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Encyclopedia > Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
  • Francisco Pizarro González should not be confused with another Francisco Pizarro who joined Hernán Cortés to conquer the Aztecs.

Francisco Pizarro González, 1st Marqués de los Atabillos (c. 1471 or 1476June 26, 1541) was a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Inca Empire and founder of Lima, La Ciudad de los Reyes, capital of Peru. Pizarro was born in Trujillo, Extremadura, Spain. Sources differ in the birth year they assign to him: 1471, 1475–1478, or unknown. He was an illegitimate son of Captain Gonzalo Pizarro Rodríguez de Aguilar (senior) (1446-1522) who as colonel of infantry served in the Italian campaigns under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, and in Navarre, with some distinction. His mother was Francisca González Mateos, a woman of slender means from Trujillo, daughter of Juan Mateos, of the family called Los Roperos, and wife María Alonso, labradores pecheros from Trujillo. His mother married lately and had a son Francisco Martín de Alcántara, who went with his brother to America. Through his father, Francisco was second cousin once removed to Hernán Cortés, the famed conquistador of Mexico, and distantly related to Francisco de Orellana and Beltrán de la Cueva. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Trujillo is a town in Spain, in the Extremadura region. ... Capital Mérida Official languages Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ... Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... A Spanish postal stamp featuring Orellana Francisco de Orellana (c1500-c1549) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. ... Beltran de la Cueva (Ubeda, 1443 - November 2, 1492), was a Spanish nobleman and presumed lover of Queen Joan of Portugal. ...

Contents

Expedition to the Americas

On February 13, 1502, he sailed from Spain with the new appointed Governor of Hispaniola Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres on a fleet of thirty ships. It was the largest fleet that had ever sailed to the New World. The thirty ships carried 2,500 colonists. is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pizarro in Panama

In 1513, he accompanied Vasco Núñez de Balboa in his crossing of the Isthmus of Panama and they became the first Europeans to view the Pacific coast of the New World. The following year, in 1514, Pedro Arias de Avila (Pedrarias) became the newly appointed governor of Castilla de Oro and succeeded Balboa. The next five years Pizarro became a close associate of Pedrarias Dávila and the governor assigned him a repartimiento of natives and cattle. When Pedrarias Dávila decided to get rid of Balboa out of distrust, he instructed Pizarro to personally arrest him and bring him to stand trial. Balboa was duly convicted and beheaded in January of 1519. For his loyalty to Pedrarias Dávila, Pizarro was bestowed the important political position of mayor (Alcalde) and magistrate of the then recently founded Panama City from 1519 to 1523. Vasco Núñez De Balboa (1475–January 15, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ... Pacific redirects here. ... Pedrarias Davila (Pedro Arias de Avila) ( Segovia, Castille, c. ... Castilla de Oro (or del Oro) was the name given by the Spanish settlers at the beginning of the 15th century, to the Central American territories from the Gulf of Urabá, near todays Colombian-Panamanian border, to the Belén River. ... The Repartimiento de Mercancias was a colonial labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America. ... Alcalde is the Spanish title of the chief administrator of a town. ... This article is about the capital city of Panama. ...


Expeditions to South America

Spanish colonization of the Americas
History of the conquest

Inter caetera
Alaska
California
Florida
Guatemala
Mexico
Peru
Yucatán Carte dAmérique (18th century Delisle map) File links The following pages link to this file: New World Guillaume Delisle Categories: NowCommons | Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... Inter caetera (Among other [works]) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the west and south of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any... Captain Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, circa 1785. ... The Spanish missions in California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Catholic faith among the local Native Americans. ... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... // The Maya civilization thrived throughout much of Guatemala and the surrounding region for close to 2000 years before the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ...

Conquistadores

Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Hernán Cortés
Juan Ponce de León
Francisco de Montejo
Pánfilo de Narváez
Francisco Pizarro
Diego de Almagro
Hernando de Soto
Sebastián de Belalcázar
Pedro de Valdivia
Juan de Oñate
Francisco de Orellana A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Vasco Núñez De Balboa (1475–January 15, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. ... Coronado Sets Out to the North, by Frederic Remington, 1861-1909 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (c. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Juan Ponce de León (c. ... Francisco de Montejo (c. ... Pánfilo de Narváez Pánfilo de Narváez (1470 – 1528) was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas. ... Diego de Almagro Diego de Almagro (b. ... For the Peruvian economist, see Hernando de Soto (economist). ... Sebastián de Belalcázar (1479 or 1480 to 1551) was a Spanish conquistador. ... Pedro de Valdivia Pedro de Valdivia (c. ... Don Juan de Oñate Salazar (1552 – 1626) was a Spanish explorer, colonial governor of the New Spain (present-day Mexico) province of New Mexico, and founder of various settlements in the present day Southwest of the United States. ... A Spanish postal stamp featuring Orellana Francisco de Orellana (c1500-c1549) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. ...

