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Encyclopedia > Franciscan
The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. Painting by El Greco
The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. Painting by El Greco

The term Franciscan is used to refer to those in Roman Catholic and Anglican religious orders which follow a body of regulations known as "The rule of St. Francis",[1] or a member of one of these orders. There are also small Old Catholic and Protestant Franciscan communities. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The best known group following "The rule of St. Francis of Assisi" is the Order of Friars Minor (commonly called simply the "Franciscans"). The Order of Friars Minor is a mendicant religious order of men tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi. The Mendicant (or Begging) Orders are religious orders which depend directly on the riches of the people for their livelihood. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... Saint Francis of Assisi, St. ...

Contents

Name

The official Latin name of the Orders of Friars Minor is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum (literally, "Order of Little Brothers"). St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called friars or the Minorites. The order has historically been known as the greyfriars. The modern organization of the Friars Minor now comprises three separate branches: the 'Friars Minor' (OFM); the 'Friars Minor Conventuals' (OFM Conv), and the 'Friars Minor Capuchins' (OFM Cap). For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Conventual Franciscans Headline text The Order of Friars founded by St, Francis of Assisi in 1209 The viability of the Franciscan movement after the founders death depended upon a thorough assessment of the Orders role within the social situation. ... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, the chief and only permanent offshoot of the Franciscans. ...


Famous Franciscans

The most important Franciscans are, of course, its founders, Francis and Clare of Assisi. Some famous members of the Franciscan family include Anthony of Padua, Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus, Roger Bacon, François Rabelais, Alexander of Hales, William of Ockham, Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, Pio of Pietrelcina Mychal F. Judge and Gabriele Allegra. Saint Francis of Assisi, St. ... Santa Chiara redirects here. ... Saint Anthony of Padua, also venerated as Saint Anthony of Lisbon, is a Catholic saint who was born in Lisbon, Portugal, as Fernando de Bulhões to a wealthy family and who died in Padua, Italy. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... John Duns Scotus (c. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... François Rabelais François Rabelais (c. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings, IPA: ) (c. ... Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, or John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (c. ... Francesco Forgione (May 25, 1887 – September 23, 1968), canonized as Saint Pio of Pietrelcina, was an Italian Roman Catholic priest who is now venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gabriele Allegra, OFM Gabriele Allegra (Dec 26, 1907 - †Jan 26, 1976) was a Franciscan Friar and scripture scholar. ...


The beginning of the brotherhood

A sermon which Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance. Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... Matthew 10 is the tenth chapter in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament section of the Christian Bible. ... Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


He was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernardo di Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, and by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a year. The brothers lived in the deserted lazar-house of Rivo Torto near Assisi; but they spent much of their time traveling through the mountainous districts of Umbria, always cheerful and full of songs, yet making a deep impression on their hearers by their earnest exhortations. Their life was extremely ascetic, though such practises were apparently not prescribed by the first rule which Francis gave them (probably as early as 1209), which seems to have been nothing more than a collection of Scriptural passages emphasizing the duty of poverty. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Bernard of Quintavalle. ... This article is about the Italian town. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ...


In spite of the obvious similarity between this principle and the fundamental ideas of the followers of Peter Waldo, the brotherhood of Assisi succeeded in gaining the approval of Pope Innocent III. What seems to have impressed first the Bishop of Assisi, Guido, then Cardinal John of St. Paul and finally Innocent himself, was their utter loyalty to the Church and her clergy. Innocent probably saw in them a possible answer to his desire for an orthodox preaching force to counter heresy. Many legends have clustered around the decisive audience of Francis with the Pope. The realistic account in Matthew Paris, according to which the Pope originally sent the shabby saint off to keep swine, and only recognized his real worth by his ready obedience, has, in spite of its improbability, a certain historical interest, since it shows the natural antipathy of the older Benedictine monasticism to the plebeian mendicant orders. Peter Waldo was the founder of a radical ascetic Christian movement in 12th-century France. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ...


The last years of Francis

Francis had to suffer from the dissensions just alluded to and the transformation which they operated in the originally simple constitution of the brotherhood, making it a regular order under strict supervision from Rome. Exasperated by the demands of running a growing and fractious Order, Francis asked Pope Honorius III for help in 1219. He was assigned Cardinal Ugolino as protector of the order by the Pope. Francis resigned the day to day running of the Order into the hands of others but retained the power to shape the Order's legislation, writing a Rule in 1221 which he revised and had approved in 1223. At least after about 1223 the day to day running of the Order was in the hands of Brother Elias of Cortona, an able friar who would be elected as leader of the friars a few years after Francis' death (1226) but who aroused much opposition because of his autocratic style of leadership. He planned and built the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi in which Saint Francis is buried, a building including the friary Sacro Convento, which still today is the spiritual centre of the order. Pope Honorius III (1148 – March 18, 1227 in Rome), born Cencio Savelli, was Pope from 1216 to 1227. ... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... The Pisan Cannibal Count Ugolino Gherardesca was a historical personage best known from Dantes fictional depiction of him in Inferno. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Chūkyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Elias of Cortona was Minister General of the Friars Minor (Franciscans), b. ... The Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi (St Francis), the mother church of the Franciscan Order, is a World Heritage Site in Assisi, Italy. ... Saint Francis of Assisi, St. ... The Sacro Convento is a Franciscan friary in Assisi, Umbria, Italy. ...


