants Prussia Second French Empire Commanders Frederick Charles François Achille Bazaine Casualties 2,850 soldiers 126 officers 3,379 soldiers 145 officers The Battle of Noiseville on August 31, 1870 was a defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants Prussia Bavaria France Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Napoleon III Patrice MacMahon Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot Strength 200,000 774 cannon 120,000 564 cannon Casualties 2,320 dead 5,980 wounded 700 missing (9,000 total) 3,000 dead 14,000 wounded 21,000 captured 82,000 surrendered... Combatants Prussia Second French Empire Commanders Unknown François Achille Bazaine Casualties 1,703 soldiers 75 officers 1,193 soldiers 64 officers The Battle of Bellevue on October 18, 1870 was a defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants France Prussia The Battle of Coulmiers was fought on November 9, 1870 between French and Prussian forces. ... Combatants Prussia Second French Empire Commanders Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel General Faure Casualties 1,216 soldiers killed 76 officers killed 1,383 soldiers killed or wounded 1,000 soldiers missing The Battle of Amiens on November 27, 1870 was a defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants Prussia Second French Empire Commanders Friedrich Franz II General Crouzat Strength 9,000 soldiers 60,000 soldiers Casualties 817 soldiers killed 37 officers killed 8,000 soldiers killed The Battle of Beaune-La-Rolande on November 28, 1870 was a defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants Prussia Second French Empire Commanders Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel Louis Faidherbe Strength 22,500 soldiers 40,000 soldiers Casualties 927 soldiers killed and wounded 1,000+ soldiers killed 1,300 soldiers POW The Battle of Hallue was a battle of the Franco-Prussian War on December 23 and 24... Combatants Prussia France Commanders Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel Louis Faidherbe Strength 18,000 33,000 The Battle of Bapaume was a battle during the Franco-Prussian War which defeated French attempts to relieve the besieged city of Péronne. ... Battle of Le Mans Conflict Franco_Prussian War Date January 10 – 12 1871 Place Le Mans, France Result Prussian victory The Battle of LeMans was a Prussian victory during the Franco_Prussian War which ended French resistance in western France. ... Combatants Prussia France Commanders Charles Denis Bourbaki Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of the Lisaine was fought from January 15 to January 17 of 1871 between Prussian and French forces. ... Battle of St. ... Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... The Siege of Belfort was a lengthy siege during the Franco-Prussian War. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...


The war began over the candidacy of Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern, a relative of King William of Prussia, to the vacant Spanish throne following Isabella II's deposition in 1868. Leopold was strongly opposed by France, which issued an ultimatum to the King to have the candidacy withdrawn. King William complied. Aiming to humiliate Prussia, Emperor Napoleon III of France then required William to apologize and renounce any future Hohenzollern candidacy to the Spanish throne. King William, surprised at his holiday resort by the French ambassador, denied the French request. Prussia's prime minister Otto von Bismarck allegedly edited the King's account of his meeting with the French ambassador to make the encounter more heated than it really was. Known as the Ems Dispatch, it was released to the press. It was designed to give the French the impression that King Wilhelm I had insulted the French Count Benedetti, and to give the Prussian people the impression that the Count had insulted the King. It succeeded in both of its aims. Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Prince Leopold Stefan Karl Anton Gustav Eduard Tassilo von Hohenzollern (22 September 1835 - 8 June 1905) was the head of the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern, and played some minor role in European power politics. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) She was born in Madrid, and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king of Spain... Queen Isabella II of Spain in exile at Paris Juan Prim, Spanish general. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Napoléon III of France, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... The Ems Dispatch (sometimes called the Ems Telegram) is the document that instigated the Franco-Prussian War. ...


The French people and their parliament reacted with outrage; Napoleon III mobilized and declared war on Prussia only, but effectively also on the states of southern Germany. The German armies quickly mobilized and within a few weeks controlled large amounts of land in eastern France. Their success was due in part to rapid mobilization by train, to Prussian General Staff leadership and to innovative Krupp artillery. Napoleon III was captured with his whole army at the Battle of Sedan, yet this did not end the war, as a republic was declared in Paris on September 4, 1870, marking the creation of the Third Republic of France under the Government of National Defense and later the "Versaillais government" of Adolphe Thiers. The immediate result was an extension to the war as the Republic proclaimed a continuation of the fight. For the U.S. town, see Krupp, Washington. ... Combatants Prussia Bavaria France Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Napoleon III Patrice MacMahon Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot Strength 200,000 774 cannon 120,000 564 cannon Casualties 2,320 dead 5,980 wounded 700 missing (9,000 total) 3,000 dead 14,000 wounded 21,000 captured 82,000 surrendered... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) (1870/75-1940/46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ... La Gouvernement de la Défense Nationale, or The Government of National Defence, was the official Government of the Third Republic of France from September 4th 1870 to February 13th 1871. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ...


Over a five-month campaign, the German armies defeated the newly recruited French armies in a series of battles fought across northern France. Following a prolonged siege, the French capital Paris fell on January 28, 1871. Ten days earlier, the German states had proclaimed their union under the Prussian King, uniting Germany as a nation-state, the German Empire. The final peace Treaty of Frankfurt was signed May 10, 1871, during the time of the bloody Paris Commune of 1871. Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed May 10, 1871, at theend of the Franco-Prussian War. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of...


In France and Germany the war is known as the Franco-German War (French: Guerre franco-allemande de 1870 German: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg), which perhaps more accurately describes the combatants rather than simply France and Prussia alone.

Contents

Causes of the war

Tensions had long been running high between Prussia and France following the Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and its subsequent annexation of almost all of northern Germany. The humbling of Austria and Prussia's new territorial gains had shattered the European balance of power that had existed since the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl...


Prussian Prime Minister Otto Von Bismarck, after proving Prussia to be the most powerful of German states in the Austro-Prussian War, wanted to once again unite the German states under the Prussian banner. This would allow a Prussian Emperor to rule all of the German states in a united German Empire. It would also lead, he argued, to a more prosperous age in which the might of the German Empire would be unparalleled in Europe.


Following the end of the Austro-Prussian War, Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck and the French emperor Napoleon III had attempted to reach a private agreement regarding the balance of power in Europe. Napoleon III wished to realize French aspirations for "natural borders," a long term goal of French foreign policy since the Middle Ages— to annex all land west of the Rhine river and the Alps, including the German state of Palatinate-on-Rhine, Belgium, the southern portion of the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Savoy, and parts of Hesse and Rhenish Prussia. A solid defensible border was also insurance against the possibility of a united Germany unfriendly to France. However in 1840 the French politician Adolphe Thiers had sparked a Franco-German diplomatic crisis (the Rhine crisis, 1840) over a mention of "natural borders" on the west bank of the Rhine, reminding many Germans of Napoleonic efforts to establish a border on the Rhine. “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Natural Borders are country borders which are composed of natural objects such as rivers, mountain ranges, or deserts. ... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The west face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... The term French-German (hereditary) enmity (German: ) describes the often hostile relations between France and its eastern neighbors, the German states, that eventually became the German Empire. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl...


Savoy had been obtained from Italy following French support for Italian independence from Austria. Now Napoleon III sought Prussian neutrality when attempting to acquire Luxembourg and Wallonia (the French-speaking part of Belgium), while expecting Prussian neutrality as "compensation" for French neutrality during the Austro-Prussian War and for Prussian territorial gains. Bismarck was non-committal at best, but to the French government, Bismarck appeared to agree to or at least agreed not to obstruct any French moves against the Low Countries. Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ...


Luxembourg crisis

Thus in 1867, France began by negotiating the purchase of Luxembourg from the Dutch government, as Luxembourg was then in personal union with the Netherlands. Assuming that Bismarck would honour his part of the agreement, the French government was shocked to learn that instead Bismarck, Prussia and the North German Confederation were threatening war should the sale be completed. Luxembourg lay astride one of the principal invasion routes an army would use to invade either France or Germany. The city of Luxembourg's formidable fortifications, constructed by the famous military engineer Marshal Vauban, were considered "the Gibraltar of the North", and neither side could tolerate the other controlling such a strategic location. To mediate the dispute, the United Kingdom hosted the London Conference (1867) attended by all European great powers. It confirmed Luxembourg's independence from the Netherlands and guaranteed its independence from all other powers. War appeared to have been averted, at the cost of thwarting French desires. Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... The Treaty of London (French: Traité de Londres), often called the Second Treaty of London after the 1839 Treaty, was an international treaty signed on 11 May 1867. ...