The first attempt to explore western South America was undertaken in 1522 by Pascual de Andagoya. The native South Americans he encountered told him about a gold-rich territory called Virú, which was on a river called Pirú (later corrupted to Perú) and from which they came. These reports were related by the Spanish-Inca mestizo writer Garcilaso de la Vega in his famous Comentarios Reales de los Incas (1609). Pascual de Andagoya (1495-1548) was a Spanish conquistador. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... Garcilaso de la Vega, (b. ...


Andagoya eventually established contact with several Native American curacas (chiefs), some of whom he later claimed were sorcerers and witches. Having reached as far as the San Juan River (part of the present boundary between Ecuador and Colombia), Andagoya fell very ill and decided to return. Back in Panama, he spread the news and stories about "Pirú" –- a great land to the south rich with gold (the legendary El Dorado). These revelations, along with the accounts of success of Hernán Cortés in Mexico years before, caught the immediate attention of Pizarro, prompting a new series of expeditions to the south in search of the riches of the Incan Empire. El Dorado or Eldorado (Spanish for the gilded one) is a legend that began with the story of a South American tribal chief who covered himself with gold dust and would dive into a lake of pure mountain water. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ...


In 1524, while still in Panama, Pizarro formed a partnership with a priest, Hernando de Luque, and a soldier, Diego de Almagro, to explore and conquer the south. Pizarro, Almagro, and Luque later renewed their compact more explicitly, agreeing to conquer and divide equally among themselves the opulent empire they hoped to discover. While historians agree their accord was strictly verbal (no written document exists to prove otherwise), they are known to have dubbed their enterprise the "Empresa del Levante" and determined that Pizarro would command the expedition, Almagro would provide the military and food supplies, and Luque would be in charge of finances and any additional provisions they might need. Hernando de Luque was a Spanish priest who travelled to the New World in the 16th century. ... Diego de Almagro Diego de Almagro (b. ...


First expedition (1524)

On September 13, 1524, the first of three expeditions left from Panama for the conquest of Peru with about 80 men and 40 horses. Diego de Almagro was left behind because he was to recruit men, gather additional supplies, and join Pizarro later. The governor of Panama, Pedro Arias Dávila, at first approved in principle of exploring South America. Pizarro's first expedition, however, turned out to be a failure as his conquistadors, sailing down the Pacific coast, reached no farther than Colombia before succumbing to such hardships as bad weather, lack of food, and skirmishes with hostile natives -- one of which caused Almagro to lose an eye by arrow-shot. Moreover, the place names the Spanish bestowed along their route, including Puerto deseado (desired port), Puerto del hambre (port of hunger) and Puerto quemado (burned port), only confirm their straits. Fearing subsequent hostile encounters like the one the expedition endured at the Battle of Punta Quemada, Pizarro chose to end his tentative first expedition and return to Panama. is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Pedro Arias de Dávila Pedrarias Dávila (Pedro Arias de Ávila) (Segovia, Castille, c. ... The Battle of Punta Quemada, fought sometime in January 1525, was a brief but deadly encounter between a band of Spanish conquistadors and a the warlike natives of Colombia, now thought to be a northern tributary tribe to the Andean Kingdom of Quito. ...


Second expedition (1526)

