FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco

In office
April 1, 1939 – November 20, 1975
Preceded by Manuel Azaña (as President)
Succeeded by Juan Carlos I (as King)

In office
February 5, 1939 – June 9, 1973
Preceded by Juan Negrín
Succeeded by Luis Carrero Blanco

Born December 4, 1892(1892-12-04)
Ferrol, Galicia, Spain
Died November 20, 1975 (aged 82)
Madrid, Spain
Nationality Spanish
Political party FET y de las Jons
Spouse Carmen Polo
Profession Chief of the General Staff, Spanish Army
Religion Roman Catholic

Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced [fɾanˈθisko ˈfɾaŋko]) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. His rule was known for a time of Spanish nationalism and a focus on traditional values. From 1947 to his death he was the de facto regent of Spain.[1] Image File history File links Emblem-contradict. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:F manuel azana. ... Today, Spain is a monarchy, and there is thus no person holding the title of President of Spain. ... King Juan Carlos I His Majesty King Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón), styled HM The King (born January 5, 1938), is the reigning King of Spain. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Juan Negrín López (February 3, 1887 - November 12, 1956) was a Spanish politician and physician. ... Monument to Luis Carrero Blanco in Santoña (Cantabria, Spain) by Juan de Ávalos Luis Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria – December 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ferrol is an Atlantic-facing city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia in north-western Spain. ... Galicia (Iberia) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) was the official political party founded by Francisco Franco April 19, 1937 in the midst of the Spanish Civil War, bringing under one umbrella his Carlist and Falangist supporters. ... Carmen Polo with her husband in Burgos Carmen Polo y Martínez-Valdès (June 11, 1900 - February 6, 1988) was Francisco Francos wife and a member of the Spanish nobility. ... In the military systems of many countries, the Chief of the General Staff is the professional head of that countrys General Staff. ... The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one of oldest active armies in the world and a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Traditional values refer to those beliefs, moral codes, and mores that are passed down from generation to generation within a culture, subculture or community. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ...


Franco led a successful military career and reached the rank of General. He fought in Morocco and suppressed a strike in 1934 to defend the Republican government's stability. In February 1936, the left-wing Popular Front won the general election and formed a government. A period of severe instability and disarray followed the election, with escalating violence between left and right wing supporters. Anti-clerical violence against the Church by leftist militants further raised tensions. After the assassination of a major opposition figure, José Calvo Sotelo, by a commando unit of the Assault Guards in July 1936, Franco participated in a coup d'etat against the elected Popular Front government. The coup failed and evolved into the Spanish Civil War during which he emerged as the leader of the Nationalists against the Popular Front. After winning the civil war, he dissolved the Spanish Parliament, establishing an authoritarian regime that lasted until 1978, when a new constitution was drafted. During the Second World War, Franco maintained a policy of neutrality, although he did assist Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy on a small scale against the Soviet Union, most famously by sending troops (known as the Blue Division) to aid Nazi Germany in fighting the USSR. Before the invasion of the Soviet Union by the German Army, Franco and Hitler met in Hendaye on October 23, 1940. During the Cold War, the United States established a diplomatic alliance with Franco, due to his strong anti-Communist policy. American President Richard Nixon toasted Franco [2], and, after Franco's death, stated: "General Franco was a loyal friend and ally of the United States[2]." After his death Spain began a transition to democracy. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ... Momument to Calvo Sotelo (1960) José Calvo Sotelo (Tui, Pontevedra, May 6, 1893—Madrid, July 13, 1936) was a Spanish political figure prior to and during the Second Spanish Republic. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul, German: ), or 250. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Hendaye (Basque Hendaia) is the most southwesterly town in France. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Nixon redirects here. ... The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ...

Contents

Early life

Franco's father, Nicolás Franco y Salpeniso-Araújo, was a Navy paymaster, and his mother, María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade, came from a family that had a tradition of naval service. His siblings were brothers Nicolás (Ferrol, navy officer and diplomat, and Ramón, a pioneering aviator who was hated by many of Francisco Franco's supporters, and sisters María del Pilar and María de la Paz. Franco's mother, through the 7th Conde de Lemos and his wife the 3rd Condessa de Villalva, was twice a descendant of Portuguese royalty and thus from other Portuguese kings [3]). Naval redirects here. ... The Paymaster of the Forces was a British government position. ... Ferrol is an Atlantic-facing city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia in north-western Spain. ... Naval redirects here. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Ramón Franco. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ...


Francisco was to follow his father into the navy, but as a result of the Spanish-American War the country had lost much of its navy as well as most of its colonies. Not needing more officers, entry into the Naval Academy was closed from 1906 to 1913. To his father's chagrin, he decided to join the Spanish Army. In 1907, he entered the Infantry Academy in Toledo, from which he graduated in 1910. He was commissioned as a lieutenant. Two years later, he obtained a commission to Morocco. Spanish efforts to physically occupy their new African protectorate provoked the protracted Rif War (from 1909 to 1927) with native Moroccans. Tactics at the time resulted in heavy losses among Spanish military officers, but also gave the chance of earning promotion through merit. It was said that officers would get either la caja o la faja (a coffin or a general's sash). Franco soon gained a reputation as a good officer. He joined the newly formed regulares, colonial native troops with Spanish officers, who acted as shock troops. Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and... The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one of oldest active armies in the world and a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Combatants Spain France Republic of the Rif Commanders Manuel Silvestre Dámaso Berenguer José Millán Astray Miguel Primo de Rivera Philippe Pétain Abd el-Krim Strength 465,000 regulars 15,000 irregulars Casualties 31,000 dead or wounded 54,000 dead or wounded The Rif War of 1920... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... Regulares (Spanish for Regulars, officially called the Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas) was the name commonly used to designate the volunteer infantry and cavalry units of the Spanish Army recruited in Spanish Morocco. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Stormtrooper. ...


In 1916, at the age of 23 and already a captain, he was badly wounded in a skirmish at El Biutz. His survival marked him permanently in the eyes of the native troops as a man of baraka (good luck). He was also recommended unsuccessfully for Spain's highest honor for gallantry, the coveted Cruz Laureada de San Fernando. Instead, he was promoted to major (comandante), becoming the youngest field grade officer in the Spanish Army. Baraka can refer to several things: // In Judaism, a berakhah or bracha (Hebrew: ברכה; plural ברכות, berakhot) is a blessing, usually recited at a specific moment during a ceremony or other activity. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... A field officer or field grade officer is an army or marine commissioned officer senior in rank to a company officer but junior to a general officer. ...


From 1917 to 1920, he was posted on the Spanish mainland. That last year, Lieutenant Colonel José Millán Astray, a histrionic but charismatic officer, founded the Spanish Foreign Legion, along similar lines to the French Foreign Legion. Franco became the Legion's second-in-command and returned to Africa. José Millán-Astray as a young officer. ... Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking, including an excessive need for approval and inappropriate seductiveness, usually beginning in early adulthood. ... The Spanish Foreign Legion was founded by General Milian Astry in February 1920 as the Spanish equivelent to the French Foreign Legion. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ...


On July 24, 1921, the poorly commanded and overextended Spanish Army suffered a crushing defeat at Annual at the hands of the Rif tribes led by the Abd el-Krim brothers. The Legion symbolically, if not materially, saved the Spanish enclave of Melilla after a gruelling three-day forced march led by Franco. In 1923, already a lieutenant colonel, he was made commander of the Legion. is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Republic of the Rif Spain Commanders Abd el-Krim El Khattabi Manuel Fernández Silvestre Felipe Navarro y Ceballos-Escalera Strength ~18,000 non regulars 18,011 Spanish troops plus 4,653 Moroccan auxillaries (~5,000 present at Annual) Casualties ~1,000 dead 13,363 dead (including missed in... Annual is a settlement in northeastern Morrocco about 120 km west of Melilla. ... RIF may refer to: Reading Is Fundamental, an organization promoting childrens literacy Reconnaissance in Force, a type of military operation used specifically to probe an enemys disposition Reduction in Force, a large-scale ending of employment Renju International Federation, Renju is the professional variant of board game Gomoku... 199. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ...


The same year, he married María del Carmen Polo y Martínez-Valdès; they had one child, a daughter, María del Carmen, born in 1926.[4] As a special mark of honor, his best man (padrino) at the wedding was King Alfonso XIII, a fact that would mark him during the Republic as a monarchical officer. Carmen Polo with her husband in Burgos Carmen Polo y Martínez-Valdès (June 11, 1900 - February 6, 1988) was Francisco Francos wife and a member of the Spanish nobility. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish...


Promoted to colonel, Franco led the first wave of troops ashore at Alhucemas in 1925. This landing in the heartland of Abd el-Krim's tribe, combined with the French invasion from the south, spelled the beginning of the end for the shortlived Republic of the Rif. For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Al Hoceima is a Moroccan port on the Mediterranean Sea, and it is the main city in the Rif. ... Flag of the Republic of the Rif The Republic of the Rif (full name The Confederal Republic of the Tribes of the Rif, or Dawlat al-Jumhuriyya ar-Rifiyya) was created in September 1921, when the people of the Rif (the Riffians) revolted and declared their independence from Spanish Morocco. ...


Becoming the youngest general in Spain in 1926, Franco was appointed in 1928 director of the newly created Joint Military Academy in Zaragoza, a new college for all Army cadets, replacing the former separate institutions for young men seeking to become officers in infantry, cavalry, artillery, and other branches of the army. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... A cadet is a future officer in the military. ...


During the Second Spanish Republic

With the fall of the monarchy in 1931, in keeping with his long-standing apolitical record, Franco did not take any notable stand. But the closing of the Academy, in June, by War Minister Manuel Azaña, provoked his first clash with the Republic. Azaña found Franco's farewell speech to the cadets[5] insulting. For six months, Franco was without a post and under surveillance. Image:F manuel azana. ...


On February 5, 1932, he was given a command in La Coruña. Franco avoided involvement in José Sanjurjo's attempted coup that year, and even wrote a hostile letter to Sanjurjo expressing his anger over the attempt. As a side result of Azaña's military reform, in January 1933, Franco was relegated from the first to the 24th in the list of Brigadiers; conversely, the same year (February 17), he was given the military command of the Balearic Islands: a post above his rank. is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Torre de Hércules View from the Torre de Hércules A Coruña (Galician name, also known in English as Corunna; in Spanish as La Coruña) is a Galician city, in north-western Spain at 43° 22′ 0″ N 8° 22′ 60″ W. It is the capital of... Jose Sanjurjo José Sanjurjo Sacanell (Pamplona, 1872 - Estoril, Portugal, July 20, 1936) Marquess of the Rif and general, was a Spanish Army Officer who was one of the chief conspirators of the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ...


New elections held in October 1933 resulted in a center-right majority. In opposition to this government, a revolutionary movement broke out October 5, 1934. This uprising was rapidly quelled in most of the country, but gained a stronghold in Asturias, with the support of the miners' unions. Franco, already general of a Division and aide to the war minister, Diego Hidalgo, was put in command of the operations directed to suppress the insurgency. The forces of the Army in Africa were to carry the brunt of this, with General Eduardo López Ochoa as commander in the field. After two weeks of heavy fighting (and a death toll estimated between 1,200 and 2,000), the rebellion was suppressed. Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarchism has historically gained the most support and influence in Spain, especially in the seventy or so years before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein, or (coal) seam. ... Eduardo López Ochoa y Portuondo (1877-1936), was a Spanish general, Africanist, and prominent freemason. ...