French prestige and domestic politics

Main article: Second French Empire

France's position in Europe was now in danger of being overshadowed by the emergence of a powerful Prussia, and France looked increasingly flat-footed following Bismarck's successes. In addition, French ruler Napoleon III was on increasingly shaky ground in domestic politics. Having successfully overthrown the Second Republic and established the Bonapartist Second Empire, Napoleon III was confronted with ever more virulent demands for democratic reform from leading republicans such as Jules Favre, along with constant rumours of impending revolution. In addition, French aspirations in Mexico had suffered a final defeat with the execution of the Austrian-born, French puppet Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico in 1867. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Jules Claude Gabriel Favre (March 21, 1809 - January 20, 1880) was a French statesman. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, (Emperador Maximiliano I de México) (July 6, 1832 – June 19, 1867) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg-Lorraine family. ...


The French imperial government now looked to a diplomatic success to stifle demands for a return to either a republic or a Bourbon monarchy— the Empress Eugénie, wife of Napoleon III, was quoted as saying, "If there is no war, my son will never be emperor." A war with Prussia and resulting territorial gains in the Rhineland and later Luxembourg and Belgium seemed the best hope to unite the French nation behind the Bonapartist dynasty. With the resulting prestige from a successful war, Napoleon III could then safely suppress any lingering republican or revolutionary sentiment behind reactionary nationalism and return France to the center of European politics. Empress Eugénie Doña María Eugenia Ignacia Agustina de Palafox y Kirkpatrick, Countess de Teba, who became Empress Eugénie [1] [2] [3] (May 5, 1826 – July 11, 1920) was Empress Consort of France (1853-1871), the wife of Napoleon III, emperor of the French. ... Napoléon Eugène Louis John Joseph, called Napoleon IV, (March 16, 1856 – June 1, 1879), Prince Imperial, Fils de France, was the only child of Emperor Napoleon III of France and his Empress consort Eugénie de Montijo. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ...


Bismarck and German nationalism

Prussia in turn was also beset with problems. While revolutionary fervour was far more muted than in France, Prussia had in 1866 acquired millions of new, suspect citizens as a result of the Austro-Prussian War which was also a civil war among German states. The remaining German kingdoms and principalities maintained a steadfastly parochial attitude towards Prussia and German unification. The German princes insisted upon their independence and balked at any attempt to create a federal state that would be dominated by Berlin. Their suspicions were heightened by Prussia's quick victory and subsequent annexations. Before the war, only some Germans, inspired by the recent unification of Italy, accepted and supported what the princes began to realise that Germany must unite in order to preserve the fruit of an eventual victory. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ...


Prussian premier Otto von Bismarck had an entirely different view. He was interested only in strengthening Prussia and the power of its king. Uniting Germany appeared immaterial to him unless it improved Prussia's position. Bismarck considered the conflict with France inevitable, knowing that France would not quietly tolerate a powerful state to its east. He also viewed the war as a means to end the influence which France had long since exercised over Germany. The defeated South German states had to sign mutual defense treaties with the North German Confederation, but only a clear aggression from outside could make sure they would ally with Prussia, rather than against her once more. “Bismarck” redirects here. ...


Crisis and the outbreak of war

Napoleon III and Bismarck independently sought a suitable crisis to foment, and in 1870 one arose. The Spanish throne had been vacant since the revolution of September 1868. The Spanish offered the throne to the German prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, a Catholic as well as a distant cousin of King Wilhelm of Prussia. 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ...


Fearing that a Hohenzollern king in Prussia and another one in Spain would put France into a two-front situation, Napoleon III was determined this time to stand up to the expansion of Prussian influence. He successfully forced King Wilhelm to urge the prince's withdrawal from his Spanish candidacy— ironically, Prince Leopold was a relative of Napoleon III, also. Disappointed that the Prussians had backed down so easily, the French government tried to prolong the crisis. In a newspaper interview, Napoleon III announced that a renewal of the Hohenzollern candidature would result in France going to war, and the secretary of foreign affairs, Duc de Gramont, did the same in a speech in front of the Chambre législative. The French ambassador in Prussia Vincent Benedetti was then ordered to require Wilhelm I to guarantee that no Hohenzollern would ever again be a candidate for the Spanish throne. When the French ambassador bypassed diplomatic channels and directly confronted the king at his holiday resort, King Wilhelm was "very polite but cooly categorical". His message to Berlin (the Ems Dispatch) reporting this event with the French ambassador reached the desk of Bismarck. Bismarck edited the telegram in such a way as to arouse French indignation, and then released it for publication. Vincent, Count Benedetti (1817-1900) Vincent, Count Benedetti (April 29, 1817 - March 28, 1900), was a French diplomat. ... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ... The Ems Dispatch (sometimes called the Ems Telegram) is the document that instigated the Franco-Prussian War. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ...


France officially declared war on July 19, 1870. July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Alliances and diplomacy

Diplomatically and militarily, Napoleon III looked for support from Austria, Denmark, Bavaria, Baden, and Württemberg, as all had recently lost wars against Prussia. However, Napoleon III failed to secure revanchist alliances from these states. Denmark had twice fought Prussia during the First and Second Wars of Schleswig (a stalemate in the 1848–50, and a defeat in 1864 against a confederation of north German states and Austria under the leadership of Prussia), and was unwilling to confront Prussia again. The First war of Schleswig (1848 – 1850), known in Denmark as the Three Years War (TreÃ¥rskrigen), was a military conflict in southern Denmark, contesting the issue of who should control the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Combatants Prussia Austria German Confederation Denmark Commanders Friedrich Graf von Wrangel Christian Julius De Meza replaced by George Daniel Gerlach on February 29 Strength At the outbreak of war: 61,000 158 guns Later reinforcements: 20,000 64 guns[1] 38,000 100+ guns[2] Casualties 1,700+ killed, wounded...


Austria wanted to avenge the defeat of 1866, but would not support France unless Italy was part of the alliance. Victor Emmanuel II and the Italian government wanted to support France, but Italian public opinion was bitterly opposed so long as Napoleon III kept a French garrison in Rome protecting Pope Pius IX, thereby denying Italy the possession of its capital (Rome had been declared capital of Italy in March 1861, when the first Italian Parliament had met in Turin). Napoleon III made various proposals for resolving the Roman Question, but Pius IX rejected them all. Thus the attempt to form an alliance with Austria and Italy failed. King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820—January 9, 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia from 1849–1861, and King of Italy from 1861 until his death in 1878. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878, making him the longest-reigning Pope since the Apostle St. ... The Roman Question was a political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929. ...


The following are excerpts from the book by Raffaele De Cesare, The Last Days of Papal Rome, Archibald Constable & Co, London (1909).

The Roman question was the stone tied to Napoleon's feet — that dragged him into the abyss. He never forgot, even in August 1870, a month before Sedan, that he was a sovereign of a Catholic country, that he had been made Emperor, and was supported by the votes of the conservatives and the influence of the clergy; and that it was his supreme duty not to abandon the Pontiff. […] For twenty years Napoleon III had been the true sovereign of Rome, where he had many friends and relations […] Without him the temporal power would never have been reconstituted, nor, being reconstituted, would have endured. [Chap. XXXIV, pp. 440–3]

To make matters worse, acts by Napoleon III and his governments had isolated France from the other European powers. Russia remained neutral, unwilling to aid France after French participation in Russia's humiliation during the Crimean War. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought...


Bismarck had also worked assiduously to diplomatically isolate France. As part of the settlement of the Austro-Prussian War, secret treaties of mutual defense were signed between Prussia and Bavaria, Baden, and Württemberg. Bismarck also added the threat that should the south German monarchs refuse to honour their treaty commitments, he would personally appeal to pan-German nationalists in southern Germany to overthrow their royal houses. Bismarck then made public French correspondence demanding Belgium and Luxembourg as the price for remaining neutral during the Austro-Prussian War. The United Kingdom in particular took a decidedly cool attitude to these French demands, which they called 'tipping policy', and showed no inclination to aid France. Though it had enjoyed some time as the leading power of continental Europe, the French Empire found itself dangerously isolated in the face of the allied German states.