In the external successes of the brothers, as they were reported at the yearly general chapters, there was much to encourage Francis. Caesarius of Speyer, the first German provincial, a zealous advocate of the founder's strict principle of poverty, began in 1221 from Augsburg, with twenty-five companions, to win for the order the land watered by the Rhine and the Danube. In 1224 Agnellus of Pisa led a small group of friars to England. Beginning at Canterbury, the ecclesiastical capital, they moved on to London, the political capital and Oxford, the intellectual capital. From these three bases the Franciscans swiftly expanded to embrace the principal towns of England. A provincial superior is a major superior of a religious order acting under the orders superior general and exercising a general supervision over all the local superiors in a territorial division of the order called a province (not to be confused with an ecclesiastical province which is a group... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Chūkyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ... Blessed Agnellus of Pisa was a Friar Minor and founder of the English Franciscan Province. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The three rules of the order and the testament of Saint Francis

Franciscan friar wearing traditional habit at monastery of the Church of the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, Israel.
Franciscan friar wearing traditional habit at monastery of the Church of the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, Israel.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (987 × 1321 pixel, file size: 238 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Franciscan monk wearing traditional garb outside the gate of the Church of the Transfiguration on Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (987 × 1321 pixel, file size: 238 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Franciscan monk wearing traditional garb outside the gate of the Church of the Transfiguration on Mt. ... St. ... Church of the Transfiguration may refer to the following locations: Church of the Transfiguration located in Kizhi, Russia (a World Heritage Site) New York City Church of the Transfiguration more commonly known as The Little Church Around the Corner was the first church to be named for the Transfiguration in... Mount Tabor Mount Tabor (Hebrew: ‎) is located in Lower Galilee, at the eastern end of the Jezreel Valley, 11 miles (17 km) west of the Sea of Galilee. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ...

The first rule

The oldest "rule", referred to above, no longer preserved in its original form, seems to have contained not much more than the three Scriptural commands in Mt 19:21; Lk 9:3; and Mt 16:24. Thus it was more a propositum vitae, a life project, than a rule as traditionally understood. The attempted reconstruction by Muller ascribes to it too extensive a content, though Sabatier goes too far in the other direction when he limits it to these three sayings of Christ, which, according to Tommaso da Celano, formed the kernel of the rule, surrounded by certain other more detailed prescriptions. Sabatier's theory that these were gradual accretions, depending especially on decisions of the yearly general chapter, needs further evidence to confirm it although Oktavian Schmucki has discerned definite stages in the development of the 1221 Rule.[2] The oldest biographers say nothing of any intermediate stage between the primitive rule and that of 1221. The former, based upon the idea of poverty and self-denying labor in the cause of Christ, was intended for an association of a similar kind to the Pauperes Catholici or "Poor Men of Lyon." It had little or nothing in common with the older monastic rules, Benedictine or Augustinian. The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... Paul Sabatier is also the name of a Nobel Prize-winning chemist. ... Thomas of Celæno, also known as Thomas of Celano (around 1200 - around 1255), was a Franciscan monk and hymnodist whose chief claim to fame is his authorship of the Dies Iræ. Thomas was one of the first disciples of St Francis of Assisi and joined the order around 1215. ... Paul Sabatier is also the name of a Nobel Prize-winning chemist. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... The Poor Catholics (Pauperes Catholici) were an early Catholic mendicant order, organized in 1208 and of short duration. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ...


The rule of 1221

The rule of 1221 is more adapted to the needs of a monastic order intended to further the general ends of the Church and based upon the three usual vows, but laying special stress on that of poverty. It was drawn up by Francis himself, but under the influence of Cardinal Ugolino, as well as of the learned and practical Caesarius of Speyer and apparently of Brother Leo, who from 1220 on was the constant companion of the founder. The matter of the primitive rule was included in it, but scattered among a large part of detailed directions, besides many edifying thoughts and pious outpourings of the heart, probably the work of Francis. But there is much in the new rule which breathes a different spirit. The humble founder, though refusing the title of Superior of the order, and appearing simply as "Minister General," sometimes with the addition "the servant of the whole brotherhood," appears now at the head of a regular monastic hierarchy, consisting of Ministers Provincial over large regions (provinces), and custodes (guardians) over smaller districts. Definite rules for the novitiate, the habit, hours of prayer, and the discipline of the houses were modeled after the older monastic tradition. In place of the informal yearly gatherings of the brotherhood, there are now regular chapters at fixed times. Of special interest are the provisions for apostolic poverty and the ascetic life in general, which show this rule to be essentially a development of the older discipline, with the obligation of poverty made more strict while that of other ascetic practises was mitigated, partly for the reason that the new Fratres minores were expected to be diligently occupied in exhausting works Apostolic poverty is a doctrine professed by various religious orders, primarily those sprung from the mendicant orders of the Middle Ages in direct response to the call for reforms in the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A modern translation of the rule can be found here: The Original Rule of the third order of St. Francis of 1221