Two years after the first very unsuccessful expedition, Pizarro, Almagro, and Luque started the arrangements for a second expedition with permission from Pedrarias Dávila. The governor, who himself was preparing an expedition north to Nicaragua, was reluctant to permit another expedition, having lost confidence in the outcome of Pizarro's expeditions. The three associates, however, eventually won his trust and he acquiesced. Also by this time, a new governor was to arrive and succeed Pedrarias Dávila. This was Pedro de los Ríos, who took charge of the post in July of 1526 and had manifested his initial approval of Pizarro's expeditions (he would later join him several years later in Peru). In August 1526, after all preparations were ready, Pizarro left Panama with two ships with 160 men and several horses, reaching as far as the Colombian San Juan River. Soon after arriving the party separated, with Pizarro staying to explore the new and often perilous territory off the swampy Colombian coasts, while the expedition's second-in-command, Almagro, was sent back to Panama for reinforcements. Pizarro's Piloto Mayor (main pilot), Bartolomé Ruiz, continued sailing south and, after crossing the equator, found and captured a balsa (raft) of natives from Tumbes who were supervising the area. To everyone's surprise, these carried a load of textiles, ceramic objects, and some much-desired pieces of gold, silver, and emeralds, making Ruiz's findings the central focus of this second expedition which only served to pique the conquistadors' interests for more gold and land. Some of the natives were also taken aboard Ruiz's ship to serve later as interpreters. He then set sail north for the San Juan river, arriving to find Pizarro and his men exhausted from the serious difficulties they had faced exploring the new territory. Soon Almagro also sailed into the port with his vessel laden with supplies, and a considerable reinforcement of at least eighty recruited men who had arrived at Panama from Spain with the same expeditionary spirit. The findings and excellent news from Ruiz along with Almagro's new reinforcements cheered Pizarro and his tired followers. They then decided to sail back to the territory already explored by Ruiz and, after a difficult voyage due to strong winds and currents, reached Atacames in the Ecuadorian coast. Here they found a very large native population recently brought under Inca rule. Unfortunately for the conquistadors, the warlike spirit of the people they had just encountered seemed so defiant and dangerous in numbers that the Spanish decided not to enter the land. Pedro de los Ríos y Gutiérrez de Aguayo (? – 1547) was a Spanish colonial administrator who succeded Pedrarias Dávila as governor of Castilla del Oro (1526-1529) and of Nicaragua (1526-1527). ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Tumbes is a city in northwestern Peru. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other things of this name, see Emerald (disambiguation). ... Atacames is a beach town located on Ecuadors Northern Pacific coast. ...

Francisco Pizarro's route of exploration during the conquest of Peru (1531–1533)
Francisco Pizarro's route of exploration during the conquest of Peru (1531–1533)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (828x1342, 221 KB)The Conquest of Peru, 1531 - 1533 The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (828x1342, 221 KB)The Conquest of Peru, 1531 - 1533 The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 from http://www. ...

The Thirteen of the Fame

After much wrangling between Pizarro and Almagro, it was decided that Pizarro would stay at a safer place, the Isla de Gallo, near the coast, while Almagro would return yet again to Panama with Luque for more reinforcements — this time with proof of the gold they had just found and the news of the discovery of an obvious wealthy land they had just explored. The new governor of Panama, Pedro de los Ríos, had learned of the mishaps of Pizarro's expeditions and the deaths of various settlers who had gone with him. Fearing an unsuccessful outcome, he outright rejected Almagro's application for a third expedition in 1527. In addition, he ordered two ships commanded by Juan Tafur to be sent immediately with the intention of bringing Pizarro and everyone back to Panama. The leader of the expedition had no intention of returning, and when Tafur arrived at the now famous Isla de Gallo, Pizarro drew a line in the sand, saying: "There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. Choose, each man, what best becomes a brave Castilian." Only thirteen men decided to stay with Pizarro and later became known as The thirteen of the fame ("Los trece de la fama"), while the rest of the expeditioners left back with Tafur aboard his ships. Ruiz also left in one of the ships with the intention of joining Almagro and Luque in their efforts to gather more reinforcements and eventually return to aid Pizarro. Soon after the ships left, the thirteen men and Pizarro constructed a crude boat and sailed nine miles (14 km) north for La Isla Gorgona, where they would remain for seven months before the arrival of new provisions. Back in Panama, Pedro de los Rios (after much convincing by Luque) had finally acquiesced to the requests for another ship, but only to bring Pizarro back within six months and completely abandon the expedition. Both Almagro and Luque quickly grasped the opportunity and left Panama (this time without new recruits) for la Isla Gorgona to once again join Pizarro. On meeting with Pizarro, the associates decided to continue sailing south on the recommendations of Ruiz's Indian interpreters. By April 1528, they finally reached the northwestern Peruvian Tumbes Region. Tumbes became the territory of the first fruits of success the Spanish had so long desired, as they were received with a warm welcome of hospitality and provisions from the Tumpis, the local inhabitants. On subsequent days two of Pizarro's men reconnoitered the territory and both, on separate accounts, reported back the incredible riches of the land, including the decorations of silver and gold around the chief's residence and the hospitable attentions with which they were received by everyone. The Spanish also saw, for the first time, the Peruvian llama which Pizarro called the "little camels". The natives also began calling the Spanish the "Children of the Sun" due to their fair complexion and brilliant armor. Pizarro, meanwhile, continued receiving the same accounts of a powerful monarch who ruled over the land they were exploring. These events only served as evidence to convince the expedition that the wealth and power displayed at Tumbes was just an example of the riches of the Peruvian territory waiting to be plundered. The conquistadors decided to return to Panama to prepare the final expedition of conquest with more recruits and provisions. Before leaving, however, Pizarro and his followers sailed south not so far along the coast to see if anything of interest could be found. Historian William H. Prescott recounts that after passing through territories they named such as Cabo Blanco, port of Payta, Sechura, Punta de Aguja, Santa Cruz, and Trujillo (founded by Almagro years later), they finally reached for the first time the ninth degree of the southern latitude in South America. On their return towards Panama, Pizarro briefly stopped at Tumbes, where two of his men had decided to stay to learn the customs and language of the natives. Pizarro was also offered a native or two himself, one of which was later baptized as Felipillo and served as an important interpreter, the equivalent of Cortés' La Malinche of Mexico. Their final stop was at La Isla Gorgona, where two of his sick men (one had died) had stayed before. After at least eighteen months away, Pizarro and his followers anchored off the coast of Panama to prepare for the final expedition. The thirteen of the fame (Los trece de la fama) were a group of 16th century Spanish conquistadors that participated in the Spanish conquest of Peru (second expedition) along with their leader, Francisco Pizarro. ... Tumbes is a coastal region in northwestern Peru. ... For other uses, see Llama (disambiguation). ... William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 - January 29, 1859) was a historian. ... Motto: La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera (The City of Eternal Spring) Location in Peru Coordinates: Country Peru Region La Libertad Province Trujillo Province Founded 6 December 1534 Government  - Type Democracy  - Mayor César Acuña Peralta Area  - City 1,768. ... Felipillo (or Felipe) was a native Peruvian who accompanied Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro on their various expeditions to Peru. ... For the volcano in Tlaxcala, see Matlalcueitl (volcano). ...