According to the secret treaties signed with Prussia and in response to popular opinion, Bavaria, Baden, and Württemberg mobilised their armies and joined the war against France. While not prepared to join a united Germany, the south German monarchs could not ignore public opinion which would not stand for another Bonapartist invasion of Germany.


Opposing forces

French Army

The French Army comprised approximately 400,000 regular soldiers, some of them veterans of previous French campaigns in the Crimean War, Algeria, Second Italian War of Independence, and in Mexico supporting the Second Mexican Empire. This strength would increase to 662,000 on full mobilisation with the recall of reservists, with another 400,000 in the loosely organised Garde Mobile, which would require time to train. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... Combatants Image:Second-empire. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ...


After receiving reports of the effectiveness of the Prussian breech-loading rifles in 1866, the French had hastily equipped their infantry with the Chassepot rifle, one of the most modern mass-produced firearms in the world at the time. With a rubber ring seal and a smaller bullet, the Chassepot had a maximum effective range of some 750 yards (685 meters) with a rapid reload time.[1] The artillery could not be re-equipped as the money was not voted by the assembly, and was still equipped with muzzle-loading, although rifled, Lahitte '4-pounder' (actual weight of shot: 4 kg / 8.4l lb) guns. In addition, the army was equipped with the precursor to the machine-gun — the mitrailleuse. Because of the novelty of the weapon and lack of experience of its use, it was mounted on an artillery gun carriage and grouped in batteries in a similar fashion to cannon. A breech-loading weapon, usually a gun or cannon, is one where the bullet or shell is inserted, loaded, into the gun at the rear of the barrel, the breech; the opposite of muzzle-loading. ... The Chassepot, officially known as Fusil modèle 1866, was a military breechloading rifle, famous as the arm of the French forces in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and 1871. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... The mitrailleuse was a manually-fired volley gun originally developed in Belgium in the 1850s. ...


The army was nominally led by Napoleon III. Marshals Bazaine, MacMahon and Canrobert were initially selected to command field armies. They and many of their subordinates had gained high reputations for bravery and leadership in the Crimean War, Franco-Austrian War and colonial wars in Algeria. Painting of François Achille Bazaine by Jean-Adolphe Beauce on campaign in Mexico François Achille Bazaine (February 13, 1811 - September 23, 1888) was a French general, marshal of France from 1864. ... Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta President of France, 1873-1879 Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (July 13, 1808 - October 16, 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. ... François Certain Canrobert (June 27, 1809 - January 28, 1895), was a marshal of France. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and Kingdom of Sardinia against Austria-Hungary in 1859. ...


In practice, the French army, which had undertaken urgent reforms as a result of the outcome and lessons of the Austro-Prussian War, was nevertheless crippled by its poor administration and lack of coherent planning. Although the French Chief of Staff, Maréchal Edmond Leboeuf, had stated that the French Army was ready for war, "down to the last gaiter button", as the fighting began, many of its formations were understrength as 100,000 reservists were living hand-to-mouth at depots and railway stations as they tried to find their regiments; and among various deficiencies in supplies and equipment, most of the medical supplies were still at the Invalides in Paris, awaiting transport.[2] Throughout the war, the movements of French formations were to be badly directed and confused. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Edmond Leboeuf (5 November 1809 - 7 June 1888) was a marshal of France. ... The church at the Invalides, with its dome Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement, now containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings...


Prussian Army

The Prussian Army was composed not of regulars but conscripts and reservists. Service was compulsory for all men of military age, thus Prussia and its North and South German allies could mobilize and field some 1.2 million soldiers in time of war, which it did within 18 days of mobilization. The sheer number of soldiers available made possible the mass-encirclement and destruction of entire enemy formations.


The army was still equipped with the Dreyse "needle-gun" rifle of fame from the Battle of Königgrätz which was by this time showing the age of its 25 year old design. The deficiencies of the needle-gun were more than compensated for by the famous Krupp 6 pounder (3 kg) breech-loading cannons being issued to Prussian artillery batteries. Firing a contact-detonated shell filled with zinc balls and explosive, the Krupp gun had a range of 4,500 meters and blistering rate of fire compared to muzzle loading cannon. Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse (1787 - 1867) was a German firearms inventor and manufacturer born in Sömmerda, Germany, the son of a locksmith. ... The Dreyse needle-gun (German Zündnadelgewehr or figuratively firing-pin rifle) was a military breechloading rifle, famous as the arm of the Prussians, who adopted it for service in 1848 as the Dreyse Zündnadelgewehr, or Prussian Model 1848. ... Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Ludwig von Benedek Strength 140,000troops in 3 Prussian Armies 90,000 Austrians and 25,000 Saxons Casualties 10,000 45,000 including 20,000 prisoners {{{notes}}} In the Battle of Königgrätz or Battle of Sadowa of July 3... For the U.S. town, see Krupp, Washington. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ...


The Prussian army was nominally commanded by the King, William I. Royal and noble officers such as the Crown Prince Frederick commanded the major formations. In practice, all operations were directed by the General Staff under Field-Marshal Helmuth von Moltke. The Prussian army was unique in Europe for having the only General Staff in existence, whose sole purpose was to direct operational movement, organise logistics and communications and develop the overall war strategy. General Staff officers, who had undergone rigorous selection procedures and training performed similar functions at all major headquarters. A Chief of Staff was a much more important figure in the Prussian Army than in any other army, because he had the right to appeal against his superior to the commander of the next highest formation. Thus, for example, the Crown Prince was unable to contradict the advice of his Chief of Staff, General von Blumenthal, for fear of a direct appeal (in this case) to his father the King. William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles) (October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... The German General Staff or Großer Generalstab was the most important German weapon for nearly two centuries. ... Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth, Graf von Moltke (known as Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke before 1870) (October 26, 1800 – April 24, 1891), was a German Field Marshal, thirty years chief of the staff of the Prussian army, widely regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ... Generalfeldmarschall Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal (July 20, 1810 - December 21, 1900), Prussian generalfeldmarschall, son of Captain Ludwig von Blumenthal (killed in 1813 at the battle of Dennewitz), was born at Schwedt-on-the-Oder. ...


Given that France maintained a strong standing army, and that Prussia and the other German states would need weeks to mobilise their reserves, the French held the initial advantage of troop numbers and experience. French tactics emphasised the defensive use of the Chassepot rifle in trench-warfare style fighting; German tactics emphasised encirclement battles and using artillery offensively whenever possible.


French incursion

Battle of Bazelles, 1870

On 28 July 1870, Napoleon III left Paris for Metz and assumed command of the newly titled Army of the Rhine, some 100,000 strong and expected to grow as the French mobilization progressed. Marshal MacMahon took command of I Corps (4 divisions) near Wissembourg, Marshal François Canrobert brought VI Corps (4 divisions) to Châlons-sur-Marne in northern France as a reserve and to guard against a Prussian advance through Belgium. A pre-war plan laid out by the late Marshal Adolphe Niel called for a strong French offensive from Thionville towards Trier and into the Prussian Rhineland. This plan was discarded in favour of a defensive plan by Generals Charles Frossard and Bartélemy Lebrun, which called for the Army of the Rhine to remain in a defensive posture near the German border and repel any Prussian offensive. As Austria along with Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden were expected to join in a revenge war against Prussia, I Corps would invade the Bavarian Palatinate and proceed to "liberate" the south German states in concert with Austro-Hungarian forces. VI Corps would reinforce either army as needed. Image File history File links Print of the battle of Bazelles, Franco-Prussian War from the Library of Congress [1] Copyright has expired. ... Image File history File links Print of the battle of Bazelles, Franco-Prussian War from the Library of Congress [1] Copyright has expired. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of Metz, see Metz (disambiguation) City motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) City proper (commune) Région Lorraine Département Moselle (57) Mayor Jean-Marie Rausch Area 41. ... Wissembourg (German: Weißenburg) is a small town and commune situated on the border between France and Germany, in the Alsace région, approximately 60 km north of Strasbourg. ... François Certain Canrobert (June 27, 1809 - January 28, 1895), was a marshal of France. ... Châlons-en-Champagne is a city and commune in France. ... Adolphe Niel (October 4, 1802 - August 13, 1869) was a marshal of France. ... Thionville (German: , Luxembourgish: Diedennuewen), is a town and commune in the Moselle département, in the Lorraine région, France. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... Charles Auguste Frossard (April 26, 1807 - August 25, 1875), was a French general. ... The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Palatinate of the Rhine (Lat. ...