The later rule

The Later Rule, confirmed by Honorius III on November 29, 1223, is a distillation of the 1221 Rule written in the more terse style of a canonist. The edifying tone, the citation of the Scriptural texts, have disappeared from it. Instead of the strong emphasis upon Christ's admonitions to his disciples with which the rule of 1221 had begun, the enumeration of the three traditional monastic vows is here substituted. The character of the order as a mendicant order, pledged to an ideal of the strictest poverty, is retained and the prescriptions on poverty strengthened as the support of the lay Franciscan penitents allowed the brothers to dispense with reliance on money in any form. The spirit of the earlier rules is intermingled with a number of other prescriptions which clearly show the official character of the new statutes, framed so that the order can serve the church in the interest of the papacy and in conformity with the other organs of the hierarchy. A cardinal appointed by the Pope as protector of the whole order was to support the elected Minister General in his governance of the order. The conditions for entrance are more definitely laid down; the Roman Breviary is expressly named as the obligatory basis of the daily devotions of priests belonging to it; and the preaching brothers have a more dependent position than before. In a word, the life here regulated is no longer the old free, wandering life of the first years, marked by apostolic poverty and loving, simple-hearted devotion to the Lord, but rather it is tamed to a more sedate quasi-monastic system, shorn of much of its original freedom but with a sustainability that the original ideals had failed to provide. is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ...


The "Testament"

Francis, as may be seen from more than one passage in the accounts of his last years, was unhappy about some of the changes that occurred as the order grew. As a demonstration against them, he left what is called his "Testament", whose occasional reading together with the rule was enjoined on the brethren. Its tone is rather plaintive than angry; it looks back in a spirit of regret to the primitive days of the first love. It urges unswerving obedience to the Pope and the heads of the order, but at the same time emphasizes the necessity of following its principles, especially the imitation of the poverty of Christ. The brethren are commanded to oppose the introduction of any future secularizing influences, and at the same time are forbidden to ask for any special privileges from the Pope. In spite of the direct command in the "Testament" against considering it as a new rule, the Observantist section of the Franciscans practically regarded it as even more binding than the formal rule, while the advocates of a less strict observance paid little attention to it, especially to its prohibition of asking for ecclesiastical privileges.

Development of the order after the death of Francis

Dissensions during the life of Francis

The controversy about issues of poverty, which extends through the first three centuries of Franciscan history, began in the lifetime of the founder. The ascetic brothers Matthew of Narni and Gregory of Naples, a nephew of Hugolino, the two vicars-general to whom Francis had entrusted the direction of the order during his absence, carried through at a chapter which they held certain stricter regulations in regard to fasting and the reception of alms, which really departed from the spirit of the original rule. It did not take Francis long, on his return, to suppress this insubordinate tendency; but he was less successful in regard to another of an opposite nature which soon came up. Elias of Cortona originated a movement for the increase of the worldly consideration of the order and the adaptation of its system to the plans of the hierarchy which conflicted with the original notions of the founder and helped to bring about the successive changes in the rule already described. Francis was not alone in opposition to this lax and secularizing tendency. On the contrary, the party which clung to his original views and after his death took his "Testament" for their guide, known as Observantists or Zelanti, was at least equal in numbers and activity to the followers of Elias. The conflict between the two lasted many years, and the Zelanti won several notable victories, in spite of the favor shown to their opponents by the papal administration — until finally the reconciliation of the two points of view was seen to be impossible, and the order was actually split into halves.


Development to 1239

When the General Chapter could not agree on a common interpretation of the 1223 Rule it sent a delegation including St. Anthony of Padua to Pope Gregory IX for an authentic interpretation of this piece of papal legislation. The bull Quo elongati of Pope Gregory IX, declared that the Testament of St. Francis was not legally binding and offered an interpretation of poverty that would allow the order to continue to develop. The earliest leader of the strict party was rather Brother Leo, the witness of the ecstasies of Francis on Monte Alverno and the author of the Speculum perfectionis, a strong polemic against the laxer party. Next to him came John Parenti, the first successor of Francis in the headship of the order. In 1232 Elias succeeded him, and under him the order developed its ministries and presence in the towns significantly. Many new houses were founded, especially in Italy, and in many of them special attention was paid to education. The somewhat earlier settlements of Franciscan teachers at the universities (in Paris, for example, where Alexander of Hales was teaching) continued to develop. Contributions toward the promotion of the order's work, and especially the building of the Basilica in Assisi, came in abundantly. Funds could only be accepted on behalf of the friars for determined, imminent, real necessities that could not be provided for from begging. Gregory IX, in "Quo elongati" authorized agents of the order to have custody of such funds where they could not be spent immediately. Elias pursued with great severity the principal leaders of the opposition, and even Bernardo di Quintavalle, the founder's first disciple, was obliged to conceal himself for years in the forest of Monte Sefro. It must be noted that St. Clare of Assisi, whom St. Francis saw as a co-founder of his movement, consistently backed Elias as faithfully reflecting the mind of their founder. Saint Anthony of Padua, also venerated as Saint Anthony of Lisbon, is a Catholic saint who was born in Lisbon, Portugal, as Fernando de Bulhões to a wealthy family and who died in Padua, Italy. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... Giovanni Parenti[1] (died 1250) was an Italian Franciscan. ... // Canonization of Saint Anthony of Padua, patron of lost items Pope Gregory IX driven from Rome by a revolt, taking refuge at Anagni First edition of Tripitaka Koreana destroyed by Mongol invaders Battle of Agridi 15 June 1232 Arnolfo di Cambio, Florentine architect (died 1310) Manfred of Sicily (approximate date... This article is about the capital of France. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... Saint Clare of Assisi, born Chiara Offreduccio, (July 16, 1194 – August 11, 1253) was one of the first followers of Francis of Assisi and founded the Order of Poor Ladies to organize the women who chose to embrace monastic life in the Franciscan vision . ...