Capitulación de Toledo

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Aragon and Castile.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Aragon and Castile.

When the new governor of Panama, Pedro de los Ríos, had refused to allow for a third expedition to the south, the associates resolved for Pizarro to leave for Spain and appeal to the sovereign in person. Pizarro sailed from Panama for Spain in the spring of 1528, reaching Seville in early summer. King Charles I, who was at Toledo, had an interview with Pizarro and heard of his expeditions in South America, a territory the conquistador described as very rich in gold and silver which he and his followers had bravely explored "to extend the empire of Castile." The King, who was soon to leave for Italy, was impressed at the accounts of Pizarro and promised to give his support for the conquest of Peru. It would be Queen Isabel, however, who, in the absence of the King, would sign the Capitulación de Toledo, a license document which authorized Francisco Pizarro to proceed with the conquest of Peru. Pizarro was officially named the Governor, Captain General, and the "Adelantado" of the New Castile for the distance of 200 leagues along the newly discovered coast, and invested with all the authority and prerogatives, his associates being left in wholly secondary positions (a fact which later incensed Almagro and would lead to eventual discords with Pizarro). One of the conditions of the grant was that within six months Pizarro should raise a sufficiently equipped force of two hundred and fifty men, of whom one hundred might be drawn from the colonies. Portrait of Emperor Charles V The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Portrait of Emperor Charles V The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Image:Isabel of Portugal (Karl V.).jpg Isabel of Portugal, Queen of Spain and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, by Titian. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... Adelantado was a Governor-like military office held by the Spanish Conquistadores of the 16th and 17th centuries. ...

Recreation of Pizarro's 16th century home. A room in the upstairs elucidates on the conquest of the Americas; Trujillo, Spain.
Recreation of Pizarro's 16th century home. A room in the upstairs elucidates on the conquest of the Americas; Trujillo, Spain.

This gave Pizarro time to leave for his native Trujillo and convince his brother Hernándo Pizarro and other close friends to join him on his third expedition. Along with him also came Francisco de Orellana, who would later discover and explore the entire length of the Amazon River. Two more of his brothers, Juan Pizarro II and Gonzalo Pizarro, would later decide to also join him. When the expedition was ready and left the following year, it numbered three ships, one hundred and eighty men, and twenty-seven horses. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Hernando Pizarro (1508-1608?) was a Spanish conquistador and one of the Pizarro brothers who ruled over Peru. ... A Spanish postal stamp featuring Orellana Francisco de Orellana (c1500-c1549) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. ... This article is about the river. ... Juan Pizarro (died 1536) was a Spanish conquistador who accompanied his brothers Francisco, Gonzalo, and Hernándo Pizarro for the conquest of Peru in 1532. ... Gonzalo Pizarro (b. ...


Since Pizarro could not meet the number of men the Capitulación had required, he sailed clandestinely from the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda for the Canary Island of La Gomera in January 1530. He was there to be joined by his brother Hernando and the remaining men in two vessels that would sail back to Panama. Pizarro's third and final expedition left Panama for Peru on December 27, 1530. Sanlúcar de Barrameda from the mouth of the Guadalquivir river Sanlúcar de Barrameda is a Spanish city in the northwestern part of the Cádiz province. ... La Gomera is the second smallest island of the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ...