Map of German and French armies on July 31.

Unfortunately for General Frossard's plan, the Prussian army was mobilizing far more rapidly than expected. Against all expectations, the south German states had come to Prussia's aid and were mobilizing their armies against France. The Austro-Hungarians, still smarting after their defeat by Prussia, seemed content to wait until a clear victor emerged before committing to France's cause. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3164x2456, 348 KB) Summary en: Map of German and French Armys on July, 31st 1870 at the beginning of Franco-Prussian War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3164x2456, 348 KB) Summary en: Map of German and French Armys on July, 31st 1870 at the beginning of Franco-Prussian War. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 153 days remaining. ...


Already, by August 3, some 320,000 German soldiers were now massed near the French border. A 40,000 strong French offensive into southern Germany would run into superior numbers and be rapidly cut off and destroyed. Napoleon III, however, was under immense domestic pressure to launch an offensive before the full might of Moltke's forces were mobilized and deployed. Reconnaissance by General Frossard had identified only one Prussian division guarding the border town of Saarbrücken, right before the entire Army of the Rhine. Accordingly, on July 31 Napoleon III ordered the Army forward across the Saar River to seize Saarbrücken. August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... Saarbrücken [] is the capital of the Saarland Bundesland in Germany. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... Saar loop at Mettlach The Saar (French: Sarre) is a river, that rises in the Vosges mountains in Alsace with two headstreams (Red and White Saar) at the Donon, running through Lorraine and the Saarland, which was named after it. ...


Occupation of Saarbrücken

General Frossard's II Corps and Marshal Bazaine's III Corps crossed the German border on August 2, and began to force the Prussian 40th Regiment of the 16th Division from the town of Saarbrücken with a series of direct attacks. The Chassepot rifle proved its worth against the Dreyse rifle, with French riflemen regularly outdistancing their Prussian counterparts in the skirmishing around Saarbrücken. However the Prussians resisted strongly, and the French suffered 86 casualties to the Prussian 83 casualties. Saarbrücken also proved to be a dead-end in terms of logistics— only one single railway there led from the border to the German hinterland which could be easily defended by a single force, and the only river systems in the region ran along the border instead of inland. August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Saarbrücken [] is the capital of the Saarland Bundesland in Germany. ...


While the French hailed the invasion as the first step towards the Rhineland and later Berlin, General Frossard was receiving alarming reports from foreign news sources of Prussian and Bavarian armies massing to the southeast in addition to the forces to the north and northeast.


Moltke had indeed massed three armies in the area— the Prussian First Army commanded by General Karl von Steinmetz (50,000 soldiers) opposite Saarlouis, the Prussian Second Army commanded by Prince Friedrich Karl (134,000 soldiers) opposite the line ForbachSpicheren, and the Prussian Third Army commanded by Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm (125,000 soldiers) poised to cross the border at Wissembourg. Cavalry reconnaissance had identified a French division of MacMahon's corps at Wissembourg. The Third Army moved forward to engage this division. The Second Army moved forward towards the border and Forbach and Spicheren beyond. The First Army marched to Saarlouis, to catch in the flank and rear any French forces moving to reinforce Spicheren. Moltke planned for the First Army in concert later with the Third Army to envelop the entire French army against the Second Army and destroy the entire force. Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz (December 27, 1796 - August 2, 1877), Prussian generalfeldmarschall, was born at Eisenach. ... Saarlouis is a city in the Saarland, Germany, capital of the district of Saarlouis. ... Prince Friedrich Karl Nicholas of Prussia (20 March 1828-15 June 1885) was the son of Karl of Prussia (1801-1883) and his wife Marie Louise of Saxe-Weimar (1808-1877). ... Centre Centre Forbach is a town and commune, in the Moselle département, in France. ... Battle of Spicheren Conflict Franco-Prussian War Date August 6, 1870 Place near Saarbrucken, France Result German victory The Battle of Spicheren, also known as the Battle of Forbach, was a battle during the Franco-Prussian War. ... Friedrich III of Germany. ... Wissembourg (German: Weißenburg) is a small town and commune situated on the border between France and Germany, in the Alsace région, approximately 60 km north of Strasbourg. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ...


German advance

France after German invasion, beginning of December 1870

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1981x1719, 1689 KB) Map of France during Franco-Prussian War as in beginning of December 1870 File links The following pages link to this file: Franco-Prussian War Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1981x1719, 1689 KB) Map of France during Franco-Prussian War as in beginning of December 1870 File links The following pages link to this file: Franco-Prussian War Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or...

Battle of Wissembourg

Main article: Battle of Wissembourg

On learning that the Second Army was just 30 miles from Saarbrücken and was moving towards the border, General Frossard hastily withdrew the elements of Army of the Rhine in Saarbrücken back to Spicheren and Forbach. Marshal MacMahon however was unaware of Prussian movements beyond vague rumours from newspapers, and left his four divisions spread 20 miles apart in depth to react to any Prussian invasion. At Wissembourg on August 4, MacMahon's 2nd Division commanded by General Abel Douay was the first to make contact with leading elements of the Prussian Third Army, beginning the Battle of Wissembourg. The Battle of Wissembourg or Weissenburg was the first battle of the Franco-Prussian War. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ...


The first action of the Franco-Prussian War (excluding the push into Saarbrücken by elements of Frossard's French II Corps on 2 August) took place on 4 August. This bloody little battle saw the unsupported division of General Douay of I Corps, with some attached cavalry, which was posted to watch the border, attacked in overwhelming but poorly coordinated fashion by the German 3rd Army. As the day wore on elements of one Bavarian and two Prussian Corps became embroiled in the fight which was notable for the complete lack of higher direction by the Prussians and blind offensive haste by their low level officers. August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ...


Douay held a very strong position but his force was too thinly stretched to hold it and his division was driven south by way of Riedseltz at dusk. Douay himself was killed in the early afternoon when a caisson of the divisional mitrailleuse battery exploded near him. General Pelle took up command and withdrew the remnants of the division. A caisson is: In engineering, a retaining structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier. ... The mitrailleuse was a manually-fired volley gun originally developed in Belgium in the 1850s. ...


Although Failly's V Corps was just a few miles away at Bitsche and the other three divisions of MacMahon's I Corps were a similar distance away to the south at Worth, neither moved to assist, despite the clear rumble of guns. Pierre Louis Charles de Failly (1810-1892), French general, was born at Rozoy-sur-Serre (Aisne) on the 21st of January 1810, and entered the army from Saint-Cyr in 1828. ...


The Prussians seemed poise to capitalize on these happenings, and the French appeared still woefully unaware of the now forming Prussian juggernaut.


Battle of Wœrth

Main article: Battle of Wœrth

The two armies clashed again only two days later (August 6, 1870) near Wœrth, less than ten miles from Wissembourg. The German 3rd army had drawn reinforcements which brought its strength up to 140,000 troops. The French had also been reinforced, but their recruitment was slow, and their force numbered only 35,000. Although badly outnumbered, the French defended their position along a ridge at the western outskirts of Woerth. By afternoon, both sides had suffered about 10,000 casualties, and the French army was too battered to continue resisting. To make matters even more dire for the French, the Germans had taken the town of Froeschwiller which sat on a hilltop in the center of the French line. Having lost any outlook for victory and facing a massacre, the French army broke off the battle and retreated in a western direction, hoping to join other French forces on the other side of the Vosges mountains. The German 3rd army did not pursue the withdrawing French. It remained in Alsace and moved slowly south, attacking and destroying the French defensive garrisons in the vicinity. Combatants Prussia Baden Bavaria Württemberg France Commanders Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Patrice MacMahon Strength 88,000 50,000 Casualties 10,000 dead, wounded, or missing 11,000 dead or wounded 9,000 captured The Battle of WÅ“rth, also known as the Battle of Reichshoffen or as the Battle... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... WÅ“rth (also Woerth, German: Wörth) is a town in the Bas-Rhin département, Alsace, France. ...