To 1274. Bonaventure

Elias had governed the order from the center, imposing his authority on the provinces (as had Francis). A reaction to this centralized government was led from the provinces of England and Germany. At the general chapter of 1239, held in Rome under the personal presidency of Gregory IX, Elias was deposed in favor of Albert of Pisa, the former provincial of England, a moderate Observantist. This chapter introduced General Statutes to govern the order and devolved power from the Minister General to the Ministers Provincial sitting in chapter. The next two Ministers General Haymo of Faversham (1240-44) and Crescentius of Jesi (1244-47), consolidated this greater democracy in the Order but also led the order towards a greater clericalisation. The new Pope Innocent IV supported them in this. In a bull of November 14, 1245, this pope even sanctioned an extension of the system of financial agents, and allowed the funds to be used not simply for those things that were necessary for the friars but also for those that were useful. The Observantist party took a strong stand in opposition to this ruling, and carried on so successful an agitation against the lax General that in 1247, at a chapter held in Lyon, France—where Innocent IV was then residing—he was replaced by the strict Observantist John of Parma (1247-57) and the order refused to implement any provisions of Innocent IV that were laxer than those of Gregory IX. Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti ( 1143–August 22, 1241), pope from 1227 to 1241, the successor of Honorius III, fully inherited the traditions of Gregory VII and of his uncle Innocent III, and zealously perpetuated their policy of Papal supremacy. ... Albert of Pisa (died 1240) was an Italian Franciscan. ... Haymo of Faversham was an English Franciscan and schoolman, born at Faversham, Kent and died at Anagni, Italy, circa 1243. ... Crescentius Grizi of Jesi (died 1263) was an Italian Franciscan who became Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor. ... Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... The Blessed John of Parma was Minister General (i. ...


Elias, who had been excommunicated and taken under the protection of Frederick II, was now forced to give up all hope of recovering his power in the order. He died in 1253, after succeeding by recantation in obtaining the removal of his censures. Under John of Parma, who enjoyed the favor of Innocent IV and Pope Alexander IV, the influence of the order was notably increased, especially by the provisions of the latter pope in regard to the academic activity of the brothers. He not only sanctioned the theological institutes in Franciscan houses, but did all he could to support the friars in the Mendicant Controversy, when the secular Masters of the university of Paris and the Bishops of France combined to attack the Mendicant Orders. It was due to the action of Alexander's representatives, who were obliged to threaten the university authorities with excommunication, that the degree of doctor of theology was finally conceded to the Dominican Thomas Aquinas and the Franciscan Bonaventure (1257), who had previously been able to lecture only as licentiates. For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Alexander IV, né Rinaldo Conti (Anagni, ca. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ...


The Franciscan Gerard of Borgo San Donnino at this time issued a Joachimite tract and John of Parma was seen as favoring the condemned theology of Joachim of Fiore. To protect the order from its enemies John was forced to step down and recommended Bonaventure as his successor. Bonaventure saw the need to unify the order around a common ideology and both wrote a new life of the founder and collected the order's legislation into the Constitutions of Narbonne, so called because they were ratified by the Order at its chapter held at Narbonne, France, in 1260. In the chapter of Pisa three years later Bonaventure's "Legenda maior" was approved as the only biography of Francis and all previous biographies were ordered to be destroyed. Bonaventure ruled (1257-74) in a moderate spirit, which is represented also by various works produced by the order in his time — especially by the Expositio regulae written by David of Augsburg soon after 1260. Gerard of Borgo San Donnino (Italian: Gerardo di Borgo San Donnino) was a Sicilian friar of the Franciscan order. ... Joachim of Flora (medieval engraving). ... David of Augsburg (early 13th century – 19 November 1272), was a medieval German mystic, and a Franciscan friar. ...