Conquest of Peru (1532)

In 1532 Pizarro once again landed in the coasts near Ecuador, where some gold, silver, and emeralds were procured and then dispatched to Almagro, who had stayed in Panama to gather more recruits. Though Pizarro's main objective was to then set sail and dock at Tumbes like his previous expedition, he was forced to confront the Punian natives in the Battle of Puná, leaving three Spaniards dead and 400 dead or wounded Punians. Soon after, Hernando de Soto, another conquistador that had joined the expedition, arrived to aid Pizarro and with him sailed towards Tumbes, only to find the place deserted and destroyed. Their two fellow conquistadors expected they had disappeared or died under murky circumstances. The chiefs explained the fierce tribes of Punians had attacked them and ransacked the place. The Battle of Puná, a peripheral engagement of Francisco Pizarros conquest of Peru, was fought in April 1531 on the island of Puná (in the Gulf of Guayaquil). ... For the Peruvian economist, see Hernando de Soto (economist). ...


As Tumbes no longer afforded the safe accommodations Pizarro sought, he decided to lead an excursion into the interior of the land and established the first Spanish settlement in Peru (third in South America after Santa Marta, Colombia in 1526), calling it San Miguel de Piura in July 1532. The first repartimiento in Peru was established here. After these events, Hernando de Soto was dispatched to explore the new lands and, after various days away, returned with an envoy from the Inca himself and a few presents with an invitation for a meeting with the Spaniards. This article is about the Colombian city. ... Piura: Plaza de Armas Piura is a city in northwestern Peru. ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ...

Pizarro and his followers in Lima in 1535
Pizarro and his followers in Lima in 1535

Following the defeat of his brother, Huascar, Atahualpa had been resting in the Sierra of northern Peru, near Cajamarca, in the nearby thermal baths known today as the Baños del Inca (Incan Baths). After marching for almost two months towards Cajamarca, Pizarro and his force of just 106 foot-soldiers and 62 horsemen arrived and initiated proceedings for a meeting with Atahualpa. Pizarro sent Hernando de Soto, friar Vicente de Valverde and native interpreter Felipillo to approach Atahualpa at Cajamarca's central plaza. Atahualpa, however, refused the Spanish presence in his land by saying he would "be no man's tributary." His complacency, because there were less than 200 Spanish as opposed to his 80,000 soldiers,unfortunately sealed his fate and that of the Incan empire. According to a leading Peruvian historian as told to Michael Wood in the BBC documentary The Conquistadors, "Atahualpa was planning to have Pizarro for lunch, but Pizarro had him for breakfast." Pizarro in Lima This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... Pizarro in Lima This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... Alternate meaning: Huáscar (warship) Huascar, in full Inti Cusi Huallpa Huáscar (“Sun of Joy”) (died 1532). ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... Vicente de Valverde was a Spanish bishop. ... Michael Wood reading from an edition of the Domesday Book in a BBC Four documentary about Gilbert White Michael Wood (born Michael David Wood, July 23, 1948 in Manchester) is a popular English historian and broadcaster, presenter of numerous television documentary series. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Atahualpa's refusal led Pizarro and his force to attack the Incan army in what became the Battle of Cajamarca on November 16, 1532. The Spanish were successful and Pizarro executed Atahualpa's 12-man honor guard and took the Inca captive at the so-called ransom room. Despite fulfilling his promise of filling one room (22 feet (7 m) by 17 feet (5 m) [1]) with gold and two with silver, Atahualpa was convicted of killing his brother and plotting against Pizarro and his forces, and was executed by garrote on August 29, 1533. Pizarro wished to find a reason for executing Atahualpa without angering the people he was attempting to subdue. Combatants Aragon and Castille Inca Empire Commanders Francisco Pizarro Atahualpa Strength 106 infantry 62 cavalry 3 guns 80,000 soldiers of Atahualpas personal army Casualties 5 dead[1], 2 wounded 7,000 The Battle of Cajamarca was a surprise attack on the Inca royal entourage orchestrated by Francisco Pizarro. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... The Ransom room from the outside El Cuarto del Rescate (The Ransom Room) is a small room located in Cajamarca, Peru. ... A garrote or garrote vil (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, scarf, wire or fishing line used to strangle someone to death. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ...

Since Pizarro could not write like many of his contemporaries, he used his curlicue signature ("rubrica") on the left and on the right of his name. Then a writer set the name between them.
Since Pizarro could not write like many of his contemporaries, he used his curlicue signature ("rubrica") on the left and on the right of his name. Then a writer set the name between them.