The battle of Woerth was the first major one of the Franco-German war, with more than 100,000 troops in the battlefield. It was also one of the first clashes where troops from various German states (Prussians, Badeners, Bavarians, Saxons, etc.) fought jointly. These facts have led some historians to call the battlefield of Woerth the "cradle of Germany".


According to the movie Champ d'Honneur (Fields of Honor) the French, in desperation, released ferocious wild animals from Zoos against the Prussians, as well as issued orders to French civilians to poison wells and food stocks that fell behind Prussian lines.


Battle of Spicheren

Main article: Battle of Spicheren

The Battle of Spicheren, on August 5, was the second of three critical French defeats. The French were able to stall the German I Army until the German II Army under Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia came to the aid of their compatriots and routed the French in a blazing attack. Together with the Battle of Wœrth, on the following day, the Prussians succeeded in separating the northern and southern flanks of the French army. The German victory compelled the French to withdraw to the defenses of Metz. Battle of Spicheren Conflict Franco-Prussian War Date August 6, 1870 Place near Saarbrucken, France Result German victory The Battle of Spicheren, also known as the Battle of Forbach, was a battle during the Franco-Prussian War. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ...


Battle of Mars-La-Tour

Main article: Battle of Mars-La-Tour

With the Prussian army now steamrolling, 130,000 French soldiers were bottled up in the Fortress of Metz following several defeats at the front. Their attempt to leave Metz in order to link up with French forces at Châlons was spotted by a Prussian cavalry patrol under Major Oskar von Blumenthal. Four days after their retreat, on the 16 August, the ever-present Prussian forces, a grossly outnumbered group of 30,000 men of III Corps (of the 2nd Army) under General Konstantin von Alvensleben, found the French Army near Vionville, east of Mars-la-Tour. Battle of Mars-La-Tour Conflict Franco-Prussian War Date August 16, 1870 Place Mars-La-Tour, France Result Prussian victory The Battle of Mars-La-Tour was fought on 16 August 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War near the town of Mars-La-Tour in north-east France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite odds of four to one, the III Corps launched a risky attack and routed the French, allowing them to then capture Vionville, blocking any further escape attempts to the west. Once blocked from retreat, the French in the fortress of Metz had no choice but to engage in a fight that would see the last major cavalry engagement in Western Europe. The battle soon erupted, and III corps was decimated by the incessant cavalry charges, losing over half its soldiers. Meanwhile, French suffered equivalent numerical losses of 16,000 soldiers, but still held on to overwhelming numerical superiority. Battle of Wołodarka Polish infantry charging enemy positions during the Polish Defensive War A charge is a maneuver in battle in which soldiers advance towards their enemy at their best speed to engage in close combat. ...


On August 16, the French had a chance to sweep away the key Prussian defence, and to escape. Two Prussian corps attacked the French advanced guard thinking that it was the rearguard of the retreat of the French Army of the Meuse. Despite this misjudgment the two Prussian corps held the entire French army for the whole day. Outnumbered 5:1, the extraordinary elan of the Prussians prevailed over gross indecision by the French. August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Battle of Gravelotte

Main article: Battle of Gravelotte

The Battle of Gravelotte, or Gravelotte-St. Privat, was the largest battle during the Franco-Prussian War. It was fought about six miles west of Metz, Lorraine, France where on the previous day, having intercepted the French army's retreat to the west at the Battle of Mars-La-Tour, the Prussians were now closing in to complete the destruction of the French forces. Combatants Prussia France Commanders Helmuth von Moltke François Achille Bazaine Strength 188,332 732 guns 112,800 520 guns Casualties 20,163 dead, wounded, missing or captured 7,855 dead or wounded, 4,420 captured The Battle of Gravelotte (August 18, 1870) was a battle of the Franco-Prussian...


The combined German forces, under Field Marshal Count Helmuth von Moltke, were the Prussian First and Second Armies of the North German Confederation numbering about 210 infantry battalions, 133 cavalry squadrons, and 732 heavy cannons totaling 188,332 officers and men. The French Army of the Rhine, commanded by Marshal François-Achille Bazaine, numbering about 183 infantry battalions, 104 cavalry squadrons, backed by 520 heavy cannons, totaling 112,800 officers and men, dug in along high ground with their southern left flank at the town of Rozerieulles, and their northern right flank at St. Privat.


On August 18, the battle began when at 08:00 Moltke ordered the First and Second Armies to advance against the French positions. By 12:00, General Manstein opened up the battle before the village of Amanvillers with artillery from the 25th Infantry Division. But the French had spent the night and early morning digging trenches and rifle pits while placing their artillery and their mitrailleuses in concealed positions. With them finally aware of the Prussian advance, the French opened up a massive return fire against the mass of advancing Germans. The battle at first appeared in favour of the French with their superior Chassepot rifle. However, the Prussian artillery was superior with the all-steel Krupp breech-loading gun. August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By 14:30, General Steinmetz, the commander of the First Army, unilaterally launched his VIII Corps across the Mance Ravine in which the Prussian infantry were soon pinned down by murderous rifle and mitrailleuse fire from the French positions. At 15:00, the massed guns of the VII and VIII Corps opened fire to support the attack. But by 16:00, with the attack in danger of stalling, Steinmetz ordered the VII Corps forward, followed by the 1st Cavalry Division.


By 16:50, with the Prussian southern attacks in danger of breaking up, the 3rd Prussian Guards Brigade of the Second Army opened an attack against the French positions at St-Privat which were commanded by General Canrobert. At 17:15, the 4th Prussian Guards Brigade joined the advance followed at 17:45 by the 1st Prussian Guards Brigade. All of the Prussian Guard attacks were too pinned down by lethal French gunfire from the rifle pits and trenches. At 18:15 the 2nd Prussian Guards Brigade, the last of the Guards Division, was committed to the attack on St Privat while Steinmetz committed the last of the reserves of the First Army across the Mance Ravine. By 18:30, a considerable portion of the VII and VIII Corps disengaged from the fighting and withdrew towards the Prussian positions at Rezonville.


With the defeat of the First Army, Crown Prince Frederick Charles ordered a massed artillery attack against Canrobert's position at St. Privat to prevent the Guards attack from failing too. At 19:00 the 3rd Division of Fransecky's II Corps of the Second Army advanced across Ravine while the XII Corps cleared out the nearby town of Roncourt and with the survivors of the Guards Division launched a fresh attack against the ruins of St. Privat. At 20:00, the arrival of the Prussian 4th Division of the II Corps and with the Prussian right flank on Mance Ravine, the line stabilised. By then, the Prussians of the Guards Division and the XII and II Corps captured St. Privat forcing the decimated French forces to withdraw. With the Prussians exhausted from the fighting, the French were now able to mount a counter-attack. General Bourbaki, however, refused to commit the reserves of the French Old Guard to the battle because, by that time, he considered the overall situation a 'defeat'. Charles Denis Sauter Bourbaki ( April 22, 1816 - September 27, 1897) was a French general. ...


By 22:00, firing largely died down across the battlefield for the night. The next morning, the French Army of the Rhine, rather than resume the battle with an attack of its own against the battle-weary German armies, retreated to Metz where they were besieged and forced to surrender two months later.


The casualties were horrible, especially for the attacking Prussian forces. A grand total of 20,163 German troops were killed, wounded or missing in action during the August 18 battle. The French losses were 7,855 killed and wounded along with 4,420 prisoners of war (half of them were wounded) for a total of 12,275. While most of the Prussians fell under the French Chassepot rifles, most French fell under the Prussian Krupp shells. In a breakdown of the casualties, Frossard's II Corps of the Army of the Rhine suffered 621 casualties while inflicting 4,300 casualties on the Prussian First Army under Steinmetz before the Pointe du Jour. The Prussian Guard Division losses were even more staggering with 8,000 casualties out of 18,000 men. The Special Guard Jäger lost 19 officers, a surgeon and 431 men out of a total of 700. The 2nd Guards Brigade lost 39 officers and 1,076 men. The 3rd Guards Brigade lost 36 officers and 1,060 men. On the French side, the units holding St Privat lost more than half their number in the village. Jäger (plural also Jäger, both pronounced as the surname Yeager) is a German word for hunter. In English it is often written with the plural Jägers, or as jaeger (pl. ...