The insurgency in Asturias sharpened the antagonism between Left and Right. Franco and López Ochoa—who, prior to the campaign in Asturias, was seen as a left-leaning officer—were marked by the left as enemies. At the start of the Civil War, López Ochoa was assassinated. Some time after these events, Franco was briefly commander-in-chief of the Army of Africa (from February 15 onwards), and from May 19, 1935 on, Chief of the General Staff. is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... In the military systems of many countries, the Chief of the General Staff is the professional head of that countrys General Staff. ...


1936 general election

After the ruling centre-right coalition collapsed amid the Straperlo corruption scandal, new elections were scheduled. Two wide coalitions formed: the Popular Front on the left, ranging from Republican Union Party to Communists, and the Frente Nacional on the right, ranging from the center radicals to the conservative Carlists. On February 16, 1936, the left won by a narrow margin.[6] Growing political bitterness surfaced again. The government and its supporters, the Popular Front, had launched a campaign against the Opposition whom they accused of plotting against the Republic. The Opposition parties, on the other hand, had reacted with increasing vigour. The latter claimed that the Popular Front had illegally obtained two hundred seats in a Parliament of 473 members. After the loss of 200 seats, the Opposition Parties claimed the government represented only a small minority, adding claims that the Popular Front's parliamentary majority was the result of large-scale electoral fraud, of Government-sponsored mob terror and intimidation, of the arbitrary annulment of all election certificates in many Right-wing constituencies, and of the expulsion, the arrest, or even the assassination, of many legally elected deputies of the Right. According to the Opposition, the real enemies of the Republic were not on the Right but on the Left; Spain was in imminent danger of falling under a Communist dictatorship, and therefore by fighting the Popular Front they, the Opposition, were merely doing their duty in defence of law and order and of the freedom and the fundamental rights of the Spanish people.[7] Straperlo or stra-perlo is a Spanish term referring to a fraudulent business activity, usually involving abusive prices. ... The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ... The Republican Union Party were a centrist political party in Spain led by Diego Martinez Barrio, formed as a split from the Radical Party. ... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ... The Frente Nacional (Spanish: National Front) was a political party of the Spanish far-right. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons through the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The days after the election were marked by near-chaotic circumstances. Franco lobbied unsuccessfully to have a state of emergency declared, with the stated purpose of quelling the disturbances and allowing an orderly vote recount.[citation needed]


Instead, on February 23, Franco was sent to the distant Canary Islands to serve as the islands' military commander, a position in which he had few troops under his command. is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...


Meanwhile, a conspiracy led by Emilio Mola was taking shape. In June, Franco was contacted and a secret meeting was held in Tenerife's La Espranza Forest to discuss a military coup. (A commemorative obelisk commemorating this historic meeting can be found in a clearing at Las Raíces.) Emilio Mola Vidal (June 9, 1887 – June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ... Flag of Tenerife Tenerife in the Canary Islands chain. ...


But outwardly Franco maintained an ambiguous attitude almost up until July. On June 23, 1936, he wrote to the head of the government, Casares Quiroga, offering to quell the discontent in the army, but was not answered. The other rebels were determined to go ahead, con Paquito o sin Paquito (with Franco or without him), as it was put by José Sanjurjo, the honorary leader of the military uprising. After various postponements, July 18 was fixed as the date of the uprising. The situation reached a point of no return and, as presented to Franco by Mola, the coup was unavoidable and he had to choose a side. He decided to join the rebels and was given the task of commanding the Army of Africa. A privately owned DH 89 De Havilland Dragon Rapide, was chartered in England July 11 to take Franco to Africa. is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Santiago Casares Quiroga (La Coruña, 1884 - París, 1950) was a Spanish politician who was Prime Minister of Spain from May 13 to July 19, 1936. ... Jose Sanjurjo José Sanjurjo Sacanell (Pamplona, 1872 - Estoril, Portugal, July 20, 1936) Marquess of the Rif and general, was a Spanish Army Officer who was one of the chief conspirators of the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Spanish Army of Africa was a Spanish field army that administered Spanish Morocco until Moroccos independence. ... The de Havilland DH 89 Dragon Rapide was a successful British short-haul passenger airliner of the 1930s. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The assassination of the right-wing opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo by government police troops (quite possibly acting on their own, as in the case of José Castillo) precipitated the uprising. On July 17, one day earlier than planned, the African Army rebelled, detaining their commanders. On July 18, Franco published a manifesto[8] and left for Africa, where he arrived the next day to take command. Momument to Calvo Sotelo (1960) José Calvo Sotelo (Tui, Pontevedra, May 6, 1893—Madrid, July 13, 1936) was a Spanish political figure prior to and during the Second Spanish Republic. ... José Castillo (? – July 12, 1936) was a Spanish Police Assault Guard lieutenant during the Second Spanish Republic. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A week later, the rebels, who soon called themselves the Nationalists, controlled only a third of Spain, and most navy units remained under control of the Republican loyalist forces, which left Franco isolated. The coup had failed, but the Spanish Civil War had begun. Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Naval redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


From the Spanish Civil War to World War II

The Spanish Civil War began in July 1936 and officially ended with Franco's victory in April 1939, leaving 190,000[9] to 500,000[10] dead. Despite the Non-Intervention Agreement of August 1936, the war was marked by foreign intervention on behalf of both sides, leading to international repercussions. The nationalist side was supported by Fascist Italy, which sent the Corpo Truppe Volontarie and later Nazi Germany, which assisted with the Condor Legion infamous for their bombing of Guernica in April 1937. Britain and France strictly adhered to the arms embargo, provoking dissensions within the French Popular Front coalition led by Léon Blum, but the Republican side was nonetheless supported by volunteers fighting in the International Brigades and the Soviet Union. (See for example Ken Loach's Land and Freedom.) Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... While officially neutral during the Second World War, General Francos Spanish State gave considerable material, economic, and military assistance to the Axis Powers. ... The purpose of Non-Intervention Committee (1936-1939) was to prevent personnel and matériel reaching the warring parties of the Spanish Civil War. ... The Spanish Civil War had large numbers of non-Spanish citizens participating in combat and advisory positions. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... The Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Division of Volunteer Troops) was an Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain to support Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hermann Göring delivering an honour (likely to be the Spanienkreuz, Spanish Cross) to a member of the Legion Condor (April 1939) The Condor Legion was a unit of Nazi Germanys air force which was sent as volunteers to support the right wing Nationalists (i. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... The Popular Front was an alliance of left-wing political parties (the Communists, the Socialists and the Radicals), which was in government in France from 1936 to 1938. ... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ... Ken Loach Kenneth Loach (born June 17, 1936), known as Ken Loach, is an English television and film director, known for his naturalistic style and socialist themes. ... This article is about the Ken Loach film. ...


Because Hitler and Stalin used the war as a testing ground for modern warfare, some historians, such as Ernst Nolte, have considered the Spanish Civil War, along with the Second World War, part of a "European Civil War" lasting from 1936 to 1945 and characterized mainly as a Left/Right ideological conflict. However, this interpretation has not found acceptance among most historians, who consider the Second World War and the Spanish Civil War two distinct conflicts. Among other things, they point to the political heterogeneity on both sides (See Spanish Civil War: Other Factions in the War) and criticize a monolithic interpretation which overlooks the local nuances of Spanish history. It has to be considered, nevertheless, that the politics that allowed Mussolini and Hitler to establish themselves in Europe and the territorial claims for power and resources for which WWII was triggered worked for Franco as well, regardless of the different origins of the militant Spanish sides. One might as well underline that the fate of Austria and Czechoslovakia was bargained alongside the end of the Spanish Republic on the same negotiation table with Hitler, and the end of the Spanish Civil War (Spring 1939) coincided with the war planning of the two dictators. To that extent the two wars are strongly linked although the Spanish political situation had developed on a different basis. Hitler redirects here. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923, Witten, Germany) is a nationalistic German historian and philosopher, often described as one of the most brooding, German thinkers about history[1]. Nolte’s major interest is the comparative studies of fascism and Communism. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The European Civil War is a debated period in history between the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War on July 19, 1870 and end of the European portion of World War II on May 8, 1945. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ...


The first months

Despite Franco having no money, while the state treasury was in Madrid with the government, there was an organized economic lobby in London looking after his financial needs with Lisbon as their operational base. Eventually, he was to receive important help from his economic and diplomatic boosters abroad. For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


Following the July 18, 1936 pronunciamento, Franco assumed the leadership of the 30,000 soldiers of the Spanish Army of Africa. The first days of the insurgency were marked with a serious need to secure control over the Spanish Moroccan Protectorate. On one side, Franco managed to win the support of the natives and their (nominal) authorities, and, on the other, to ensure his control over the army. This led to the summary execution of some 200 senior officers loyal to the Republic (one of them his own first cousin). Also his loyal bodyguard was shot by a man known as Manuel Blanco. [11] Franco's first problem was how to move his troops to the Iberian Peninsula, since most units of the Navy had remained in control of the Republic and were blocking the Strait of Gibraltar. He requested help from Mussolini, who responded with an unconditional offer of arms and planes; Wilhelm Canaris, the head of the Abwehr military intelligence, persuaded Hitler, as well, to support the Nationalists. From July 20 onward he was able, with a small group of 22 mainly German Junkers Ju 52 airplanes, to initiate an air bridge to Seville, where his troops helped to ensure the rebel control of the city. Through representatives, Franco started to negotiate with the United Kingdom, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy for more military support, and above all for more airplanes. Negotiations were successful with the last two on July 25, and airplanes began to arrive in Tetouan on August 2. On August 5, Franco was able to break the blockade with the newly arrived air support, successfully deploying a ship convoy with some 2,000 soldiers. Pronunciamento (from Spanish pronunciamiento, proclamation) is a declaration by which a military coup détat is made official. ... The Spanish Army of Africa was a Spanish field army that garrisoned Spanish Morocco until Moroccos independence. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ... Hitler redirects here. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Junkers Ju 52 (nicknamed Tante Ju - Auntie Ju - and Iron Annie) was a transport aircraft and bomber manufactured 1932 – 1945 by Junkers. ... A Jetway, jet bridge or aerobridge/airbridge is a moveable bridge, normally enclosed, which extends from an airport terminal gate allowing passengers to board an airplane without having to go outside. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tétouan (Arabic: Titwan or Tittawen) is the capital and cultural centre of the region Tanga (Tangiers) in the north of Morocco. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In early August, the situation in western Andalusia was stable enough to allow him to organize a column (some 15,000 men at its height), under the command of then Lieutenant-Colonel Juan Yagüe, which would march through Extremadura towards Madrid. On August 11, Mérida was taken, and on August 15 Badajoz, thus joining both nationalist-controlled areas. Additionally, Mussolini ordered a voluntary army, the Corpo Truppe Volontarie (CTV) of some 12,000 Italians of fully motorized units to Seville and Hitler added to them a professional squadron from the Luftwaffe (2JG/88) with about 24 planes. All these planes had the Nationalist Spanish insignia painted on them, but were flown by Italian and German troops. The backbone of Franco's aviation in those days were the Italian SM.79 and SM.81 bombers, the biplane Fiat CR.32 fighter and the German Junkers Ju 52 cargo-bomber and the Heinkel He 51 biplane fighter. For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Juan Yagüe Blanco (1891 – October 29, 1952) was a Spanish army officer during the Spanish Civil War. ... Capital Mérida Official language(s) Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Unknown Carlos Asensio Heli Rolando de Tella Strength 2,600 militia 1,000 regulars Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Mérida saw Republican militia twice fail to halt the Army of Africa near the historic town of Mérida early in the Spanish... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Ildefonso Puigdendolas Juan Yagüe Carlos Asensio Antonio Castejón Strength 6,000 militia 3,000 regulars 30 guns Casualties 750 dead 3,500 wounded, captured or missing 285 dead or wounded The Battle of Badajoz was one of the first major Nationalist... The Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Division of Volunteer Troops) was an Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain to support Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero (Italian: sparrowhawk) was important Italian bomber of World War II. The three engine airplane was well made, and performed well both as a torpedo and medium bomber. ... Savoia Marchetti SM.81 in action. ... Fiat CR.32 The Fiat CR.32 was an Italian biplane fighter used in the Spanish Civil War and WW2. ... The Junkers Ju 52 (nicknamed Tante Ju - Auntie Ju - and Iron Annie) was a transport aircraft and bomber manufactured 1932 – 1945 by Junkers. ... The Heinkel He 51 was a single-seat biplane which was produced in a number of different versions. ...