To 1300. Continued dissensions

The successor of Bonaventura, Jerome of Ascoli (1274-79), the future Pope Nicholas IV, and his successor, Bonagratia of Bologna (1279-85), also followed a middle course. Severe measures were taken against certain extreme Spirituals who, on the strength of the rumor that Pope Gregory X was intending at the Council of Lyon (1274-75) to force the mendicant orders to tolerate the possession of property, threatened both pope and council with the renunciation of allegiance. Attempts were made, however, to satisfy the reasonable demands of the Spiritual party, as in the bull Exiit qui seminiat of Pope Nicholas III (1279), which pronounced the principle of complete poverty meritorious and holy, but interpreted it in the way of a somewhat sophistical distinction between possession and usufruct. The bull was received respectfully by Bonagratia and the next two generals, Arlotto of Prato (1285-87) and Matthew of Aqua Sparta (1287-89); but the Spiritual party under the leadership of the fanatical apocalyptic Pierre Jean Olivi regarded its provisions for the dependence of the friars upon the Pope and the division between brothers occupied in manual labor and those employed on spiritual missions as a corruption of the fundamental principles of the order. They were not won over by the conciliatory attitude of the next general, Raymond Gaufredi (1289-96), and of the Franciscan Pope Nicholas IV (1288-92). The attempt made by the next pope, Pope Celestine V, an old friend of the order, to end the strife by uniting the Observantist party with his own order of hermits (see Celestines) was scarcely more successful. Only a part of the Spirituals joined the new order, and the secession scarcely lasted beyond the reign of the hermit-pope. Pope Boniface VIII annulled Celestine's bull of foundation with his other acts, deposed the general Raymond Gaufredi, and appointed a man of laxer tendency, John de Murro, in his place. The Benedictine section of the Celestines was separated from the Franciscan section, and the latter was formally suppressed by Boniface in 1302. The leader of the Observantists, Olivi, who spent his last years in the Franciscan house at Narbonne and died there in 1298, had pronounced against the extremer "Spiritual" attitude, and given an exposition of the theory of poverty which was approved by the more moderate Observantists, and for a long time constituted their principle. Nicholas IV, né Girolamo Masci (Lisciano, a small village near Ascoli Piceno, September 30, 1227 – April 4, 1292), was Pope from February 22, 1288 to April 4, 1292. ... Bonagratia de San Giovanni in Persiceto[1] (d. ... Gregory X, né Theobald Visconti (Piacenza, ca. ... The Council of Lyons refers to either the 13th or 14th ecumenical councils of the Roman Catholic Church, both held in Lyon, France during the 13th century: First Council of Lyons (1245; Pope Innocent IV; regarding the Crusades) Second Council of Lyons (1274; Pope Gregory X; regarding papal election procedures... . Nicholas III, né Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (Rome, ca. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Arlotto of Prato[1] (died 1286) was an Italian Franciscan theologian. ... Matthew of Aquasparta (born at Aquasparta in the Diocese of Todi, Umbria, about 1235; died at Rome, 29 October 1302) was an Italian Franciscan and scholastic philosopher. ... Peter John Olivi (1248 - March 14, 1298) was a Franciscan theologian who, although he died professing the faith of the Roman Catholic Church, became a controversial figure in the arguments surrounding poverty at the beginning of the Fourteenth Century. ... Raymond de Gaufredi (d. ... Pope Celestine V (c. ... Celestines, a branch of the great Benedictine monastic order. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... Giovanni Minio or Mincio, of Morrovalle or Murrovale (died 1312) was an Italian Franciscan who became Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor[1] and a cardinal. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ...


Temporary success of the stricter party. Persecution

Under Pope Clement V (1305-14) this party succeeded in exercising some influence on papal decisions. In 1309 Clement had a commission sit at Avignon for the purpose of reconciling the conflicting parties. Ubertino of Casale, the leader, after Olivi's death, of the stricter party, who was a member of the commission, induced the Council of Vienne to arrive at a decision in the main favoring his views, and the papal constitution Exivi de paradiso (1313) was on the whole conceived in the same sense. Clement's successor, Pope John XXII (1316-34), favored the laxer or conventual party. By the bull Quorundam exigit he modified several provisions of the constitution Exivi, and required the formal submission of the Spirituals. Some of them, encouraged by the strongly Observantist general Michael of Cesena, ventured to dispute the Pope's right so to deal with the provisions of his predecessor. Sixty-four of them were summoned to Avignon, and the most obstinate delivered over to the Inquisition, four of them being burned (1318). Shortly before this all the separate houses of the Observantists had been suppressed. Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Ubertino of Casale (Ubertino di Casale) was an Italian minorite and one of the leaders (together with Michael of Cesena; preceded by Peter Olivi) of the stricter branch of the Franciscan Christian order. ... Above all else, the Roman Catholic Council of Vienne was the Ecumenical Council that withdrew papal support for the Knights Templar, confirming the destruction of the rich Order by the bureaucrats of Philip IV of France. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... Michael of Cesena (Michele di Cesena or Michele Fuschi) (c. ... Events 1 April: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English Emperor Go-Daigo ascends to the throne of Japan End of the reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan Pope John XXII declares the doctrines of the Franciscans advocating ecclesiastical poverty erroneous Qalaun Mosque, Cairo...


Renewed controversy on the question of poverty

A few years later a new controversy, this time theoretical, broke out on the question of poverty. The Spirituals contended eagerly for the view that Christ and his apostles had possessed absolutely nothing, either separately or jointly. This proposition had been declared heretical in a trial before an inquisitor. A protest was now made against this decision by the chapter held at Perugia in 1322, as well as by such influential members of the order as William of Ockham, the English provincial, and Bonagratia of Bergamo. Apostolic poverty is a doctrine professed by various religious orders, primarily those sprung from the mendicant orders of the Middle Ages in direct response to the call for reforms in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: , Country Region Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617 ft) Population (July 2006)[1]  - City 161,390  - Density 359/km² (929. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings, IPA: ) (c. ... Bonagratia of Bergamo[1] (c. ...