Siege of Metz

Main article: Siege of Metz

With the defeat of Marshal Bazaine's Army of the Rhine at Gravelotte, the French were forced to retire to Metz where they were besieged by over 150,000 Prussian troops of the First and Second Armies. The further crushing French loss was sealed when he surrendered 180,000 soldiers on October 27. Combatants Prussia France Commanders Prince Friedrich Karl François Bazaine Strength 134,000 180,000 Casualties unknown 180,000 surrendered The Siege of Metz lasting from September 3 – October 23, 1870 was a crushing defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ...


Battle of Sedan

Main article: Battle of Sedan

Napoleon III, along with Field Marshal MacMahon, formed the new French Army of Châlons to march on to Metz to rescue Bazaine. With Napoleon III personally leading the army with Marshal MacMahon in attendance, they led the Army of Chalons in a left-flanking march northeast towards the Belgian border in an attempt to avoid the Prussians before striking south to link up with Bazaine. Combatants Prussia Bavaria France Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Napoleon III Patrice MacMahon Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot Strength 200,000 774 cannon 120,000 564 cannon Casualties 2,320 dead 5,980 wounded 700 missing (9,000 total) 3,000 dead 14,000 wounded 21,000 captured 82,000 surrendered...


The Prussians, under the command of Field Marshal Count Helmuth von Moltke, took advantage of this incompetent manoeuvre to catch the French in a pincer grip. Leaving the Prussian First and Second Armies besieging Metz, Moltke took the Prussian Third Army and the Army of the Meuse northward where they caught up with the French at Beaumont on August 30. After a hard-fought battle with the French losing 5,000 men and 40 cannon in a sharp fight, they withdrew toward Sedan. Having reformed in the town, the Army of Chalons was immediately isolated by the converging Prussian armies. Napoleon III ordered the army to break out of the encirclement immediately. With MacMahon wounded on the previous day, General Auguste Ducrot took command of the French troops in the field.

Napoleon III and Bismarck after the battle of Sedan

On September 1, 1870, the battle opened with the Army of Châlons, with 202 infantry battalions, 80 cavalry squadrons and 564 guns, attacking the surrounding Prussian Third and Meuse Armies totaling 222 infantry battalions, 186 cavalry squadrons and 774 guns. General De Wimpffen, the commander of the French V Corps in reserve, hoped to launch a combined infantry and cavalry attack against the Prussian XI Corps. But by 11:00, Prussian artillery took a toll on the French while more Prussian troops arrived on the battlefield. The French cavalry, commanded by General Marguerite, launched three desperate attacks on the nearby village of Floing where the Prussian XI Corps was concentrated. Marguerite was killed leading the very first charge and the two additional charges led to nothing but heavy losses. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (905x565, 114 KB) Description: Otto von Bismarck and Napoleon III. after the battle of Sedan Source: Bismarck. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (905x565, 114 KB) Description: Otto von Bismarck and Napoleon III. after the battle of Sedan Source: Bismarck. ... Emmanuel Felix de Wimpffen (1811-1884) was a French soldier. ...


By the end of the day, with no hope of breaking out, Napoleon III called off the attacks. The French lost over 17,000 men, killed or wounded, with 21,000 captured. The Prussians reported their losses at 2,320 killed, 5,980 wounded and 700 captured or missing.


By the next day, on September 2, Napoleon III surrendered and was taken prisoner with 104,000 of his soldiers. It was an overwhelming victory for the Prussians, for they not only captured an entire French army, but the leader of France as well. The defeat of the French at Sedan had decided the war in Prussia's favour. One French army was now immobilised and besieged in the city of Metz, and no other forces stood on French ground to prevent a German invasion. The war, nevertheless would drag on for five more months. September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Overthrow of the French imperial monarchy and armistice negotiations

When news hit Paris of Emperor Napoleon's III capture, the French Second Empire was overthrown in a bloodless and successful coup d'etat which was launched by General Trochu, Jules Favre, and Léon Gambetta at Paris on September 4. They removed the second Bonapartist monarchy and proclaimed[3] a republic led by a Government of National Defense, leading to the Third Republic. Napoleon III was taken to Germany, and released later. He went into exile in the United Kingdom, dying in 1873. Jules Claude Gabriel Favre (March 21, 1809 - January 20, 1880) was a French statesman. ... Painting of Léon Gambetta by Léon Bonnat Léon Gambetta (April 2, 1838 - December 31, 1882), French statesman, was born at Cahors. ... La Gouvernement de la Défense Nationale, or The Government of National Defence, was the official Government of the Third Republic of France from September 4th 1870 to February 13th 1871. ...


After the German victory at Sedan, most of France's standing forces were out of combat, one army was immobilised and besieged in the city of Metz, and the army led by Emperor Napoleon III himself had surrendered to the Germans. Under these circumstances, the Germans hoped for an armistice which would put an official end to the hostilities and lead to peace. Prussia's Prime Minister von Bismarck, in particular, entertained that hope for he wanted to end the war as soon as possible. To a nation with as many neighbors as Prussia, a prolonged war meant the growing risk of intervention by another power, and von Bismarck was determined to limit that risk.


At first, the outlook for peace seemed fair. The Germans estimated that the new government of France could not be interested in continuing the war that had been declared by the monarch they had quickly deposed. Hoping to pave the road to peace, Prussia's Prime Minister von Bismarck invited the new French Government to negotiations held at Ferrières and submitted a list of moderate conditions, including limited territorial demands in Alsace. Further claims of a French border along the Rhine in Palatinate had been made since (Adolphe Thiers, Rhine crisis 1840), while the Germans vowed to defend both banks of the Rhine (Die Wacht am Rhein, Deutschlandlied). As Prussia had recently acquired large areas populated by Catholics, further extensions were not considered desirable by Bismarck, though. Ferrière, Ferrières or La Ferrière is the name or part of the name of several places: In Belgium Ferrières in Liége In France Communes in France: La Ferrière, in the Côtes-dArmor département La Ferrière, in the Indre-et-Loire... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... The term French-German (hereditary) enmity (German: ) describes the often hostile relations between France and its eastern neighbors, the German states, that eventually became the German Empire. ... Die Wacht am Rhein (English: The Watch/Guard on the Rhine) is a German patriotic anthem. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans) or Das Deutschlandlied (The Song of Germany) has since 1922 been the national anthem of Germany. ...


But while the republican government was amenable to reparation payments or transfer of colonial territories in Africa or in South East Asia to Prussia, Jules Favre on behalf of the Government of National Defense declared on September 6 that September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ...

"We are not going to cede a single inch of our territory and not a single stone of our (Vauban-built) fortresses" (Nous ne céderons ni un pouce de notre territoire ni une pierre de nos forteresses.)[4][5][6] Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ...

The republic renewed the declaration of war, called for recruits in all parts of the country, and pledged to drive the enemy troops out of France.


Under these circumstances, the Germans had to continue the war, yet couldn't pin down any proper military opposition in their vicinity. As the bulk of the remaining French armies were digging-in near Paris, the German leaders decided to put pressure upon the enemy by attacking Paris. In October, German troops reached the outskirts of Paris, a heavily fortified city. The Germans surrounded it and erected a blockade, as already established and ongoing at Metz. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


The War Continued

Siege of Paris

Main article: Siege of Paris

The Siege of Paris (September 19, 1870January 28, 1871) brought about the final defeat of the French Army during the Franco-Prussian War. On January 18, the new German Empire was proclaimed at the Palace of Versailles. Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... The Château de Versailles, or Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ...