A year later, Pizarro invaded Cuzco with indigenous troops and with it sealed the conquest of Peru. It is argued by some historians that the growing resistance from the new Inca, Manco Inca Yupanqui, prolonged the conquest. Manco Inca Yupanqui was the brother of the puppet ruler, Tupac Huallpa. Image File history File links Pizarro-Signature. ... Image File history File links Pizarro-Signature. ... A curlicue, or alternatively curlycue, in the visual arts, is a fancy twist, or curl, composed usually from a series of concentric circles. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... Manco Inca Yupanqui (b. ... Tupac Huallpa (? - October 1533) was a puppet Inca Emperor of the conquistadors during the Spanish conquest of Peru, led by Francisco Pizarro. ...


During the exploration of Cuzco, Pizarro was impressed and through his officers wrote back to King Charles of Spain, saying: For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ...


"This city is the greatest and the finest ever seen in this country or anywhere in the Indies... We can assure your Majesty that it is so beautiful and has such fine buildings that it would be remarkable even in Spain."


After the Spanish had sealed the conquest of Peru by taking Cuzco in 1533, Jauja in the fertile Mantaro Valley was established as Peru's provisional capital in April 1534. But it was too far up in the mountains and far from the sea to serve as the Spanish capital of Peru. Pizarro thus founded the city of Lima in Peru's central coast on January 18, 1535, a foundation that he considered as one of the most important things he had created in life. There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... Jauja is a town of 25,000 people in central Peru, capital of a province with a population of 105,000. ... The Mantaro Valley, with its main city of Huancayo, lies east of the capital of Peru, Lima. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


After the final effort of the Inca to recover Cuzco had been defeated by Almagro, a dispute occurred between him and Pizarro respecting the limits of their jurisdiction. This led to confrontations between the Pizarro brothers and Almagro, who was eventually defeated during the Battle of Las Salinas (1538) and executed. Almagro's son, also named Diego and known as "El Mozo", was later stripped of his lands and left bankrupt by Pizarro. The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... Diego de Almagro Diego de Almagro (b. ... The Pizarro brothers were Spanish conquistadors who came to Peru in 1532. ... The Battle of Las Salinas was a confrontation between the forces of Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro against those of Diego de Almagro, on April 6, 1538. ...


Pizarro's death

Pizarro's coffin in the Lima Cathedral
Pizarro's coffin in the Lima Cathedral
Detail of Pizarro's tomb

In Lima , Peru on June 26, 1541 "a group of twenty heavily armed supporters of young Almagro stormed Pizarro's palace, assassinated him, and then forced the terrified city council to appoint young Almagro as the new governor of Peru", according to Burkholder and Johnson.[2] "Most of Pizarro's guests fled, but a few fought the intruders, numbered variously between seven and 25. While Pizarro struggled to buckle on his breastplate, his defenders, including his half-brother de Alcántara, were killed. For his part Pizarro killed two attackers and ran through a third. While trying to pull out his sword, he was stabbed in the throat, then fell to the floor where he was stabbed many times."[3] Pizarro (who now was maybe as old as 70 years, and at least 62), collapsed on the floor, alone, painted a cross in his own blood and cried for Jesus Christ. He cried: Come to me my faithfull sword, companion of all my deeds. He died moments after. Diego de Almagro the younger was caught and executed the following year. Pizarros Tomb Pizarros chapel and coffin in the place in Limas Cathedral  ©  This image is copyrighted. ... Pizarros Tomb Pizarros chapel and coffin in the place in Limas Cathedral  ©  This image is copyrighted. ... The Lima Cathedral is a Roman Catholic temple and is located in the Main Plaza of downtown Lima, Peru. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 337 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (863 × 1535 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 337 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (863 × 1535 pixel, file size: 1. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Pizarro's remains were briefly interred in the cathedral courtyard; at some later time his head and body were separated and buried in separate boxes underneath the floor of the cathedral. In 1892, in preparation for the anniversary of Columbus' discovery of the Americas, a body believed to be that of Pizarro was exhumed and put on display in a glass coffin. However, in 1977 men working on the cathedral's foundation discovered a lead box in a sealed niche, which bore the inscription "Here is the head of Don Francisco Pizarro Demarkes, Don Francisco Pizarro who discovered Peru and presented it to the crown of Castile." A team of forensic scientists from the United States, led by Dr. William Maples, was invited to examine the two bodies, and they soon determined that the body which had been honored in the glass case for nearly a century had been incorrectly identified. The skull within the lead box not only bore the marks of multiple sword blows, but the features bore a remarkable resemblance to portraits made of the man in life.[4] [5] Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... A forensic scientist is a scientist who analyzes biological, chemical, or physical samples taken into evidence during a criminal investigation. ... William Ross Maples, Ph. ...