On September 21, with the head of the column at the town of Maqueda (some 80 km away from Madrid), Franco ordered a detour to free the besieged garrison at the Alcázar of Toledo, which was achieved September 27. This controversial decision gave the Popular Front time to strengthen its defenses in Madrid and hold the city that year but was an important morale and propaganda success. is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Maqueda is a Spanish town located in the province of Toledo. ... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Cándido Cabello José Moscardó Ituarte, Pedro Romero Basart Strength 8,000 militia 1,028 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 65 dead, 438 wounded, 22 missing The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic battle in the opening stages of the Spanish... This article is about the city in Spain named Toledo. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ...


Rise to power

The designated leader of the uprising, Gen. José Sanjurjo died on July 20, 1936 in an air crash. Therefore, in the nationalist zone, "Political life ceased."[12] Initially, only military command mattered; this was divided into regional commands: (Emilio Mola in the North, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano in Seville commanding Andalusia, Franco with an independent command and Miguel Cabanellas in Zaragoza commanding Aragon). The Spanish Army of Morocco itself was split into two columns, one commanded by General Juan Yagüe and the other commanded by Colonel José Varela. Jose Sanjurjo José Sanjurjo Sacanell (Pamplona, 1872 - Estoril, Portugal, July 20, 1936) Marquess of the Rif and general, was a Spanish Army Officer who was one of the chief conspirators of the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emilio Mola Vidal (June 9, 1887 – June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ... Gonzalo Queipo de Llano y Sierra (Tordesillas, Spain, February 5, 1875 - Seville, March 9, 1951) was a Spanish Army Officer during the Spanish Civil War. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Miguel Cabanellas Ferrer, (1872-1938) was a Spanish Army officer during the Spanish Civil War. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Juan Yagüe Blanco (1891 – October 29, 1952) was a Spanish army officer during the Spanish Civil War. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... José Enrique Varela Iglesias (born in San Fernando, Cadiz, Spain, April 17, 1891 - died in Tangier, Spanish Morocco, March 24, 1951) was a Spanish miliary commander. ...


From July 24, a coordinating junta was established, based at Burgos. Nominally led by Cabanellas, as the most senior general,[13] it initially included Mola, three other generals, and two colonels; Franco was added in early August.[14] On September 21, it was decided that Franco was to be commander-in-chief (this unified command was opposed only by Cabanellas),[15] and, after some discussion, with no more than a lukewarm agreement from Queipo de Llano and from Mola, also head of government.[16] He was doubtless helped to this primacy by the fact that, in late July, Hitler had decided that all of Germany's aid to the nationalists would go to Franco.[17] is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mola considered Franco as unfit and not part of the initial rebel group.[citation needed] But Mola himself had been somewhat discredited as the main planner of the attempted coup that had now degenerated into a civil war, and was strongly identified with the Carlists monarchists and not at all with the Falange, a party with Fascist leanings and connections, nor did he have good relations with Germans; Queipo de Llano and Cabanellas had both previously rebelled against the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera and were therefore discredited in some nationalist circles; and Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera was in prison in Madrid (he would be executed a few months later) and the desire to keep a place open for him prevented any other falangist leader from emerging as a possible head of state. Franco's previous aloofness from politics meant that he had few active enemies in any of the factions that needed to be placated, and had cooperated in recent months with both Germany and Italy.[18] Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons through the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, Marqués de Estella (Jerez, January 8, 1870 - Paris, March 16, 1930) was a Spanish military official who ruled Spain as a dictator from 1923 to 1930, ending the turno system of alternating parties. ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de Estella (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ...


On October 1, 1936, in Burgos, Franco was publicly proclaimed as Generalísimo of the National army and Jefe del Estado (Head of State).[19] Mola was furious and Cabanellas intervened to calm the spirits down.[citation needed] When Mola was killed in another air accident a year later (which some believe was an assassination) (June 2, 1937), no military leader was left from those who organized the conspiracy against the Republic between 1933 and 1935.[20] is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A generalissimo is a commissioned officer of the highest rank; the word is often translated as Supreme Commander or Commander in Chief. It is an Italian superlative substantive, which grammatically would actually be disallowed in Italian (superlatives can be made with adjectives only). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Military command

From that time until the end of the war, Franco personally guided military operations. After the failed assault on Madrid in November 1936, Franco settled to a piecemeal approach to winning the war, rather than bold maneuvering. As with his decision to relieve the garrison at Toledo, this approach has been subject of some debate; some of his decisions, such as, in June 1938, when he preferred to head for Valencia instead of Catalonia, remain particularly controversial from a military viewpoint. The Siege of Madrid was a three year siege of the Spanish capital Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Cándido Cabello José Moscardó Ituarte, Pedro Romero Basart Strength 8,000 militia 1,028 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 65 dead, 438 wounded, 22 missing The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic battle in the opening stages of the Spanish... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ...


Franco's army was supported by Nazi Germany in the form of the Condor Legion, infamous for the bombing of Guernica on April 26, 1937. These German forces also provided maintenance personnel and trainers, and some 22,000 Germans and 91,000 Italians served over the entire war period in Spain. Principal assistance was received from Fascist Italy (Corpo Truppe Volontarie), but the degree of influence of both powers on Franco's direction of the war seems to have been very limited. Nevertheless, the Italian troops, despite not being always effective, were present in most of the large operations in big numbers, while the CTV helped the Nationalist airforce dominate the skies for most of the war. António de Oliveira Salazar's Portugal also openly assisted the Nationalists from the start, contributing some 20,000 troops. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hermann Göring delivering an honour (likely to be the Spanienkreuz, Spanish Cross) to a member of the Legion Condor (April 1939) The Condor Legion was a unit of Nazi Germanys air force which was sent as volunteers to support the right wing Nationalists (i. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... The Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Division of Volunteer Troops) was an Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain to support Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Italian CTV Nationalist Spain Commanders Enrique Jurado José Miaja Cipriano Mera Mario Roatta Strength 20,000 infantry 45 guns 70 light tanks 80 aircraft 45,000 infantry 270 guns 140 light tanks 62 aircraft Casualties 6,000 dead or wounded 2,500 dead 4,000 wounded... António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ...


It is said that Franco's direction of the Nazi and Fascist forces was limited, particularly in the direction of the Condor Legion, however, he was officially, by default, their supreme commander and they rarely made decisions on their own. For reasons of prestige, it was decided to continue assisting Franco until the end of the war, and Italian and German troops paraded on the day of the final victory in Madrid.[21] Hermann Göring delivering an honour (likely to be the Spanienkreuz, Spanish Cross) to a member of the Legion Condor (April 1939) The Condor Legion was a unit of Nazi Germanys air force which was sent as volunteers to support the right wing Nationalists (i. ...


Political command

In April 1937, Franco managed to fuse the ideologically incompatible national-syndicalist Falange ("phalanx", a far-right Spanish political party founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera) and the Carlist monarchist parties under a single-party under his rule, dubbed Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS), which became the only legal party in 1939. The Falangists' hymn, Cara al Sol, became the semi-national anthem of Franco's not yet established regime. An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitive position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de Estella (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons through the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) was the official political party founded by Francisco Franco April 19, 1937 in the midst of the Spanish Civil War, bringing under one umbrella his Carlist and Falangist supporters. ... Cara al Sol (Spanish for Facing the Sun) is the anthem of the Falange, the main current of Spanish Fascism. ...


This new political formation appeased the pro-Nazi Falangists while tempering them with the anti-German, pro-Spain Carlists. Franco's brother-in-law Ramón Serrano Súñer, who was his main political advisor, was able to turn the various parties under Franco against each other to absorb a series of political confrontations against Franco himself. At a certain moment he even expelled the original leading members of both the Carlists (Manuel Fal Conde) and the Falangists (Manuel Hedilla) to secure Franco's political future. Franco also appeased the Carlists by exploiting the Republicans' anti-clericalism in his propaganda, in particular concerning the "Martyrs of the war". While the loyalist forces presented the war as a struggle to defend the Republic against Fascism, Franco depicted himself as the defender of "Christian Europe" against "atheist Communism." Ramón Serrano Súñer (September 12, 1901 – September 1, 2003), was a Spanish politician and creator of the radio station Radio Intercontinental. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War is the name given by Catholics to the tens of thousands of people who were killed during the Spanish Civil War for their Christian faith. ...


From early 1937, every death sentence had to be signed (or acknowledged) by Franco. From the beginning of the revolt, all the Junta generals ordered massive public and summary executions to spread fear and reduce resistance among the civilians. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...


During World War II, the head of the Abwehr, Wilhelm Canaris, had regular meetings with Franco and informed Franco of Hitler's attitude and plans for Spain. This information prompted Franco to surreptitiously reposition his best and most experienced troops to camps near the Pyrenees and to reshape the terrain to be unfriendly to tanks and other military vehicles[citation needed] . The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ... Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


The end of the civil war

Before the fall of Catalonia in February 1939, the Prime Minister of Spain Juan Negrín unsuccessfully proposed, in the meeting of the Cortes in Figueres, capitulation with the sole condition of respecting the lives of the vanquished. Negrín was ultimately deposed by Colonel Segismundo Casado, later joined by José Miaja. Juan Negrín López (February 3, 1887 - November 12, 1956) was a Spanish politician and physician. ... Hernán Cortés, 16th century Spanish conquistador Pablo Cortés, 18th century Spanish slave trader Corte (disambiguation), for the judicial bodies of the Spanish-speaking Americas, and the communes in France and Italy Cortes Generales (General Courts), usually just las Cortes, national legislative assembly of Spain The term Cortes... Sant Pere Dalí Museum Town church tower, Figueres Figueres (Castilian: Figueras) is the capital of the comarca (district) of Alt Empordà, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. ... Segismundo Casado López (1893, Nava de la Asunción, Segovia—1968, Madrid) was a Spanish Army officer in the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War. ... Image:SPmaija. ...