Faced with the German blockade of Paris, the new French government called for the establishment of several large armies in France's provinces. These new bodies of troops were to march towards Paris and attack the Germans there from various directions at the same time. In addition, armed French civilians were to create a guerilla force —the so-called Francs-tireurs— for the purpose of attacking German support lines. The phrase Francs-tireurs was used to describe irregular military formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) and from that usage is is sometimes used to refer more generally to guerrilla fighters who fight outside the laws of war[1]. The term...


These developments prompted calls from the German civilian public for a bombardment of the city. General Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal, who commanded the siege, was opposed to the bombardment on civilised grounds. In this he was backed by other senior military figures such as the Crown Prince and Moltke. All of them had married English wives and as a result they were accused of coming under English liberal influence. Generalfeldmarschall Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal (July 20, 1810 - December 21, 1900), Prussian generalfeldmarschall, son of Captain Ludwig von Blumenthal (killed in 1813 at the battle of Dennewitz), was born at Schwedt-on-the-Oder. ...


Loire campaign

Dispatched from Paris as the republican government's emissary, Léon Gambetta passed over the German lines in a hot air balloon and organized the recruitment of new French armies. Hot air balloon in flight Hot air balloon are the oldest successful human carrying flight technology, dating back to the Montgolfier brothers invention in Annonay, France in 1783. ...


News about an alleged German "extermination" plan infuriated the French and strengthened their support to their new government. Within a few weeks, five new armies totaling more than 500,000 troops were recruited.


The Germans noticed this development and dispatched some of their troops to the French provinces in order to detect, attack, and disperse the new French armies before they could become a menace, for the blockade of Paris or elsewhere. The Germans were not prepared for an occupation of the whole of France. This would stretch them out, and they would become vulnerable.


On October 10, fighting erupted between German and French republican forces near Orléans. At first, the Germans were victorious, but the French drew reinforcements and defeated the Germans at Coulmiers on November 9. But after the surrender of Metz, more than 100,000 well-trained and battle-experienced German troops joined the German 'Southern Army'. With these reinforcements, the French were forced to abandon Orléans on December 4, to be finally defeated near Le Mans (between 1012 January). October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... Orléans Cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Cross, built from 1278 to 1329; after being pillaged by Huguenots in the 1560s, the Bourbon kings restored it in the 17th century. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Combatants Prussia France Commanders Prince Friedrich Karl François Bazaine Strength 134,000 180,000 Casualties unknown 180,000 surrendered The Siege of Metz lasting from September 3 – October 23, 1870 was a crushing defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ... December 4th redirects here. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A second French army which operated north of Paris was turned back near Amiens (November 27, 1870), Bapaume (January 3, 1871) and St. Quentin (January 19). Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bapaume is a chief town of canton of northern France, in the département of Pas-de-Calais, arrondissement of Arras. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Saint-Quentin is a commune of northern France. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Northern campaign

Following the Army of the Loire's defeats, Gambetta turned to General Faidherbe's Army of the North. The Army of the North had achieved several small victories at towns such as Ham, La Hallue, and Amiens, and was well-protected by the belt of fortresses in northern France, allowing Faidherbe's men to launch quick attacks against isolated Prussian units, then retreat behind the belt of fortresses. Despite the army's access to the armaments factories of Lille, the Army of the North suffered from severe supply difficulties which kept the soldiers' already poor morale at a permanently low level. In January 1871, Gambetta forced Faidherbe to march his army beyond the fortresses and engage the Prussians in open battle. The army was severely weakened by low morale, supply problems, the terrible winter weather, and low troop quality, whilst General Faidherbe himself was unable to direct battles effectively due to his terrible health, the result of decades of campaigning in West Africa. At the Battle of St. Quentin, the Army of the North suffered a crushing defeat and was scattered, releasing thousands of Prussian soldiers to be relocated to the East. Louis Léon César Faidherbe (June 3, 1818 - September 29, 1889), French general and colonial administrator, was born at Lille. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Nord-Pas de Calais Department Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Battle of St. ...


Eastern campaign

Following the destruction of the French Army of the Loire, remnants of the Loire army gathered in eastern France to form the Army of the East, commanded by General Charles Bourbaki. In a final attempt to cut the German supply lines in northeast France, Bourbaki's army marched north to attack the Prussian siege of Belfort and relieve the beleaguered French defenders. Charles Denis Sauter Bourbaki ( April 22, 1816 - September 27, 1897) was a French general. ... Belfort is a town and commune of northeastern France, préfecture (capital) of the Territoire de Belfort département in the Franche-Comté région. ...


In the battle of the Lisaine, Bourbaki's men failed to break through German lines commanded by General August von Werder. Bringing in the German 'Southern Army', General von Manteuffel then drove Bourbaki's army into the mountains near the Swiss border. Facing annihilation, this last intact French army crossed the border and was disarmed and imprisoned by the neutral Swiss near Pontarlier (February 1). Karl Wilhelm Friedrich August Leopold, Count von Werder (1808-1887), Prussian general, entered the Prussian Gardes du Corps in 1825, transferring the following year into the Guard Infantry, with which he served for many years as a subaltern. ... Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel (February 24, 1809 - June 17, 1885) was a Prussian generalfeldmarschall noted for his victories in the Franco-Prussian War. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Naval blockade

At the outset of the war, elements of the 470-ship French Navy were put to sea and to attempt a blockade of the north German coasts, which the relatively small north German navy (Norddeutsche Bundesmarine) could do little to oppose. Despite this, the blockade was only partially successful as the French navy suffered chronic shortages of coal and the lack of a forward military base in the North Sea and especially the Baltic Sea. The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... The Norddeutsche Bundesmarine (Northern German Federal Navy) was the Navy of the North German Confederation. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


To take pressure from the expected German attack into Alsace-Lorraine, Napoleon III and others in the French high command planned at the outset of the war to launch a seaborne invasion of northern Germany. It was hoped that the invasion would not only divert German troops from the front, but also inspire Denmark to assist with its 50,000 strong army and the substantial Danish Navy. However it was discovered that Prussia had recently installed formidable coastal defenses around the major north German ports, including coastal artillery batteries consisting of Krupp heavy artillery tubes made of steel. This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Flag of the Royal Danish Navy Ships of the Royal Danish Navy carry the prefix KMD (Kongelige Danske Marine). ... 19th century coastal artillery guns preserved in Suomenlinna fortress in Helsinki Coastal artillery is the branch of armed forces concerned with operating mobile anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. ...


The French Navy lacked the necessary heavy weaponry to deal with these coastal defences, while the difficult topography of the Prussian coastline made a seaborne invasion of northern Germany impossible. It has been suggested that Geomorphometry be merged into this article or section. ...


The French Marines and naval infantry tasked with the invasion of northern Germany were subsequently dispatched to bolster the French Army of Châlons, where they were captured at the Battle of Sedan along with Napoleon III. Suffering a severe shortage of officers following the capture of most of the professional French army at the Siege of Metz and the Battle of Sedan, naval officers were taken from their ships to officer the hastily assembled gardes mobiles or French reserve army units. The Marine Troops (Troupes de Marines) is a subset of the French Army dedicated to external operations. ... France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ... Combatants Prussia Bavaria France Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Napoleon III Patrice MacMahon Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot Strength 200,000 774 cannon 120,000 564 cannon Casualties 2,320 dead 5,980 wounded 700 missing (9,000 total) 3,000 dead 14,000 wounded 21,000 captured 82,000 surrendered... Combatants Prussia France Commanders Prince Friedrich Karl François Bazaine Strength 134,000 180,000 Casualties unknown 180,000 surrendered The Siege of Metz lasting from September 3 – October 23, 1870 was a crushing defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ...


As the autumn storms of the North Sea took their toll on the remaining patrolling French ships, the blockade became less and less effective. By September 1870, the blockade was finally abandoned altogether for the winter, and the French Navy retired to ports along the English Channel, remaining in port for the rest of the war. Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ...


Isolated engagements took place between French and German ships in other theaters, such as the blockade by FS Dupleix of the German ship Hertha in Nagasaki, Japan. The Dupleix was a steam and sail corvette of the French Marine Nationale. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Armistice

On January 28, 1871, the Government of National Defense based in Paris negotiated an armistice with the Prussians. With Paris starving, and Gambetta's provincial armies reeling from one disaster after another, French Premiere Jules Ferry was permitted to leave Paris and arrived at Versailles on January 24th to discuss peace terms with Bismarck. January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... La Gouvernement de la Défense Nationale, or The Government of National Defence, was the official Government of the Third Republic of France from September 4th 1870 to February 13th 1871. ... Jules Ferry, French statesman Jules François Camille Ferry (April 5, 1832 – March 17, 1893) was a French statesman. ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ...