Pizarro's legacy

Pizarro's Statue in Trujillo, Spain
Pizarro's Statue in Trujillo, Spain

By his marriage to N de Trujillo, Pizarro had a son also named Francisco, who married his relative Inés Pizarro, without issue. After Pizarro's death, Inés Yupanqui, whom he took as a mistress, favourite sister of Atahualpa, who had been given to Francisco in marriage by her brother, married a Spanish cavalier named Ampuero and left for Spain, taking her daughter who would later be legitimized by imperial decree. Francisca Pizarro Yupanqui eventually married her uncle Hernándo Pizarro in Spain, on October 10, 1537-with her Hernándo had a son: Francisco Pizarro y Pizarro. This son, in turn, married twice and had offspring, the Marqueses de La Conquista; as a result, the Pizarro line survived Hernando's death, though currently extinct in male line; a third son of Pizarro, Francisco, by a relative of Atahualpa renamed Angelina, who was never legitimized, died shortly after reaching Spain. [6] Download high resolution version (461x614, 51 KB)Pizarros Statue in Trujillo, Spain. ... Download high resolution version (461x614, 51 KB)Pizarros Statue in Trujillo, Spain. ... Trujillo is a town in Spain, in the Extremadura region. ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... Hernando Pizarro (1508-1608?) was a Spanish conquistador and one of the Pizarro brothers who ruled over Peru. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ...


Historians have often compared Pizarro's and Cortés's conquests in North and South America as very similar in style and career. Pizarro, however, faced the Incas with a smaller army and fewer resources than Cortés at a much greater distance from the Spanish Caribbean outposts that could easily support him, which has led some to rank Pizarro slightly ahead of Cortés in their battles for conquest.


Though Pizarro is well known in Peru for being the leader behind the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, a growing number of Peruvians regard him as a kind of criminal. By taking advantage of the natives, Pizarro ruled Peru for almost a decade and initiated the decline of Inca culture. The Incas’ polytheistic religion was replaced by Christianity and both Quechua and Aymara — the main Inca languages — were reduced to a marginal role in society for centuries, while Spanish became the official language of Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile. The cities of the Inca Empire were transformed into Spanish, Catholic cities. Pizarro is also vilified for having ordered Atahualpa's death despite his paid ransom of filling a room with gold and two with silver which was later split among all his closest Spanish associates. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ...


Ancestors

Pizarro's sculptures

In the early 1930s, sculptor Ramsey MacDonald created three copies of an anonymous European foot soldier resembling a conquistador with a helmet, wielding a sword and riding a horse. The first copy was offered to Mexico to represent Hernán Cortés, though it was rejected. Since the Spanish conquerors had the same appearance with helmet and beard, the statue was taken to Lima in 1934. One other copy of the statue resides in Wisconsin. The mounted statue of Pizarro in the Plaza Major in Trujillo, Spain was created by Charles Rumsey, an American sculptor. It was presented to the city by his widow in 1926.


In 2003, after years of lobbying by indigenous and mixed-raced majority requesting for the equestrian statue of Pizarro to be removed, the mayor of Lima, Luis Castañeda Lossio, approved the transfer of the statue to another location: an adjacent square to the country's Government Palace. Since 2004, however, Pizarro's statue has been placed in a rehabilitated park surrounded by the recently restored 17th century pre-hispanic murals in the Rímac District. The statue faces the Rímac River and the Government Palace. Luis Castañeda Lossio is the current mayor of Lima, Peru. ... Peruvian Government Palace, Lima, Peru The Government Palace or House of Pizarro (Palacio de Gobierno or Casa de Pizarro in Spanish) is a building in Peru. ... Rímac is a district in the Lima Province, Peru. ... Rímac river valley The Rímac river is a river in Peru. ...


In popular culture

Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro statue on Lima City Walls park.
Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro statue on Lima City Walls park.

Francisco Pizarro is depicted as a villain in the 1980s animated series The Mysterious Cities of Gold. In it, Pizarro is a ruthless conqueror of the Incas who values gold above all else. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 664 KB) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 664 KB) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Lima City Walls are complex of walls, towers and cannons built during the Spanish colonial regime to ensure protection of the town against rally attacks from pirates of the 16th and 17th centuries. ... “Cities of Gold” redirects here. ...