Thereafter, only Madrid (see History of Madrid) and a few other areas remained under control of the government forces. On February 27, Chamberlain and Daladier's governments recognized the Franco regime, before the official end of the war. The PCE attempted a mutiny in Madrid with the aim of re-establishing Negrín's leadership, but José Miaja retained control. Finally, on March 28, 1939, with the help of pro-Franco forces inside the city (the "fifth column" General Mola had mentioned in propaganda broadcasts in 1936), Madrid fell to the Nationalists. The next day, Valencia, which had held out under the guns of the Nationalists for close to two years, also surrendered. Victory was proclaimed on April 1, 1939, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered. On this very date, Franco placed his sword upon the altar in a church and in a vow, promised that he would never again take up his sword unless Spain itself was threatened with invasion. Prehistoric and Roman Time Archaeological findings exist that prove the existence of human population in the terraces of the Manzanares river from the Paleolític. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Fifth Column (disambiguation). ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At least 50,000 people were executed during the civil war.[22][23][24] Franco's victory was followed by thousands of summary executions (from 15,000 to 25,000 people [25]) and imprisonments, while many were put to forced labour, building railways, drying out swamps, digging canals (La Corchuela, the Canal of the Bajo Guadalquivir), construction of the Valle de los Caídos monument, etc. The 1940 shooting of the president of the Catalan government, Lluís Companys, was one of the most notable cases of this early repression. Although leftists suffered from an important death-toll, the Spanish intelligentsia, atheists and military and government figures who had remained loyal to the Madrid government during the war were also targeted by the repression. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... The Guadalquivir is the second longest river in Spain (after the Tagus). ... Image:ValleCaidos. ... The Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia ) is the institution in which the self-government of Catalonia is politically organised. ... Lluís Companys i Jover (21 June 1882 – Spain, 15 October 1940) was a Catalan politician and leader of the Esquerra Party (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya). ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ...


In his recent, updated history of the Spanish Civil War, Antony Beevor "reckons Franco's ensuing 'white terror' claimed 200,000 lives. The 'red terror' had already killed 38,000."[26] Julius Ruiz concludes that "although the figures remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone with a maximum of 150,000 executions (including 50,000 after the war) in Nationalist Spain."[27] In Checas de Madrid, César Vidal comes to a nationwide total of 110,965 victims of Republican repression; 11,705 people being killed in Madrid alone.[28] Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... During the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s, many of the Republican forces were violently anti-clerical anarchists and Communists, whose assaults during what has been termed Spains red terror included sacking and burning monasteries and churches and killing 6,832 members of the Catholic clergy. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ...


Despite the official end of the war, guerrilla resistance to Franco (known as "the maquis") was widespread in many mountainous regions, and continued well into the 1950s. In 1944, a group of republican veterans, which also fought in the French resistance against the Nazis, invaded the Val d'Aran in northwest Catalonia, but they were quickly defeated. Guerrilla redirects here. ... The term maquis may refer to: The Cameroonian maquis, guerrillas from the outlawed Union des Populations Camerounaises political party; The Corsican maquis democracy of the 18th century; The maquis shrublands found in France, Corsica, and elsewhere around the Mediterranean Sea; The French maquis, who resisted the Nazis during World War... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Val dAran, a small valley (620. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ...


The end of the war led to hundreds of thousands of exilees, mostly to France (but also Mexico, Chile, etc.).[29] On the other side of the Pyrenees, refugees were confined in internment camps of the French Third Republic, such as Camp Gurs or Camp Vernet, where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions (mostly soldiers from the Durruti Division [30]). The 17,000 refugees housed in Gurs were divided into four categories (Brigadists, pilots, Gudaris and ordinary 'Spaniards'). The Gudaris (Basques) and the pilots easily found local backers and jobs, and were allowed to quit the camp, but the farmers and ordinary people, who could not find relations in France, were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Francoist government, to return to Spain. The great majority did so and were turned over to the Francoist authorities in Irún. From there they were transferred to the Miranda de Ebro camp for "purification" according to the Law of Political Responsibilities. Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... There have been internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II. Beside the camps created during World War I to intern German, Austrian and Ottomans civilians prisoners, the Third Republic (1871-1940) opened various internment camps for the Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... Camp Gurs was an internment and refugee camp constructed by the French government in 1939 in Southwest France after the fall of Catalonia at the end of the Spanish Civil War to control those who fled Spain out of fear of retaliation from Francisco Francos regime. ... The French département where Le Vernet is located. ... Members of the Durruti Column. ... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ... Euzko Gudarostea (modern spelling: Eusko Gudarostea, Basque army) was the name of the army commanded by the government of the Basque Autonomous Community during the Spanish civil war. ... Dont confuse Irun with Iruñea, the Basque name of Pamplona. ... Location Location of Miranda de Ebro in Spain Coordinates : 42°41′ N 2°56′ O Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Miranda de Ebro (Spanish) Spanish name Miranda de Ebro Postal code 09200 Area code 34 (Spain) + 947 (Burgos) Website http://www. ...


After the proclamation by Marshall Pétain of the Vichy regime, the refugees became political prisoners, and the French police attempted to round-up those who had been liberated from the camp. Along with other "undesirables", they were sent to the Drancy internment camp before being deported to Nazi Germany. 5,000 Spaniards thus died in Mauthausen concentration camp [31]. The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda, who had been named by the Chilean President Pedro Aguirre Cerda special consul for immigration in Paris, was given responsibility for what he called "the noblest mission I have ever undertaken": shipping more than 2,000 Spanish refugees, who had been housed by the French in squalid camps, to Chile on an old cargo ship, the Winnipeg. Philippe Pétain Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain (April 24, 1856 – July 23, 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French soldier and Head of State of Vichy France, a Nazi puppet state, from 1940 to 1944. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... The National Police (Police Nationale) is one of two national police forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. ... Drancy deportation camp was an infamous temporary prison camp in the city of Drancy, north of Paris, France used to hold Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Mauthausen (from summer 1940, Mauthausen-Gusen) was a group of 49 Nazi concentration camps situated around the small town of Mauthausen in Upper Austria, about 20 kilometers east of the city of Linz. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Pedro Aguirre Cerda (February 6, 1879 - November 25, 1941) was a Chilean political figure. ... The Winnipeg is the name of the ship which arrived on the coasts of Valparaíso, Chile, on 3 September 1939, with 2,200 Spanish immigrants fleeing Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ...


World War II

For more details on this topic, see Spain in World War II.
Hitler and Franco
Hitler and Franco

Franco's tactics received important support from Hitler and Mussolini during the civil war. He remained emphatically neutral in the Second World War, but nonetheless offered various kinds of support to Italy and Germany. He allowed Spanish soldiers to volunteer to fight in the German Army against Stalin (the Blue Division), but forbade Spaniards to fight in the West against the liberal democracies. Franco's common ground with Hitler was particularly weakened by Hitler's propagation of a pseudo-pagan mysticism and his attempts to manipulate Christianity, which went against Franco's deep commitment to defending Christianity and Catholicism.[citation needed] While officially neutral during the Second World War, General Francos Spanish State gave considerable material, economic, and military assistance to the Axis Powers. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul, German: ), or 250. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi mysticism is a quasi-religious undercurrent of Nazism; it denotes the mixture of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal — especially in the traditions of Germanic mysticism. ... A Sun cross, adopted as the sign of the German Faith Movement because it resembles both a cross and a swastika Positive Christianity is a term used in Nazi ideology to refer to a form of Christianity consistent with Nazism. ...


In September 1939, World War II broke out in Europe, and although Adolf Hitler met Franco once in Hendaye, France (October 23, 1940), to discuss Spanish entry on the side of the Axis, Franco's demands (food, military equipment, Gibraltar, French North Africa, Portugal, etc.) proved too much and no agreement was reached. (An oft-cited remark attributed to Hitler is that the German leader would rather have some teeth extracted than to have to deal further with Franco.) Contributing to the disagreement was an ongoing dispute over German mining rights in Spain. Some historians argue that Franco made demands that he knew Hitler would not accede to in order to stay out of the war. Other historians argue that he, as leader of a destroyed country in chaos, simply had nothing to offer the Germans and their military. Yet, after the collapse of France in June 1940, Spain did adopt a pro-Axis non-belligerency stance (for example, he offered Spanish naval facilities to German ships) until returning to complete neutrality in 1943 when the tide of the war had turned decisively against Germany and its allies. Some volunteer Spanish troops (the División Azul, or "Blue Division")—not given official state sanction by Franco—went to fight on the Eastern Front under German command from 1941-1943. Some historians have argued that not all of the Blue Division were true volunteers and that Franco expended relatively small but significant resources to aid the Axis powers' battle against the Soviet Union. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hitler redirects here. ... Hendaye (Basque Hendaia) is the most southwesterly town in France. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul, German: ), or 250. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ...


During the entire war, especially after 1942, the Spanish borders were more or less kept open for Jewish refugees from Vichy France and Nazi-occupied territories in Europe. Franco's diplomats extended their diplomatic protection over Sephardic Jews in Hungary, Slovakia and the Balkans. Spain was a safe haven for all Jewish refugees and antisemitism was not official policy under the Franco regime. Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Balkan redirects here. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ...


On June 14, 1940, the Spanish forces in Morocco occupied Tangier (a city under the rule of the League of Nations) and did not leave it until 1945. is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Tangier (disambiguation). ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


According to author Richard Bassett, Franco's neutrality was bought dearly with a sum paid by Churchill into Swiss bank accounts for him and his generals[32]. Franco thus waited quite a long time after WWII to pressure the United Kingdom regarding Spanish claims on Gibraltar.


Spain under Franco

Main article: Spain under Franco
Francisco Franco and US President Dwight D. Eisenhower in Madrid in 1959
Francisco Franco and US President Dwight D. Eisenhower in Madrid in 1959

Franco was recognized as the Spanish head of state by Britain and France in February 1939, two months before the war officially ended. Already proclaimed Generalísimo of the Nationalists and Jefe del Estado (Head of State) in October 1936 [19], he therafter assumed the official titles of "Su Excelencia el Jefe de Estado" ("His Excellency the Head of State"). However, he was also referred to in state and official documents as "Caudillo de España" ("the Leader of Spain"), and sometimes called "el Caudillo de la Última Cruzada y de la Hispanidad" ("the Leader of the Last Crusade and of the Hispanic World") and "el Caudillo de la Guerra de Liberación contra el Comunismo y sus Cómplices" ("the Leader of the War of Liberation Against Communism and Its Accomplices"). The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... Image File history File links Franco_eisenhower_1959_madrid. ... Image File history File links Franco_eisenhower_1959_madrid. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... A generalissimo is a commissioned officer of the highest rank; the word is often translated as Supreme Commander or Commander in Chief. It is an Italian superlative substantive, which grammatically would actually be disallowed in Italian (superlatives can be made with adjectives only). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... Caudillo is a Spanish (caudilho in Portuguese) word usually used to designate a political-military leader at the head of an authoritative power. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


In 1947, Franco proclaimed Spain a monarchy, but did not designate a monarch. This gesture was largely done to appease the Movimiento Nacional (Carlists and Alfonsists). Although a self-proclaimed monarchist himself, Franco had no particular desire for a King yet, and as such, he left the throne vacant, with himself as de facto regent. He wore the uniform of a Captain General (a rank traditionally reserved for the King) and resided in the El Pardo Palace. In addition, he appropriated the royal privilege of walking beneath a canopy, and his portrait appeared on most Spanish coins. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Movimiento Nacional (National Movement) was the name given to the fascist inspired mechanism during Francoist rule in Spain, which pretended to be the only cause of participation to Spanish public life. ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons through the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Captain General is a rank and a title. ... Palacio Real de El Pardo is a Spanish royal palace near Madrid. ... The Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes under a canopy of estate, on a dais: there is a cushion under his feet Margaret Beaufort, Queen Mother, at prayer, by an anonymous artist, about 1500 Engraving of the Gnadenaltar in the Vierzehnheiligen Basilica, Bad Staffelstein, Bavaria. ... ISO 4217 Code ESP User(s) Spain, Andorra Inflation 1. ...