Bismarck agreed to end the siege and allow food convoys to immediately enter Paris (including trains carrying millions of German army rations), on condition that the Government of National Defence surrendered several key fortresses outside Paris to the Prussians. Without the forts, the French Army would no longer be able to defend Paris. Although public opinion in Paris was strongly against any form of surrender of concession to the Prussians, the Government realised that it could not hold the city for much longer, and that Gambetta's provincial armies would probably never break through to relieve Paris. President Jules Trochu resigned on January 25 and was replaced by Jules Favre, who signed the surrender two days later at Versailles, with the armistice coming into effect at midnight. Several sources claim that in his carriage on the way back to Paris, Favre broke into tears, and collapsed into his daughter's arms as the guns around Paris fell silent at midnight. French general Jules Trochu Louis Jules Trochu (March 12, 1815 - October 7, 1896) was a French military leader. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jules Claude Gabriel Favre (March 21, 1809 - January 20, 1880) was a French statesman. ...


At Tours, Gambetta received word from Paris on January 30 that the Government had surrendered. Furious, he refused to surrender and launched an immediate attack on German forces at Orleans which, predictably, failed. A delegation of Parisian diplomats arrived in Tours by train on February 5 to negotiate with Gambetta, and the following day Gambetta stepped down and surrendered control of the provincial armies to the Government of National Defence, which promptly ordered a ceasefire across France. Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed 10 May, marking the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed May 10, 1871, at theend of the Franco-Prussian War. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (131st in leap years). ...


Aftermath

For detailed information on the Commune and civil war, see Paris Commune

The Prussian Army held a brief victory parade in Paris on February 17, and Bismarck honoured the armistice by sending trainloads of food into Paris and withdrawing Prussian forces to the east of the city, which would be withdrawn as soon as France agreed to pay a colossal five-billion francs in war indemnity. At the same time, Prussian forces were withdrawn from France and concentrated in the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. An exodus occurred from Paris as some 200,000 people, predominantly middle-class, left the city for the countryside. Paris was quickly re-supplied with free food and fuel by the United Kingdom and several accounts recall life in the city settling back to normal. Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Moselle is a département in the northeast of France named after the Moselle River. ...


National elections returned an overwhelmingly conservative government, which, under President Adolphe Thiers, established itself in Versailles, fearing that the political climate of Paris was too dangerous to set up the capital in the city. The new government, formed mainly of conservative, middle-class rural politicians, passed a variety of laws which greatly angered the population of Paris, such as the controversial Law of Maturities, which decreed that all rents in Paris, which had been postponed since September 1870, and all public debts across France, which had been given a moratorium in November 1870, were to be paid in full, with interest, within 48 hours. Paris shouldered an unfairly high proportion of the indemnity payments made to the Prussians, and the population of the city quickly grew resentful of the Versailles government. With Paris under the protection of the revolutionary National Guard and few regular soldiers in the city, left-wing leaders established themselves in the Hôtel de Ville and established the Paris Commune. A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... Look up Moratorium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Founded in Paris after the fall of the Bastille in July 1789, the National Guard passed from the historical stage in the wake of the destruction of the Paris Commune in May 1871. ... The Hôtel de Ville houses the office of the Mayor of Paris. ... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of...


The Treaty of Frankfurt confirmed German possession of Alsace and the northern portion of Lorraine (Moselle). The loss of this territory was a source of resentment in France for years to come, and contributed to public support for World War I, in which France vowed to take back control of Alsace-Lorraine. Moselle is a département in the northeast of France named after the Moselle River. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Countries previously without a General Staff or a system of universal conscription soon adopted both, along with developments in logistics, military use of railways, and the telegraph system, all proven by the war to be indispensable. The creation of a unified German Empire destroyed the balance of power that had been created with the Congress of Vienna after the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Germany quickly established itself as the main power in Europe with one of the most powerful and professional armies in the world (although the United Kingdom remained the dominant world power, British involvement in European affairs during the late 19th century was very limited, allowing Germany to exercise great influence over the European mainland). In France, the defeat gave way to a feeling of revanchism that, by creating a permanent state of crisis between Germany and France, would be one of the contributing factors leading to World War I. A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


The Dreyfus Affair developed out of the aftermath of the war, when secret messages to Germany were discovered in a wastebasket in the French intelligence department. The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Is War Now Impossible?. 1898. Ivan Bloch. URL accessed 17 July 2006.
  2. ^ The Art of Warfare; Waterloo to Mons, William McElwee, Purnell, London, 1974
  3. ^ Marburg University
  4. ^ Marburg.
  5. ^ Project Gutenberg.
  6. ^ Library of Congreß.

Ivan Stanislavovic Bloch (1836 - 1902) (aka Johann von Bloch, Jean de Bloch, Ivan Bliokh) was a Polish banker and railway financier who devoted his private life to the study of modern industrial warfare. ...

References

  • Badsey, Stephen. Franco-Prussian War 1870–1871. London: Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-84176-421-3
  • Howard, Michael. Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France 1870–1871. New York: Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-26671-8
  • Mitchner, E. Alyn, R. Joanne Tuffs. Century of Change. Canada: Reidmore Books Inc., 1997.
  • Lexikon der deutschen Geschichte – Ploetz, Verlag Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau, Österreich 2001
  • Der große Ploetz, Verlag Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau, Österreich 1998
  • Dtv-Atlas Weltgeschichte, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, München 2000
  • Dennis E. Showalter: Das Gesicht des modernen Krieges. Sedan, 1. und 2. September 1870, in: Schlachten der Weltgeschichte. Von Salamis bis Sinai, hrsg. v. Stig Förster, Dierk Walter und Markus Pöhlmann, München 22004. ISBN 3-423-34083-5
  • Theodor Fontane: Band 1 - Der Krieg gegen Frankreich 1870-1871, Weißenburg - Wörth - Spicheren - Colombey -Vionville - Gravelotte - Sedan - Wilhelmshöhe - Straßburg - Toul - Metz, Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza, Reprint 1873/2004, ISBN 3-937135-25-1
  • Theodor Fontane: Band 2 - Der Krieg gegen Frankreich 1870-1871, Vor und in Paris vom 20. September bis 24. Dezember 1870 - Die großen Ausfallgefechte - Vor Paris im Dezember 1870 - Orleans, Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza, Reprint 1876/2004, ISBN 3-937135-26-X
  • Theodor Fontane: Band 3 - Der Krieg gegen Frankreich 1870-1871, Amiens - Dijon - Le Mans - Belfort -(Vor) Paris 25. Dezember 1870 bis 2. März 1871 - Bapaume = St. Quentin - Pontarlier, Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza, Reprint 1876/2004, ISBN 3-937135-27-8
  • Max Riemschneider: Ein Erfurter im Deutsch-Französischen Krieg 1870/71, Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza, 2005, ISBN 3-937135-01-4
  • Sigismund von Dobschütz: „Wir sind dahin gekommen, ganze Dörfer niederzubrennen“ — Briefe aus dem Deutsch-Französischen Krieg 1870/71 und der Okkupationszeit 1872/73 von Paul von Collas an seine Eltern., Ostdeutsche Familienkunde (OFK), Heft 1/2006, Seite 321f., Verlag Degener & Co., Neustadt (Aisch) 2006, ISSN 0472-190X. — (Paul von Collas war damals Generalstabsoffizier und Adjutant unter Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz und später unter General Edwin von Manteuffel, dessen Memoiren er schrieb.)

Theodor Fontane (December 30, 1819 – September 20, 1898) was a 19th-century German novelist and poet. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz (December 27, 1796 - August 2, 1877), Prussian generalfeldmarschall, was born at Eisenach. ... Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel (February 24, 1809 - June 17, 1885) was a German generalfeldmarschall noted for his victories in the Franco-Prussian War. ...

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