John XXII aligned himself decidedly with the Dominicans, who combated the theory, and by the papal bull Cum inter nonnullos of 1322 declared the Franciscan doctrine of the poverty of Christ erroneous and heretical. In his bull "Ad conditorem canonum" of the same year, John forced the Franciscans to accept property and granted an exemption from the Rule which absolutely forbade the friars ownership of property. Appealing from this decision, Bonagratia, Occam, and Michael of Cesena were imprisoned at Avignon for four years, until they escaped by the help of the Emperor Louis the Bavarian. Supported by him, they carried on a literary war against the papal and Dominican denial of the absolute poverty of Christ and his apostles. The Pope deposed Cesena and Occam from their offices in the order, and excommunicated them with the Franciscan Anti-Pope Peter of Corvara (Nicholas V) and all their adherents. Only a small part of the order, however, joined them, and at a general chapter held in Paris (1329) the majority of all the houses declared their submission to the Pope. The same step was taken in the following year by the antipope, later by the ex-general Cesena, and finally, just before his death, by Occam. Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397–March 24, 1455) was pope from March 6, 1447, to March 24, 1455. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Events Antipope Nicholas V is excommunicated by Pope John XXII. Aimone of Savoy becomes Count of Savoy. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ...


Separate congregations

Out of all these dissensions in the fourteenth century sprang a number of separate congregations, almost of sects. To say nothing of the heretical parties of the Beghards and Fraticelli, some which developed within the order on both hermit and cenobitic principles may here be mentioned: (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... A Roman Catholic religious community of men active in the 13th and 14th century. ... A medieval Roman Catholic group which can trace its origins to the Franciscan Spirituals, but which came into being as a separate entity - and problem - for the Church in 1318, when Angelo da Clareno defied the authority of Pope John XXII. Other figures included Michael of Cesena and Peter Olivi. ...


The Clareni

or Clarenini, an association of hermits established on the river Clareno in the march of Ancona by Angelo da Clareno after the suppression of the Franciscan Celestines by Boniface VIII. It maintained the principles of Olivi, and, outside of Umbria, spread also in the kingdom of Naples, where Angelo died in 1337. Like several other smaller congregations, it was obliged in 1568 under Pope Pius V to unite with the general body of Observantists. Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Angelo da Clareno (1247-1337) was the founder and leader of one of the groups of Fraticelli in the early 14th century. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Pope St. ...


The Minorites of Narbonne

As a separate congregation, this originated through the union of a number of houses which followed Olivi after 1308. It was limited to southwestern France and, its members being accused of the heresy of the Beghards, was suppressed by the Inquisition during the controversies under John XXII.


The reform of Johannes de Vallibus

This was founded in the hermitage of St. Bartholomew at Brugliano near Foligno in 1334. The congregation was suppressed by the Franciscan general chapter in 1354; reestablished in 1368 by Paolo de' Trinci of Foligno; confirmed by Gregory XI. in 1373, and spread rapidly from Central Italy to France, Spain, Hungary and elsewhere. Most of the Observantist houses joined this congregation by degrees, so that it became known simply as the "brothers of the regular Observance." It acquired the favor of the popes by its energetic opposition to the heretical Fraticelli, and was expressly recognized by the Council of Constance (1415). It was allowed to have a special vicar-general of its own and legislate for its members without reference to the conventual part of the order. Through the work of such men as Bernardino of Siena, Giovanni da Capistrano, and Dietrich Coelde (b. 1435? at Munster; was a member of the Brethren of the Common Life, died December 11, 1515), it gained great prominence during the fifteenth century. By the end of the Middle Ages, the Observantists, with 1,400 houses, comprised nearly half of the entire order. Their influence brought about attempts at reform even among the Conventuals, including the quasi-Observantist brothers living under the rule of the Conventual ministers (Martinianists or "Observantes sub ministris"), such as the male Colletans, later led by Boniface de Ceva in his reform attempts principally in France and Germany; the reformed congregation founded in 1426 by the Spaniard Philip de Berbegal and distinguished by the special importance they attached to the little hood (cappuciola); the Neutri, a group of reformers originating about 1463 in Italy, who tried to take a middle ground between the Conventuals and Observantists, but refused to obey the heads of either, until they were compelled by the Pope to affiliate with the regular Observantists, or with those of the Common Life; the Caperolani, a congregation founded about 1470 in North Italy by Peter Caperolo, but dissolved again on the death of its founder in 1481; the Amadeists, founded by the noble Portuguese Amadeo, who entered the Franciscan order at Assisi in 1452, gathered around him a number of adherents to his fairly strict principles (numbering finally twenty-six houses) and, died in the odor of sanctity in 1482. A medieval Roman Catholic group which can trace its origins to the Franciscan Spirituals, but which came into being as a separate entity - and problem - for the Church in 1318, when Angelo da Clareno defied the authority of Pope John XXII. Other figures included Michael of Cesena and Peter Olivi. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Saint Bernardino of Siena (sometimes Bernardine, September 8, 1380 – May 20, 1444) was an Italian preacher, Franciscan missionary and Christian saint. ... Saint Giovanni da Capestrano (in English, John Capistrano, June 24, 1386 – Ilok, October 23, 1456), Italian friar, theologian and inquisitor, was born in the village of Capestrano, in the diocese of Sulmona in the Abruzzi. ... The Brethren of the Common Life was a religious community founded in the 14th century by Geert Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Unsuccessful attempts to unite the order