Lacking any strong ideology, Franco initially sought support from various right-wing groups. He initially garnered much support from the fascist elements of the Falange, but distanced himself from fascist ideology after the defeat of the Axis in World War II. These were then marginalized in favor of technocrats, many of whom were linked with Opus Dei[33]. The consistent points in Franco's long rule included above all nationalism, the defence of Catholicism and the family, anti-Freemasonry, and anti-Communism. Yoke and Arrows. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article pertains to technocracy as a bureaucratic structure. ... For other uses, see Opus Dei (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Freemasons redirects here. ...


With the end of World War II, Spain sufferred from the economic consequences of its isolation from the international community. This situation ended in part when, due to Spain's strategic location in light of Cold War tensions, the United States entered into a trade and military alliance with Spain. This historic alliance commenced with United States President Eisenhower's visit in 1953 which resulted in the Pact of Madrid. Spain was then admitted to the United Nations in 1955. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... The Pact of Madrid, signed in 1953 by Spain and the United States, ended a period of virtual isolation for Spain, although the other victorious allies of World War II and much of the rest of the world remained hostile to what they regarded as a fascist regime sympathetic to... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Political repression

Following the initial repression immediately after Franco's military victory, and the failure of the guerrilla attempts against his regime in the 1950s, Franco's regime enjoyed better stability. Imprisonment and abuse of political opponents continued however throughout Franco's period in power. Those artists of the Generation of '27 who remained in Spain entered interior exile or even pactised with the new regime. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Generation of 27 (Spanish Generación del 27) was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. ...


During Franco's rule, non-government trade unions and all political opponents across the political spectrum, from communist and anarchist organizations to liberal democrats and Catalan or Basque separatists, were either suppressed or tightly controlled by all means including violent police repression. The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and the Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) trade-unions were outlawed, and replaced in 1940 by the corporatist Sindicato Vertical. The PSOE Socialist party and the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC) were banned in 1939, while the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) entered clandestinity. The Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) went into exile, and in 1959, the ETA armed group was created to wage a low-intensity war against Franco. The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Catalan nationalism, or Catalanism, is a political movement that advocates for an increased political autonomy of Catalonia, if not independence itself, from Spain and France. ... Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... Pablo Iglesias (Founder of UGT) The Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT, Workers General Union) is a major Spanish trade union, historically affiliated with the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE). ... The Sindicato vertical (literally, vertical trade union) was the only legal trade union during the reign of Francisco Franco in Spain. ... The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... Logo of the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC) party. ... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Low intensity conflict (LIC) is an armed conflict, usually between a regular army or law enforcement and non-regular armed militias (terror organization, guerrilla fighters, gangs, rioters etc). ...


Franco's Spanish nationalism promoted a unitary national identity by repressing Spain's cultural diveristy. Bullfighting and flamenco[34] were promoted as national traditions while those traditions not considered "Spanish" were suppressed. Franco's view of Spanish tradition was somewhat artificial and arbitrary: while some regional traditions were suppressed, Flamenco, an Andalusian tradition, was considered part of a larger, national identity. All cultural activities were subject to censorship, and many were plainly forbidden (often in an erratic manner). This cultural policy relaxed with time, most notably in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Bullfighting, Edouard Manet, 1865–1866. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre with strong, rhythmic undertones and is often accompanied with a similarly impassioned style of dance characterized by its powerful yet graceful execution, as well as its intricate hand and footwork. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Censor. ...


Franco also used language politics in an attempt to establish national homogeneity. He promoted the use of Castillian Spanish and repressed other languages such as Catalan, Galician and Basque language. The legal usage of languages other than Castillian Spanish was forbidden. All government, notarial, legal and commercial documents were to be drawn up exclusively in Spanish and any written in other languages were deemed null and void. The usage of any other language was forbidden in schools, in advertising, and on road and shop signs. Publications in other languages were generally forbidden. Citizens continued to speak these languages in private. This was the situation along the forties and to a lesser extent during the fifties, but after 1960 the non-castillian Spanish languages were freely spoken and written and reached bookshops and stages, although they never got official status. Language politics in Francoist Spain centered on attempts in Spain under Franco to increase the dominance of the Castilian language over the other languages of Spain. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Events and trends Technology First nuclear bomb First cruise missile, the V1 flying bomb and the first ballistic missile, the V-2 rocket First transistor Colossus, the worlds first totally electronic computer. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Civil marriages which had taken place under Republican Spain were declared null and void and had to be reconfirmed by the Catholic Church of Spain. The enforcement by public authorities of Roman Catholic social mores was a stated intent of the regime, mainly by using a law (the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes, Vagrancy Act) enacted by Azaña [3]. The remaining nomads of Spain (Gitanos and Mercheros like El Lute) were especially affected. In 1954, homosexuality, pedophilia, and prostitution were, through this law, made criminal offenses [4], although its application was seldom consistent. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Mores are strongly held norms or customs. ... Image:F manuel azana. ... The Gitanos are Roma people living in Spain. ... Quinqui is the language of a semi-nomadic group present mainly in the northern half of Spain known as quinquilleros (tinkers), although they prefer to be called mercheros. ... Eleuterio Sánchez holding a copy of his book Camina o revienta (Forge on or Die). Photographer: Luis Jauregialtzo, Argazki Press Eleuterio Sánchez (born 1942), known as El Lute, was a legendary Spanish outlaw, now a writer. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Not to be confused with Ephebophilia. ... Whore redirects here. ...


Most towns were patrolled by pairs of Guardia Civil, a military police for civilians, and functioned as his chief means of social control. Franco, like others at the time[attribution needed], evidenced a concern about a possible Masonic conspiracy against his regime. Some non-Spanish authors[attribution needed] have described it as being an "obsession". Patrol boat, Nervion river, Bilbao. ... Freemasons redirects here. ...


Student revolts at universities in the late '60s and early '70s were violently repressed by the heavily-armed Policía Armada (Armed Police), also known as "los grises" because of their grey uniforms.


Franco continued to personally sign all death warrants until just months before he died, despite international campaigns requesting him to desist.

Standard of Francisco Franco
Standard of Francisco Franco

Spanish colonial empire and decolonization

Further information: Spanish Empire

Spain attempted to retain control of its colonial empire throughout Franco's rule. During the Algerian War (1954-62), Madrid became the base of the Organisation de l'armée secrète (OAS) right-wing French Army group which sought to preserve French Algeria. Despite this, Franco was forced to make some concessions. Henceforth, when French Morocco became independent in 1956, he surrendered Spanish Morocco to Mohammed V, retaining only a few enclaves (the Plazas de soberanía). The year after, Mohammed V invaded Spanish Sahara during the Ifni War (known as the "Forgotten War" in Spain). Only in 1975, with the Green March, did Morocco take control of all of the former Spanish territories in the Sahara. An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... French Morocco (Fr. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco visiting Lawrence Livermore Lab, United States, in 1957 Mohammed V (August 10, 1909–February 26, 1961) was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to 1953 and 1955 to 1961. ... The Plazas de Soberanía. ... Spanish Sahara was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was ruled by Spain, created from the Spanish territories of Rio de Oro and La Aguera in 1924. ... The Ifni War, also known as the 1957 Invasion of Spanish Sahara and, in Spain, the Forgotten War (la Guerra Ignorada), was a series of armed incursions into Spanish West Africa by Moroccan insurgents and indigenous Sahrawi rebels that began in October 1957 and culminated with the abortive siege of... This article is about the historical event. ...


In 1968, due to United Nations' pressure, Franco granted Spain's colony of Equatorial Guinea its independence, and the next year, ceded the exclave of Ifni to Morocco. Under Franco, Spain also pursued a campaign to gain sovereignty of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, and closed its border with Gibraltar in 1969. The border would not be fully reopened until 1985. D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Ifni was a Spanish province on the African coast in what is now Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Canary Islands. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Gibraltar is a British overseas territory on the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula subject to a disputed irredentist claim by Spain. ...


Economic policy

See also: Economic history of Spain: Economy under Franco The Economic history of Spain covers the development of the Spanish economy over the course of its history. ...


The Civil War had ravaged the Spanish economy. Infrastructure had been damaged, workers killed, and daily business severely hampered. For more than a decade after Franco's victory, the economy improved little. Franco initially pursued a policy of autarky, cutting off almost all international trade. The policy had devastating effects, and the economy stagnated. Economic growth picked up in 1959 after Franco took authority away from ideologues and gave more power to apolitical technocrats. The country implemented several development policies and growth took off creating the "Spanish Miracle". During the 1960s, the wealthy classes of Francoist Spain's population experienced further increases in wealth. It had the second-fastest growing economy in the world (the fastest being Japan). At the time of Franco's death, Spain still lagged behind most of Western Europe, but the gap between its GDP per capita and that of Western Europe had narrowed. After periods of rapid growth during the late 1980s and late 1990s, Spain now only lags slightly behind the economies of Britain, Ireland,France and Germany, and has now overtaken Italy on some measures. An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... A white SEAT 600, an icon of the Spanish Miracle The 1957 built, 142m high, Torre de Madrid somehow heralded the advent of the Spanish Miracle The Spanish miracle (Spanish: Desarrollo económico de España) was the name given to the Spanish economic boom between 1959 and 1973. ...


Regions

Franco was reluctant to enact any form of administrative and legislative decentralisation and kept a fully centralised form of government with a similar administrative structure to that established by the House of Bourbon and General Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja. Such structures were both based in the model of the French centralised State. Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Spanish soldier politician and dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, Marqués de Estella (Jerez de la Frontera, January 8, 1870 - Paris, March 16, 1930) was a Spanish dictator, aristocrat, and a military official who was appointed Prime Minister by the King and...


Franco's legacy is still particularly poorly perceived in Catalonia and the Basque Country. The Basque Country and Catalonia were among the regions that offered the strongest resistance to Franco in the Civil War, but one of the strongest to his support during this regime. Franco dissolved the autonomy granted by the Spanish Republic to these two regions and to Galicia. Franco abolished the centuries-old fiscal privileges and autonomy in two of the three Basque provinces: Guipuzcoa and Biscay, but kept them for Alava. This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... There have been two Spanish Republics: First Spanish Republic (1873-1874) Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939) Franco declared Spain to be a monarchy, but did not permit a monarch until his death in 1975. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Guipúzcoa province Guipúzcoa (Basque Gipuzkoa, Spanish Guipúzcoa, in English sometimes as Guipuscoa) is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... lava (Basque Araba, Spanish lava) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ...


Among Franco's greatest area of support during the civil war was Navarre, also a Basque speaking region in its north half. Navarre remained a separated region from the Basque Country and Franco decided to preserve its also centuries' old fiscal privileges and autonomy, the so-called Fueros of Navarre. “Navarra” redirects here. ... The Fueros of Navarre, or Fuero general de Navarra, were the medieval laws of the kingdom of Navarre. ...