Pizarro is mentioned in a song of the Disney movie Pocahontas sung by the British after arriving in America. Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... A 1616 engraving of Pocahontas by Simone van de Passe. ...


Ron Pardo portrays Francisco Pizarro in an episode of History Bites as a parody of actor William Shatner's portrayal of James T. Kirk, captain of the starship Enterprise in the 1960s television series Star Trek. Pete Kaplan is an American Actor, voice actor & voice director, who works for all kinds of distributing companies, inculding 4Kids Entertainment & Slate Productions. ... History Bites was a television series on the History Television network that ran from 1998-2003. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... William Alan Shatner (born on March 22, 1931) is a Canadian actor who gained fame for playing James Tiberius Kirk of the USS Enterprise in the television show Star Trek from 1966 to 1969 and in seven of the subsequent movies. ... James Kirk redirects here. ... The USS Enterprise, (NCC-1701) is a fictional starship in the television series Star Trek, which chronicles the vessels mission to explore strange new worlds; to seek out new life and new civilizations; to boldly go where no man has gone before under the command of Captain James T... The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ...


Francisco Pizarro is the main character in Peter Schaffer's play 'The Royal Hunt of the Sun'. In the film version of The Royal Hunt of the Sun Pizarro is played by Robert Shaw. Original London production at the National Theatre The Royal Hunt of the Sun is a 1964 play by Peter Shaffer that portrays the destruction of the Inca empire by conquistador Francisco Pizarro. ... Original London production at the National Theatre The Royal Hunt of the Sun is a 1964 play by Peter Shaffer that portrays the destruction of the Inca empire by conquistador Francisco Pizarro. ... Robert Shaw (August 9, 1927 – August 28, 1978) was an English stage and film actor and writer. ...


Pizarro is referenced in Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End. Captain Jack Sparrow is talking to a group of prostitutes when he says, "By the way, no, I have never actually met Pizarro but I love his pies." Captain Jack Sparrow is a fictional character from the Pirates of the Caribbean universe who is portrayed by Johnny Depp. ...


See also

The Battle of Punta Quemada, fought sometime in January 1525, was a brief but deadly encounter between a band of Spanish conquistadors and a the warlike natives of Colombia, now thought to be a northern tributary tribe to the Andean Kingdom of Quito. ... The Battle of Puná, a peripheral engagement of Francisco Pizarros conquest of Peru, was fought in April 1531 on the island of Puná (in the Gulf of Guayaquil). ... Combatants Aragon and Castille Inca Empire Commanders Francisco Pizarro Atahualpa Strength 106 infantry 62 cavalry 3 guns 80,000 soldiers of Atahualpas personal army Casualties 5 dead[1], 2 wounded 7,000 The Battle of Cajamarca was a surprise attack on the Inca royal entourage orchestrated by Francisco Pizarro. ... A Spanish postal stamp featuring Orellana Francisco de Orellana (c1500-c1549) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Francisco Pizarro, Catholic Encyclopedia.
  2. ^ Burkholder, Mark A., Johnson, Lyman L. Colonial Latin America. Oxford University Press, USA, 5th edition (October 23, 2003). p59 (ISBN 0195156854)
  3. ^ "Exploring the Inca Heartland: Pizarro's Family and His Head", Archaeology, Archaeological Institute of America. September 1, 1999.
  4. ^ Maples WR, Gatliff BP, Ludena H, Benfer R, Goza W., "The death and mortal remains of Francisco Pizarro." Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1989 Jul;34(4):1021-36. (PMID 2668443)
  5. ^ Maxey, R. "The Misplaced Conquistador-Francisco Pizarro."
  6. ^ Prescott, William. History of the Conquest of Peru, chapter 28.

Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Archaeology is a bimonthly mainstream magazine about archaeology, published by the Archaeological Institute of America; the editors estimate that less than one-half of one percent of their readers are professional archaeologists. ... The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is a North American is a nonprofit organization devoted to the promotion of public interest in archaeology, and the preservation of archaeological sites. ... William Ross Maples, Ph. ...

References

  • "Cajamarca o la Leyenda Negra" a Tragedy for the Theater in Spanish by Santiago Sevilla in Liceus El Portal de las Humanidades [1]
  • Conquest of the Incas, John Hemming, 1973. ISBN 0-15-602826-3
  • Francisco Pizarro and the Conquést of the Inca by Gina DeAngelis, 2000. ISBN 0-613-32584-2
  • The Discovery and Conquest of Peru by William H. Prescott ISBN 0-7607-6137-X

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 - January 29, 1859) was a historian. ...

External links

WorldCat is the worlds largest bibliographic database, the merged catalogs of over 50,000 OCLC member libraries in over 90 countries. ...


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