Projects for a union between the two main branches of the order were put forth not only by the Council of Constance but by several popes, without any positive result. By direction of Martin V., John of Capistrano drew up statutes which were to serve as a basis for reunion, and they were actually accepted by a general chapter at Assisi in 1430; but the majority of the Conventual houses refused to agree to them, and they remained without effect. At Capistrano's request Eugenius IV put forth a bull (Ut sacra minorum, 1446) looking to the same result, but again nothing was accomplished. Equally unsuccessful were the attempts of the Franciscan Pope Sixtus IV, who bestowed a vast number of privileges on both the original mendicant orders, but by this very fact lost the favor of the Observantists and failed in his plans for reunion. Julius II succeeded in doing away with some of the smaller branches, but left the division of the two great parties untouched. This division was finally legalized by Leo X, after a general chapter held in Rome in 1517, in connection with the reform-movement of the Fifth Lateran Council, had once more declared the impossibility of reunion. The less strict principles of the Conventuals, permitting the possession of real estate and the enjoyment of fixed revenues, were recognized as tolerable, while the Observantists, in contrast to this usus moderatus, were held strictly to their own usus arctus or pauper. The latter, as adhering more closely to the rule of the founder, were allowed to claim a certain superiority over the former. The Observantist general (elected now for six years, not for life) was to have the title of "Minister-General of the Whole Order of St. Francis" and the right to confirm the choice of a head for the Conventuals, who was known as "Master-General of the Friars Minor Conventual" — although this privilege never became practically operative. Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Spread of the order in modern times

See: Franciscan Order in modern times This article chronicles the spread of the Franciscan Order of Roman Catholic friars in Modern Times. ...


Distinguished names

Although surpassed in the number of prominent and influential theological authors by the Jesuits and Dominicans, the order still boasts a number of distinguished names. The first century of its existence produced the three great scholastics Alexander of Hales, Bonaventure, and Duns Scotus, the "Admirable Doctor" Roger Bacon, and the well-known mystic authors and popular preachers David of Augsburg and Berthold of Regensburg. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... David of Augsburg (early 13th century – 19 November 1272), was a medieval German mystic, and a Franciscan friar. ... Bertold von Regensburg (c. ...


Among Franciscan celebrities of the later Middle Ages may be mentioned Nicholas of Lyra, the Biblical commentator, Bernardino of Siena, John of Capistrano, Oliver Maillard and Michel Menot as preachers, and the famous canonists Astesanus de Ast, Alvarus Pelagius, and William of Ockham. Later again came sound historical investigators such as Luke Wadding and Antoine Pagi. A page of Genesis in Basel, 1498: the first printed biblical exegesis: space has been left for a hand-lettered red initial (a rubric) that was never added to this copy. ... Saint Bernardino of Siena (sometimes Bernardine, September 8, 1380 – May 20, 1444) was an Italian preacher, Franciscan missionary and Christian saint. ... Saint Giovanni da Capistrano (June 24, 1386 – October 23, 1456), Italian friar, theologian and inquisitor, was born in the village of Capistrano, in the diocese of Sulmona in the Abruzzi. ... Astesanus de Ast (died c. ... Alvarus Pelagius (c. ... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings, IPA: ) (c. ... Luke Wadding (1588 - 1657), Irish Franciscan friar and historian, was born in Waterford and went to study at Lisbon. ...


In the field of Christian art, during the later Middle Ages, the Franciscan movement exercised considerable influence, especially in Italy. Several great painters of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, especially Cimabue and Giotto, who, though they were not friars, were spiritual sons of Francis in the wider sense, and the plastic masterpieces of the latter, as well as the architectural conceptions of both himself and his school, show the influence of Franciscan ideals. The Italian Gothic style, whose earliest important monument is the great convent church at Assisi (built 1228-53), was cultivated as a rule principally by members of the order or men under their influence. Crucifix (1287-88) Panel, 448 x 390 cm Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... This article is about the Italian town. ...


The early spiritual poetry of Italy was inspired by Francis himself, who was followed by Thomas of Celano, Bonaventure, and Jacopone da Todi. Through a tradition which held him to have been a member of the Franciscan Third Order, even Dante may be included within this artistic tradition (cf. especially Paradiso, xi. 50). A modern collection of Jacopones Laudi, with a portrait. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Paradiso may refer to: Paradiso (band), a Belgian dance act the third canto of The Divine Comedy Italian or latinized version for Heaven or Paradise Paradiso (Amsterdam), a music venue in Amsterdam a French movie by Christian Bricout Paradiso (1966 novel), a novel by Cuban writer José Lezama Lima Paradiso...