Franco abolished the official statute and recognition for the Basque, Galician, and Catalan languages that the Spanish Republic had granted for the first time in the history of Spain. He returned to Spanish as the only official language of the State and education. The Franco era corresponded with the popularisation of the compulsory national educational system and the development of modern mass media, both controlled by the State and in Spanish language, and heavily reduced the number of speakers of Basque, Catalan and Galicianas, as it happened during the second half of the twentieth century with other European minority languages which were not officially protected like Scottish Gaelic or French Breton. By the 1970s the majority of the population in the urban areas could not speak in the minority language or, as in some Catalan towns, their use had been abandoned. The most endangered case was the Basque language. By the 1970s Basque had reached the point where any further reduction in the number of Basque speakers would have not guaranteed the necessary generational renewal and it is now recognised that the language would have disappeared in only a few more decades. This was the main reason that drove the franquist provincial government of Alava to create a network of Basque medium schools (Ikastola) in 1973 which were State financed. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... There have been two Spanish Republics: First Spanish Republic (1873-1874) Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939) Franco declared Spain to be a monarchy, but did not permit a monarch until his death in 1975. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... lava (Basque Araba, Spanish lava) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... An Ikastola (plural Ikastolak) is a type of school in the Basque Country, Navarre and (to a much lesser extent), the French Basque Country in which students are taught either entirely or predominantly in the Basque language. ...


Franco's legacy

Further information: Spanish transition to democracy

In Spain and abroad, the legacy of Franco remains controversial. Symbols of the Franco regime (such as the national flag with the Imperial Eagle) are now banned by law, while the national anthem of Spain, the Marcha Real, is no longer accompanied by the lyrics introduced by Franco. The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ... (The Royal March) is the national anthem of Spain. ...


In Germany, a squadron named after Werner Mölders has been renamed because as a pilot he led the escorting units of the bombing of Guernica. In 2006, the BBC reported that Maciej Giertych, a MEP of the far-right League of Polish Families, had expressed admiration for Franco, stating that he "guaranteed the maintenance of traditional values in Europe" [35]. Werner Mölders (March 18, 1913 - November 22, 1941) was a German Luftwaffe World War II fighter ace. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Maciej Marian Giertych (born March 24, 1936 in Warsaw) is a Polish politician with extreme conservative social views and in favor of state intervention in the economy. ... The Media embedded Processor (MeP) is a configurable 32-bit processor design from Toshiba Semiconductor for embedded media processing applications. ... The League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a national conservative political party in Poland. ...


Many Spaniards, particularly those who suffered under the Franco's rule, have sought to remove official recognition of his regime. Several statues of Franco and other public Francoist symbols have been removed, with the last statue in Madrid having been removed in 2005 [36]. In 2002, José Maria Aznar's conservative government had voted against proposals to remove street names, statues and other symbols of the Franco era [36]. (born in Madrid on February 25, 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as the Prime Minister of Spain (officially, president of the Spanish government) from 1996 to 2004. ...


In March 2006, the Permanent Commission of the European Parliament unanimously adopted a resolution "firmly" condemning the "multiple and serious violations" of human rights committed in Spain under the Francoist regime from 1939 to 1975 [37][38]. The resolution was at the initiative of the MEP Leo Brincat and of the historian Luis María de Puig, and is the first international official condemnation of the repression enacted by Franco's regime [37]. The resolution also urged to provide public access to historians (professional and amateurs) to the various archives of the Francoist regime, including those of the private Fundación Francisco Franco which, as well as other Francoist archives, remain as of 2006 inaccessible to the public [37]. The Fundación Francisco Franco received various archives from the El Pardo Palace, and is alleged to have sold some of them to private individuals[39]. Furthermore, it urged the Spanish authorities to set up an underground exhibition in the Valle de los Caidos monument, in order to explain the "terrible" conditions in which it was built [37]. Finally, it proposes the construction of monuments to commemorate Franco's victims in Madrid and other important cities [37]. Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Archive of the AMVC An archive refers to a collection of historical records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... Palacio Real de El Pardo is a Spanish royal palace in Madrid. ... Exhibition may refer to: Exhibition (scholarship), a small grant Worlds Fair Exhibition game, a friendly match Art exhibition Exhibition (equestrian), a sport involving horse and riders Science fair State fair Funfair Trade fair Xzibit See also Look up exhibition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Spain, a Commission to repair the dignity and restore the memory of the victims of Francoism (Comisión para reparar la dignidad y restituir la memoria de las víctimas del franquismo) was approved in the summer of 2004, and is directed by the vice-president María Teresa Fernández de la Vega [37]. María Teresa Fernández de la Vega in her office María Teresa Fernández de la Vega, Doctor of Law (born June 15, 1949) is a socialist Spanish politician, since April 18, 2004 the First Vice President and Minister of Presidency in the government of José Luis Rodr...


Recently the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (ARHM) initiated a systematic search for mass graves of people executed during Franco's regime, which has been supported since the PSOE's victory during the 2004 elections by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's government. A Ley de la memoria histórica de España (Law on the Historical Memory of Spain) has been approved on 28 July, 2006 by the Council of Ministers, but is still to be voted. Among other things, the draft law is supposed to enforce an official recognition of the crimes committed against civilians during the Francoist rule and organize under state supervision the search for mass graves. Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica or ARMH in Spanish) is a Spanish organization that collects the oral and written testimonies about the victims of the regime of Francisco Franco and excavates and identifies their bodies that were... The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... Map of Spains electoral circumscriptions, and the parties leading in each circumscription in the election for the Congress of Deputies Legislative elections were held in Spain on March 14, 2004. ...   (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1960), better known under his second surname Zapatero, is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... President of the Government José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero First Vice President (2004 - ): María Teresa Fernández de la Vega Second Vice President (2004 - ): Pedro Solbes Minister of Agriculture and Fishing (2004 - ): Elena Espinosa Minister of Culture (2004 - ): Carmen Calvo Minister of Defence (2004 - ): José Bono Minister of Economy...


The accumulated wealth of Franco's family (including much real estate inherited from Franco, including the Pazo de Meirás, the Canto del Pico in Torrelodones or the Cornide Palace in the Coruña [40]) has also been discussed. Estimates of the family's wealth have ranged from 350 million to 600 million Euros [40]. When Franco was sick, the Cortes voted a pension for his wife, Carmen Polo. At her death in 1988, Carmen Polo received more than 12.5 million pesetas (four million more than Felipe González, then head of the government) [40]. Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Torre de Hércules View from the Torre de Hércules A Coruña (Galician name, also known in English as Corunna; in Spanish as La Coruña) is a Galician city, in north-western Spain at 43° 22′ 0″ N 8° 22′ 60″ W. It is the capital of... The Greek name for the rainy, stormy southeast wind. ... Hernán Cortés, 16th century Spanish conquistador Pablo Cortés, 18th century Spanish slave trader Corte (disambiguation), for the judicial bodies of the Spanish-speaking Americas, and the communes in France and Italy Cortes Generales (General Courts), usually just las Cortes, national legislative assembly of Spain The term Cortes... Carmen Polo with her husband in Burgos Carmen Polo y Martínez-Valdès (June 11, 1900 - February 6, 1988) was Francisco Francos wife and a member of the Spanish nobility. ... The peseta (₧) was the currency of Spain (and Andorra, along with the French franc) until December 31, 1998. ... Felipe González Márquez (born March 5, 1942) is a Spanish socialist politician. ...


In late 2007, Spain will ban all public references to the Franco regime and remove any statues, street names and symbols associated with the dictator. The government is also considering cutting off state aid to churches which retain plaques commemorating Franco and the victims of his republican opponents.[5]


Franco in popular media

Serious and documentary portrayals

  • Raza or Espíritu de una Raza (Spirit of a Race) (1941), based on a script by "Jaime de Andrade" (Franco himself), is the semi-autobiographical story of a military officer played by Alfredo Mayo. Franco, ese hombre (That man, Franco) (1964) is a pro-Franco documentary film directed by José Luis Sáenz de Heredia, and the film version of Evita (1996) includes archive footage of Franco. The role of Franco himself was interpreted on film by José Soriano in Espérame en el cielo (Wait for Me in Heaven) (1988) and by Ramon Fontserè in ¡Buen Viaje, Excelencia! (Bon Voyage, Your Excellency!) (2003).

Raza is a 1942 Spanish biographical war film directed by José Luis Sáenz de Heredia. ... Alfredo Mayo, (real name: Alfredo Fernández Martínez) (Barcelona, May 17, 1911 - † Palma de Mallorca, May 19, 1985) was a Spanish actor. ... Franco, ese hombre, translated into English as Franco, that man, is a 1964 documentary film by Spanish film director José Luis Sáenz de Heredia. ... José Luis Sáenz de Heredia (10 April 1911 Madrid- 4 November 1992) was a Spanish film director. ... For other uses, see Evita (disambiguation). ...

Comic references

  • In his satirical song The Folk Song Army, Tom Lehrer mocked the popularity of folk songs supporting the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War: "Remember the war against Franco / The one where each of us belongs / While he may have won all the battles / We had all the good songs."
  • The weekly announcement "Generalissimo Francisco Franco is still dead" became a recurring joke on Saturday Night Live, spoken by Chevy Chase during the "Weekend Update" news satire segment during the show's first season.
  • Fawlty Towers also made several references. In "The Builders", Manuel is puzzled when someone looking for the boss of the hotel asks where the "generalisimo" is. In "The Anniversary", the chef Terry claims that his repertoire of Spanish cuisine includes "Franco Fritters". In "Basil the Rat", Basil Fawlty is moved to ask Manuel: "You have rats in Spain, don't you - or did Franco have them all shot?"
  • In the movie You've Got Mail, Socialist Frank Navasky (Greg Kinnear) is shocked to discover that his girlfriend's employee Birdie (Jean Stapleton) had dated Franco.

Thomas Andrew Tom Lehrer (born April 9, 1928) is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, and mathematician. ... Generalissimo Francisco Franco is still dead is a catch phrase originated in 1975 during the first season of Saturday Night Live, and became one of the first catch phrases from SNL to enter the general lexicon. ... A catch phrase is a phrase or expression that is popularized, usually through repeated use, by a real person or fictional character. ... SNL redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chevy Chase (disambiguation). ... Weekend Update is a Saturday Night Live sketch which comments on and parodies current events. ... Distorted news or planted news are terms in journalism for two deviated aspects of the wider news media wherein media outlets deliberately present false data, evidence, or sources as factual, in contradiction to the ethical practices in professional journalism. ... Fawlty Towers is a British sitcom made by the BBC and first broadcast on BBC2 in 1975. ... Youve Got Mail is an American romantic comedy released in 1998 by Warner Brothers. ... Gregory Kinnear (born June 17, 1963) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor and television personality, who rose to stardom as the first host of E!s Talk Soup. ... Jean Stapleton Jean Stapleton (born Jeanne Murray on January 19, 1923 in New York City) is an American actress of stage, television and film. ...

Current Relations

Francisco Franco's currently living distant relations are not sure of, but could be Mexican-American. There have been a few vague records of--although not known to be totally true-- a few families with the name of Franco moving to Mexico from Spain, and later to the USA during World War II.


