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Encyclopedia > Francisco Suárez

Francisco Suárez (1548–1617) was a Spanish philosopher and theologian, generally regarded as having been the greatest scholastic after Thomas Aquinas. The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Scholastic redirects here. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Contents

Life and career

Suárez was born on 5 January 1548 in the Spanish city of Granada. At the age of sixteen he entered the Society of Jesus at Salamanca, and he studied philosophy and theology there for five years from 1565 to 1570. It appears that he was not a promising student at first; indeed, he nearly gave up his thoughts of study after twice failing the entrance exam. After passing the exam at the third attempt, however, things changed, and he completed his course of study in philosophy with distinction, going on to study theology, then to teach philosophy at Avila and Segovia. He was ordained in 1572, and taught theology at Avila and Segovia (1575), Valladolid (1576), Rome (158085), Alcalá (1585–92), Salamanca (1592–97), and Coimbra (1597–1616). January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, occultist, and heretic, (burned at the stake) 1600 Cornelis Ketel, Dutch painter Carel van Mander, Dutch painter and poet (d. ... The City of Granada Alhambra, Courtyard of the Lions Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in Andalusia, Spain (Andalucía, España). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... For other places named Salamanca, see Salamanca (disambiguation). ... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... vila is a town in the south of Castile, the capital of the province of the same name, now part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain. ... Roman aqueduct in Segovia (19th Century view) Gothic Cathedral of Segovia Categories: Spain geography stubs | World Heritage Sites in Spain | Cities in Spain ... This article is about the sacrament. ... Events January 16 - The Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Events August 5 - Henry Sidney is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. ... This article deals with the Spanish city. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Location within Italy The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma) is the capital city of Italy and of its Latium region. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Events January 12 - The Netherlands adopts the Gregorian calendar Beginning of the Eighth War of Religion in France (also known as the War of the Three Henrys) August 8 - John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in quest for the North West Passage. ... Alcalá is a Spanish placename originally from Arabic al-qalat, the castle. Alcalá de Guadaira, Spain Alcalá de Henares, Madrid See also Alcántara and Alcázar, other Spanish placenames of Arabic origin. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... Events January 24 - Battle of Turnhout. ... Coimbra is a city and a district of Portugal. ... Events Dirk Hartog lands on an island off the Western Australian coast Pocahontas arrives in England War between Venice and Austria Collegium Musicum founded in Prague Nicolaus Copernicus De revolutionibus is placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by the Roman Catholic Church Births May 24 - John Maitland, Duke of...


He wrote on a wide variety of subjects, producing a vast amount of work (his complete works in Latin amount to twenty-six volumes). Suárez' writings include treatises on on law, the relationship between church and state, metaphysics, and theology. Latin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Law (a loanword from Danish- Norwegian lov), in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide punishments for those who do not follow... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy, and related to the natural sciences, like physics, psychology and the biology of the brain; and also to mysticism, religion, and other spiritual subjects. ...


Suárez was regarded during his lifetime as being the greatest living philosopher and theologian, and given the nickname Doctor Eximius; Pope Gregory XIII attended his first lecture in Rome. Pope Paul V invited him to refute the errors of James I of England, and wished to retain him near his person, to profit by his knowledge. Philip II of Spain sent him to the University of Coimbra in order to give it prestige, and when Suárez visited the University of Barcelona, the doctors of the university went out to meet him wearing the insignia of their faculties. A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Nick is short for Nicholas). ... Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585) Gregory XIII, né Ugo Buoncampagno (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope (1572 – 1585). ... Painting of Pope Paul V by Caravaggio Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1550 - January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... Philip II of Spain (1527 – September 13, 1598), King of Spain (r. ... The University of Barcelona (Catalan Universitat de Barcelona) is a university located in the city of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Doctor means teacher in Latin. ... Insignia (from latin insigne: emblem, symbol) is a symbol or token of personal power, status or office, or of an offical body of government or jurisdiction. ... Faculty is the scholarly staff at colleges or universities, as opposed to the students or support staff. ...


After his death on 25 September 1617 in Portugal (in either Lisbon or Coimbra) his reputation grew still greater, and he had a direct influence on such leading philosophers as Hugo Grotius, René Descartes, and Gottfried Leibniz. September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... The Republic of Portugal (Portuguese: República Portuguesa) is a democratic republic located on the west and southwest parts of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, the westernmost country in continental Europe. ... Lisbon (in Portuguese, Lisboa) is the capital and largest city of Portugal. ... Hugo Grotius Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; 10th April 1583 - 28th August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (also Leibnitz) (Leipzig July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ...


Philosophical thought

His most important philosophical achievements were in metaphysics and the philosophy of law.


Metaphysics

For Suárez, metaphysics was the science of real essences and existence; it was mostly concerned with real being rather than conceptual being, and with immaterial rather than with material being. He held (along with earlier scholastics) that essence and existence are the same in the case of god (see ontological argument), but disagreed with Aquinas and others that the essence and existence of finite beings are really distinct. He argued that in fact they’re merely conceptually distinct; rather than being able to exist separately, they are conceivable separately. That is, rather than being logically separable, existence and essence are epistemically separable. Existence is an ontological topic In Anglo-American philosophy (this article will have to be augmented with summaries of work in other traditions), probably the most widely-asked question about it is what sort of concept it is, or what function it serves in languages, both natural and formal. ... In theology, an ontological argument for the existence of God was first proposed by the medieval philosopher Saint Anselm in Chapter 2 of his Proslogion. ...


On the vexed subject of universals, Suarez was a nominalist; he argued that we have direct knowledge only of individuals. Universal has several meanings: For the concept of a universal in metaphysics, see Universal (metaphysics). ... Nominalism is the position in metaphysics that there exist no universals outside of the mind. ...


Philosophy of law

Here Suárez' main importance stems from his work on natural law, and from his arguments concerning positive law and the status of a monarch. He argued against the sort of social-contract theory that became dominant among early-modern political philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, but some of his thinking found echoes in the more liberal, Lockean contract theorists. In law, natural law is the doctrine that just laws are immanent in nature (that can be claimed as discovered but not created by such things as a bill of rights) and/or that they can emerge by natural process of resolving conflicts (as embodied by common law). ... Positive law is law which has been codified into a written form. ... A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. ... Political philosophy is the study of the fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, property, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should... This article is about the philosopher Thomas Hobbes. ... John Locke John Locke (August 29, 1632–October 28, 1704) was a 17th century philosopher concerned primarily with society and epistemology. ...


Human beings, argued Suárez, have a natural social nature bestowed upon them by god, and this includes the potential to make laws. When a political society is formed, therefore, its nature is chosen by the people involved, and they give their natural legislative power to their ruler. Because they gave this power, they have the right to take it back, to revolt against a ruler — but only if the ruler behaves badly towards them, and they're obliged to act moderately and justly. In particular, the people must refrain from killing the ruler, no matter how tyrannical he may have become.


If a government is imposed on people, on the other hand, they not only have the right to defend themselves by revolting against it, they are entitled to kill the tyrannical ruler.


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