Literature

Paul Preston is a British historian, working in the London School of Economics, specialising in Spanish history, in particular the Spanish Civil War, which he has studied for more than 30 years. ... Collins was a Scottish printing company founded by a schoolmaster, William Collins, in Glasgow in 1819. ...

References

  1. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  2. ^ New York Times. "Nixon Asserts Franco Won Respect for Spain." November 21, 1975, Friday, page 16.
  3. ^ GeneAll.net
  4. ^ Carmen Franco y Polo, 1st Duquesa de Franco on thePeerage.com. Accessed 8 August 2006.
  5. ^ Discurso de Franco a los cadetes de la academia militar de Zaragoza (Spanish) (1931-06-14). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  6. ^ "Riots Sweep Spain on Left's Victory; Jails Are Stormed", The New York Times, February 18, 1936.
  7. ^ Muggeridge, Malcolm, editor, Ciano's Diplomatic Papers, Odhams, London, 1948: 17-18
  8. ^ Manifesto de las palmas (Spanish) (1936-07-18). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  9. ^ Santos Juliá, coord. Víctimas de la guerra civil, Madrid, 1999, ISBN 84-8460-333-4
  10. ^ Spanish Civil War
  11. ^ La Memoria de los Nuestros (Spanish). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  12. ^ Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, revised and enlarged edition (1977), New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-014278-2. p. 258
  13. ^ Thomas writes, "to pacify, rather than to dignify, him." op. cit., p. 282.
  14. ^ Thomas, op. cit., p. 282.
  15. ^ Thomas, op. cit., p. 421.
  16. ^ Thomas, op. cit., pp 423–424.
  17. ^ Thomas, op. cit., p. 356.
  18. ^ Thomas, op. cit., pp 420–422.
  19. ^ a b Thomas, op. cit., p. 424.
  20. ^ Thomas, op. cit., pp 689–690.
  21. ^ The Spanish Republic and the civil war 1931-39, by Gabriel Jackson, New Jersey, 1967
  22. ^ Spain torn on tribute to victims of Franco
  23. ^ Spanish Civil War
  24. ^ Spanish Civil War: Casualties
  25. ^ Recent searches conducted with parallel excavations of mass graves in Spain (in particular by the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory, ARMH) estimate that the total of people executed after the war may arrive at a number between 15,000 to 35,000. See for example Fosas Comunes - Los desaparecidos de Franco. La Guerra Civil no ha terminado, El Mundo, 7 July 2002 (Spanish)
  26. ^ "Men of La Mancha". Rev. of Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain. The Economist (June 22, 2006).
  27. ^ Julius Ruiz, "Defending the Republic: The García Atadell Brigade in Madrid, 1936". Journal of Contemporary History 42.1 (2007):97.
  28. ^ International justice begins at home by Carlos Alberto Montaner, Miami Herald, August 4, 2003
  29. ^ Spanish Civil War fighters look back
  30. ^ (French) Camp Vernet Website
  31. ^ Film documentary on the website of the Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration (French)
  32. ^ Bassett, Richard (June 2005). Hitler's Spy Chief: The Wilhelm Canaris Mystery. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 352. ISBN 0297846876. 
  33. ^ "The Franco Years: Policies, Programs, and Growing Popular Unrest." A Country Study: Spain <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/estoc.html#es0034>
  34. ^ Roman, Mar. "Spain frets over future of flamenco." 27 October, 2007. Associated Press. [1]
  35. ^ Europe diary: Franco and Finland, BBC News, 6 July 2006 (English)
  36. ^ a b Madrid removes last Franco statue, BBC News, 17 March 2005 (English)
  37. ^ a b c d e f Primera condena al régimen de Franco en un recinto internacional, EFE, El Mundo, 17 March 2006 (Spanish)
  38. ^ Von Martyna Czarnowska, Almunia, Joaquin: EU-Kommission (4): Ein halbes Jahr Vorsprung, Weiner Zeitung, 17 February 2005 (article in German language). Accessed 26 August 2006.
  39. ^ Luis Gomez and Mabel Galaz, La cosecha del dictador, El Pais, 9 September 2007 (Spanish)
  40. ^ a b c Luis Gomez and Mabel Galaz, La cosecha del dictador, El Pais, 9 September 2007 (Spanish)

is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge (March 24, 1903–November 14, 1990) was a British journalist, author, satirist, media personality, soldier-spy and Christian scholar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica or ARMH in Spanish) is a Spanish organization that collects the oral and written testimonies about the victims of the regime of Francisco Franco and excavates and identifies their bodies that were... El Mundo is the second largest newspaper in Spain, with a circulation of 350,297 copies (2003). ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... EFE is a Spanish news agency created in 1939 by Ramón Serrano Súñer and Manuel Aznar Zubigaray while the former was Spains minister of the press and propaganda. ... El Mundo can refer to: El Mundo (Spain), Spanish newspaper El Mundo (Puerto Rico), Puerto Rican newspaper El Mundo (Argentine), Argentine newspaper El Mundo (game), four player tables game described in the Alfonso X manuscript This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... El País (The country) is one of the most widely read Spanish newspapers. ... El País (The country) is one of the most widely read Spanish newspapers. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Francisco Franco
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Relations of Members of the United Nations with Spain
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Condecoraciones otorgadas por Francisco Franco a Benito Mussolini y a Adolf Hitler

The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... Generalissimo Francisco Franco is still dead is a catch phrase originated in 1975 during the first season of Saturday Night Live, and became one of the first catch phrases from SNL to enter the general lexicon. ... Ramón Serrano Súñer (September 12, 1901 – September 1, 2003), was a Spanish politician and creator of the radio station Radio Intercontinental. ... Monument to Luis Carrero Blanco in Santoña (Cantabria, Spain) by Juan de Ávalos Luis Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria – December 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ... Emilio Mola Vidal (June 9, 1887 – June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ... The Spanish Legion (Spanish: Legión Española or simply La Legión), formerly Spanish Foreign Legion, is an elite unit of the Spanish Army. ... Language politics in Francoist Spain centered on attempts in Spain under Franco to increase the dominance of Castilian (castellano), the most widely used Spanish language, over the other languages of Spain. ... The Movimiento Nacional (National Movement) was the name given to the fascist inspired mechanism during Francoist rule in Spain, which pretended to be the only cause of participation to Spanish public life. ... The Frente Revolucionario Antifascista y Patriótico (Revolutionary Anti-Fascist Patriotic Front), better known by its acronym FRAP, was a Marxist-Leninist revolutionary organization. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

External links

  • Death of dictator,Landmark Law Condemns Dictatorship: Spain Confronts Past under Franco
  • [6]National Foundation Francisco Franco.
  • Biographical page in Spanish about "Francisco Franco"
  • Francisco Franco at the Internet Movie Database. He wrote the script for Raza under the name "Jaime de Andrade".
  • Franco Biography From Spartacus Educational.
  • 1939-1952: Armed resistance to Franco - a history of the marxist guerrilla resistance movement to his regime
  • Francisco Franco Gravesite
Video
  • Documentary 52': When Franco died we were 30
  • Audio Interview: Sid Low on the Juventud de Accion Popular and the Outbreak of Civil War in Spain [7]
Preceded by
Juan Negrín
President of the Government of Spain
1939–1973
Succeeded by
Luis Carrero Blanco
Preceded by
Manuel Azaña
President of Spain
1939–1947
Succeeded by
Monarchy reinstated with vacant throne;
Franco acts as de facto regent
Spanish Head of State
1939–1975
Succeeded by
Juan Carlos I
Persondata
NAME Franco, Francisco
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo, Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo (full name); Franco Bahamonde, Francisco (standard name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Dictator and head of state of Spain
DATE OF BIRTH 4 December 1892(1892-12-04)
PLACE OF BIRTH Ferrol, A Coruña, Spain
DATE OF DEATH 19 November 1975
PLACE OF DEATH Madrid, Spain
The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Juan Negrín López (February 3, 1887 - November 12, 1956) was a Spanish politician and physician. ... The following is the list of those who have served as President of the Government of Spain. ... Monument to Luis Carrero Blanco in Santoña (Cantabria, Spain) by Juan de Ávalos Luis Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria – December 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ... Image:F manuel azana. ... Today, Spain is a monarchy, and there is thus no person holding the title of President of Spain. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... Juan Carlos I (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias; born January 5, 1938, Rome, Italy) is the reigning King of Spain. ... The President of the Government of Spain (realy in Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno), sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the Spanish head of government. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa, Spanish statesman and dramatist Tombstone of Martínez de la Rosa and other five Spanish Liberal politicians of the 19th century at the Panteón de Hombres Ilustres, Atocha, Madrid, Spain Francisco de Paula Martinez de la Rosa (1789–1862), Spanish statesman... Miguel Ricardo de Álava Don Miguel Ricardo de Álava y Esquivel, Marquess de Álava (July 7, 1770 - July 14, 1843) was a Spanish General and statesman. ... Juan Álvarez Mendizábal, born Juan Álvarez Méndez (Cádiz, 25 February 1790-Madrid, 3 November 1853), was a Spanish economist and politician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... José Ramón Rodil y Campillo, Spanish general and statesman, born in Santa María del Trovo, Galicia region. ... Ramón María Narváez, Duke of Valencia Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia (es: Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, duque de Valencia) (1800-1868), Spanish soldier and statesman, was born at Loja, Granada, on August 5, 1800. ... Ramón María Narváez, Duke of Valencia Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia (es: Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, duque de Valencia) (1800-1868), Spanish soldier and statesman, was born at Loja, Granada, on August 5, 1800. ... Ramón María Narváez, Duke of Valencia Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia (es: Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, duque de Valencia) (1800-1868), Spanish soldier and statesman, was born at Loja, Granada, on August 5, 1800. ... Ramón María Narváez, Duke of Valencia Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia (es: Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, duque de Valencia) (1800-1868), Spanish soldier and statesman, was born at Loja, Granada, on August 5, 1800. ... Ángel de Saavedra, Duke of Rivas Don Ángel de Saavedra y Ramírez de Baquedano, Duke of Rivas (Spanish: Ángel de Saavedra y Ramírez de Baquedano, Duque de Rivas) (March 19, 1791 - June 22, 1865), was a Spanish poet, dramatist and politician born in Córdoba. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ramón María Narváez, Duke of Valencia Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia (es: Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, duque de Valencia) (1800-1868), Spanish soldier and statesman, was born at Loja, Granada, on August 5, 1800. ... Ramón María Narváez, Duke of Valencia Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia (es: Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, duque de Valencia) (1800-1868), Spanish soldier and statesman, was born at Loja, Granada, on August 5, 1800. ... Ramón María Narváez, Duke of Valencia Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia (es: Don Ramón María Narváez y Campos, duque de Valencia) (1800-1868), Spanish soldier and statesman, was born at Loja, Granada, on August 5, 1800. ... Don Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, Duke de la Torre, Count of San Antonio (es: Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, duque de la Torre) (1810-1885), Spanish marshal and statesman, was born in the island of León at Cádiz on 17 December 1810. ... Joan Prim, Spanish general and statesman Reus, Prims Monument Don Joan Prim, Count of Reus, Viscount del Bruch, Marquis of los Castillejos (ca: Joan Prim i Prats, comte de Reus i vescomte del Bruc, marquès dels Castillejos; es: Juan Prim y Prats, conde de Reus y vizconde del... Juan Bautista Topete (May 24, 1821 – October 29, 1885), Spanish naval commander and politician, was born in Mexico. ... Don Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, Duke de la Torre, Count of San Antonio (es: Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, duque de la Torre) (1810-1885), Spanish marshal and statesman, was born in the island of León at Cádiz on 17 December 1810. ... Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla (1834 - 1895) was a Spanish political figure. ... Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (1825-1903) born on July 21, 1825 at Torrecilla de Cameros Logroño, La Rioja, Spain and died on January 5, 1903 in Madrid. ... Don Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, Duke de la Torre, Count of San Antonio (es: Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, duque de la Torre) (1810-1885), Spanish marshal and statesman, was born in the island of León at Cádiz on 17 December 1810. ... Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla (1834 - 1895) was a Spanish political figure. ... Flag of the Spanish First Republic The First Spanish Republic lasted only two years, between 1873 and 1874. ... Estanislao Figueras (1819–82) was a Spanish politician and the first President (President of the Executive Power) of the First Spanish Republic (11 February - 11 June 1873) . Figueras lead the Republican Party after Queen Isabella II was overthrown in 1868. ... Francisco Pi y Margall, Spanish statesman and writer Francisco Pi y Margall (29 April 1824 – 29 November 1901) was a liberal Spanish statesman and Catalan romanticist writer. ... Nicolás Salmerón y Alfonso (April 10, 1838 - September 21, 1908), Spanish statesman, was born at Alhama la Seca in the province of Almería. ... Emilio Castelar y Ripoll (1832-1899) was a Spanish republican, and a president of the First Spanish Republic. ... Don Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, Duke de la Torre, Count of San Antonio (es: Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, duque de la Torre) (1810-1885), Spanish marshal and statesman, was born in the island of León at Cádiz on 17 December 1810. ... Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (1825-1903) born on July 21, 1825 at Torrecilla de Cameros Logroño, La Rioja, Spain and died on January 5, 1903 in Madrid. ... Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish statesman and historian Antonio Cánovas Del Castillo (Málaga, February 8, 1828 – Mondragón (Guipúzcoa), August 8, 1897) was an important 19th century Spanish politician and historian known principally for his role in supporting the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy to the... Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish statesman and historian Antonio Cánovas Del Castillo (Málaga, February 8, 1828 – Mondragón (Guipúzcoa), August 8, 1897) was an important 19th century Spanish politician and historian known principally for his role in supporting the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy to the... Arsenio Martínez Campos in his later years Arsenio Martínez Campos was a Spanish officer, who rose against the First Spanish Republic and was later Captain General of Cuba. ... Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish statesman and historian Antonio Cánovas Del Castillo (Málaga, February 8, 1828 – Mondragón (Guipúzcoa), August 8, 1897) was an important 19th century Spanish politician and historian known principally for his role in supporting the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy to the... Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (1825-1903) born on July 21, 1825 at Torrecilla de Cameros Logroño, La Rioja, Spain and died on January 5, 1903 in Madrid. ... Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish statesman and historian Antonio Cánovas Del Castillo (Málaga, February 8, 1828 – Mondragón (Guipúzcoa), August 8, 1897) was an important 19th century Spanish politician and historian known principally for his role in supporting the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy to the... Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (1825-1903) born on July 21, 1825 at Torrecilla de Cameros Logroño, La Rioja, Spain and died on January 5, 1903 in Madrid. ... Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish statesman and historian Antonio Cánovas Del Castillo (Málaga, February 8, 1828 – Mondragón (Guipúzcoa), August 8, 1897) was an important 19th century Spanish politician and historian known principally for his role in supporting the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy to the... Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (1825-1903) born on July 21, 1825 at Torrecilla de Cameros Logroño, La Rioja, Spain and died on January 5, 1903 in Madrid. ... Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish statesman and historian Antonio Cánovas Del Castillo (Málaga, February 8, 1828 – Mondragón (Guipúzcoa), August 8, 1897) was an important 19th century Spanish politician and historian known principally for his role in supporting the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy to the... Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (1825-1903) born on July 21, 1825 at Torrecilla de Cameros Logroño, La Rioja, Spain and died on January 5, 1903 in Madrid. ... Francisco Silvela y de Le Vielleuze (1843-1905) is a Spanish politician who became the president of Spain on May 3, 1899, succeeding Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. ... Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (1825-1903) born on July 21, 1825 at Torrecilla de Cameros Logroño, La Rioja, Spain and died on January 5, 1903 in Madrid. ... Francisco Silvela y de Le Vielleuze (1843-1905) is a Spanish politician who became the president of Spain on May 3, 1899, succeeding Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. ... Raimundo Fernández Villaverde y García del Rivero, Marquis of Pozo Rubio, (20 January 1848–15 July 1905) was a Spanish statesman. ... Antonio Maura y Montaner (Palma de Mallorca, May 2, 1853 - Madrid, December 13, 1925) was Prime Minister of Spain on two separate occasions: October 23, 1900 to March 6, 1902 and January 25, 1907 to October 21, 1909 Born into a rich family, he studied law in Madrid. ... Raimundo Fernández Villaverde y García del Rivero, Marquis of Pozo Rubio, (20 January 1848–15 July 1905) was a Spanish statesman. ... Antonio Maura y Montaner (Palma de Mallorca, May 2, 1853 - Madrid, December 13, 1925) was Prime Minister of Spain on two separate occasions: October 23, 1900 to March 6, 1902 and January 25, 1907 to October 21, 1909 Born into a rich family, he studied law in Madrid. ... José Canalejas y Méndez, Spanish statesman José Canalejas y Méndez (July 31, 1854 – November 12, 1912) was a Spanish politician, born in Ferrol. ... Manuel García Prieto was a Spanish politician (1859-1938) who was prime minister several times in his life. ... Eduardo Dato Iradier (August 12, 1856-March 8, 1921). ... Manuel García Prieto was a Spanish politician (1859-1938) who was prime minister several times in his life. ... Eduardo Dato Iradier (August 12, 1856-March 8, 1921). ... Manuel García Prieto was a Spanish politician (1859-1938) who was prime minister several times in his life. ... Antonio Maura y Montaner (Palma de Mallorca, May 2, 1853 - Madrid, December 13, 1925) was Prime Minister of Spain on two separate occasions: October 23, 1900 to March 6, 1902 and January 25, 1907 to October 21, 1909 Born into a rich family, he studied law in Madrid. ... Manuel García Prieto was a Spanish politician (1859-1938) who was prime minister several times in his life. ... Antonio Maura y Montaner (Palma de Mallorca, May 2, 1853 - Madrid, December 13, 1925) was Prime Minister of Spain on two separate occasions: October 23, 1900 to March 6, 1902 and January 25, 1907 to October 21, 1909 Born into a rich family, he studied law in Madrid. ... Eduardo Dato Iradier (August 12, 1856-March 8, 1921). ... Antonio Maura y Montaner (Palma de Mallorca, May 2, 1853 - Madrid, December 13, 1925) was Prime Minister of Spain on two separate occasions: October 23, 1900 to March 6, 1902 and January 25, 1907 to October 21, 1909 Born into a rich family, he studied law in Madrid. ... Manuel García Prieto was a Spanish politician (1859-1938) who was prime minister several times in his life. ... Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, Marqués de Estella (Jerez, January 8, 1870 - Paris, March 16, 1930) was a Spanish military official who ruled Spain as a dictator from 1923 to 1930, ending the turno system of alternating parties. ... Dámaso Berenguer y Fusté (4 August 1873 – 19 May 1953) was a Spanish soldier and politician. ... Juan Bautista Aznar Cabañas was a Spanish admiral who was made Prime Minister at a time of intense crisis, in the first months of 1931, when the monarchy was on the verge of falling under popular pressure for a republic. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Cover of Time Magazine, May 4, 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres (July 6, 1877 – February 18, 1949), served (very briefly) as first Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic, and then - from 1931 to 1936 - as its president. ... Image:F manuel azana. ... Alejandro Lerroux García (La Rambla, Córdoba, 1864 - Madrid, 1949) was a Spanish politician who was the leader of the Spanish Radical Party during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Diego Martínez Barrio (1882, Seville—1965, Paris) was a Spanish politician during the Second Spanish Republic, and was briefly appointed Prime Minister of Spain by Manuel Azaña after the resignation of Santiago Casares Quiroga, on July 19, 1936 - three days after the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. ... Alejandro Lerroux García (La Rambla, Córdoba, 1864 - Madrid, 1949) was a Spanish politician who was the leader of the Spanish Radical Party during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Alejandro Lerroux García (La Rambla, Córdoba, 1864 - Madrid, 1949) was a Spanish politician who was the leader of the Spanish Radical Party during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Manuel Portela Valladares (Pontevedra, 1868 - Bandol, 1952) was a Spanish political figure during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Image:F manuel azana. ... Augusto Barcía Trelles (Vegadeo, 1881–Buenos Aires, 1961) was a Spanish politician and was the Prime Minister of Spain from May 10, 1936 to May 13, 1936. ... Santiago Casares Quiroga (A Coruña, 1884 - Paris, 1950) was a Galician politician who was Prime Minister of Spain from May 13 to July 19, 1936. ... Diego Martínez Barrio (1882, Seville—1965, Paris) was a Spanish politician during the Second Spanish Republic, and was briefly appointed Prime Minister of Spain by Manuel Azaña after the resignation of Santiago Casares Quiroga, on July 19, 1936 - three days after the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. ... José Giral Pereira, (Santiago de Cuba, 1879 - Mexico, 1962) was a Spanish politician during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Francisco Largo Caballero (October 15, 1869 -March 23, 1946) was a Spanish politician and trade unionist. ... Juan Negrín López (February 3, 1887 - November 12, 1956) was a Spanish politician and physician. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... Monument to Luis Carrero Blanco in Santoña (Cantabria, Spain) by Juan de Ávalos Luis Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria – December 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ... Torcuato Fernández-Miranda Hevia (November 10, 1915 - June 19, 1980) was a Spanish lawyer and politician who played important roles in both the dictatorship of Francisco Franco and in the Spanish transition to democracy. ... Carlos Arias Navarro (Madrid 11 December 1908 - 27 November 1989) was one of the best known Spanish politicians during the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. ... Fernando de Santiago y Díaz de Mendívil (July 23, 1910 - November 6, 1994) was a conservative deputy and interim prime minister of Spain during the Spanish transition to democracy in the late 1970s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Adolfo Suárez González, Duke of Suárez (born September 25, 1932) was Spains first democratically elected prime minister after the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Felipe González Márquez (born March 5, 1942) is a Spanish socialist politician. ...   (born in Madrid on February 25, 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as Spanish prime minister from 1996 to 2004. ...   (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1960), better known under his second surname Zapatero, is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ferrol is an Atlantic-facing city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia in north-western Spain. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Francisco Franco (1767 words)
IPA: [fɾan'θisko 'fɾaŋko]) or Francisco Franco Bahamonde headed and later formally became head of state of Spain from October 1936, and of all of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde was born in 1892 in Spain's north-western naval town of Ferrol.
Franco was devastated by the fall of the monarchy on April 14, 1931.
Francisco Franco killer file (3254 words)
Franco's father is a paymaster in the Spanish naval administrative corps.
Franco's career is halted when the leftist leaders of the new Spanish republic (known as the Second Republic) adopt a policy to reform the army.
Franco is declared 'generalisimo', (commander-in-chief), and 'jefe de estado' (head of state) of the Nationalist regime on 29 September.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m