The Clarisses or Poor Clares

For the history of the female branch of the order, founded in the lifetime of Francis, see Poor Clares. The Order of Poor Ladies, also known as the Poor Clares, the Poor Clare Nuns, the Clarisse, or the Minoresses is a Franciscan order founded by Saint Clare of Assisi. ...


The Third Order or Order of Penance

The Third Order has its origins in the movement of the Penitents. These were people who desired to grow in holiness in their daily lives without joining a religious order. Eventually, a religious order grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order and which later became known as the Third Order Regular.


Secular Franciscan Order

Main article: Secular Franciscan Order

During his lifetime, many married men and women asked St. Francis to embrace his style of life, but of course, due to their secular state, they were not able to enter into the First Order or into the Poor Clares. For this reason, he founded a Secular order to which lay and married men and women could belong and live according the Gospel. Nowadays, this part of the Third Order is known as Secular Franciscan Order and is numerous and spread around the world. The original Rule, given by St. Francis in 1221, was slightly modified during the centuries to be adapted to the changing times, and now the last one was given by Pope Paul VI in 1978. The Secular Franciscan Order (SFO) is a community of Roman Catholic men and women in the world who seek to pattern their lives after Christ in the spirit of St. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Chūkyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Third Order Regular

The Third Order Regular is an international community of priests and brothers who desire to emphasize the works of mercy and on-going conversion. The community is also known as the Franciscan Friars, TOR and was originally founded in 1447 by a papal decree that united several Third Order groups. They strive to "rebuild the Church" in areas of high school and college education, parish ministry, church renewal, social justice, campus ministry, hospital chaplaincies, foreign missions, and other ministries in places where the Church is needed. [3]


Brothers and Sisters of Penance

The Brothers and Sisters of Penance of St. Francis was a third order founded in 1996 in the Archdiocese of St. Paul in the United States. The Brothers and Sisters of Penance of St. ... The Cathedral of Saint Paul is the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis. ...


Non-Roman Catholic Franciscans

One of the results of the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church during the 19th century was the re-establishment of religious orders, including some of Franciscan inspiration. The principal Anglican communities in the Franciscan tradition are the Community of St. Francis (women, founded 1905), the Society of Saint Francis (men, founded 1934), and the Community of St Clare (women, enclosed). There is also a Third Order. The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Community of St. ... The Society of Saint Francis is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tertiaries. ...


There are also some small Franciscan communities within European Protestant and Old Catholic Churches. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ...


One of the ecumenical Franciscan Orders within the Anglican heritage is the Order of Servant Franciscans (OSF). The Servants are committed becoming ministers of Christ's message of reconciliation, as demonstrated by the holy lives of Saints Francis and Clare.


Visions and Stigmata

Among the many Catholic orders, Franciscans have proportionally reported higher ratios of stigmata and have claimed proportionally higher ratios of visions of Jesus and Mary. Saint Francis of Assisi himself was one of the very first reported cases of stigmata, and perhaps the most famous stigmatic of modern times is Saint Padre Pio, a Capuchin, who also reported visions of Jesus and Mary. Pio's stigmata persisted for over fifty years and he was examined by numerous physicians in the 20th century, who confirmed the existence of the wounds, but none of whom could produce a medical explanation for the fact that his bleeding wounds would never get infected. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, his wounds healed once, but reappeared [1]. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia [2] some medical authorities who examined Padre Pio's wounds were inclined to believe that the stigmata were connected with nervous or cataleptic hysteria. According to Answers.com [3] the wounds were examined by Luigi Romanelli, chief physician of the City Hospital of Barletta, for about one year. Dr. Giorgio Festa, a private practitioner also examined them in 1920 and 1925. Professor Giuseppe Bastianelli, physician to Pope Benedict XV agreed that the wounds existed but made no other comment. Pathologist Dr. Amico Bignami of the University of Rome also observed the wounds, but made no diagnosis. For other senses of this word, see stigma and stigmata (disambiguation). ... Since the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ in Calvary until today, a number of people have claimed to have had visions (and indeed personal conversations) with Him and with Saint Mary in person. ... Saint Francis of Assisi, St. ... Pater Pio Saint Pater Pio (or Padre Pio) (May 25, 1887 - September 23, 1968) was an Italian priest who had stigmata for many years. ...


Contributions

The Franciscans established the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum as an academic society based in Jerusalem and Hong Kong for the study of scripture. The Hong Kong branch founded by the Venerable Gabriele Allegra produced the first complete translation of the Catholic Bible in Chinese in 1968 after a 40 year effort[4]. The early efforts of another Franciscan, namely Giovanni di Monte Corvino, who had attempted a first translation of the Bible in Beijing in the 14th century provided the initial spark for Allegra's 40 year undertaking, when at the age of 21 he happened to attend the 6th centenary celebration for Monte Corvino. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum is a Franciscan academic society based in Jerusalem and Hong Kong. ... A learned society is a society that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... A Stained Glass image of Venerable Father Samuel Mazzuchelli in St. ... Gabriele Allegra, OFM Gabriele Allegra (Dec 26, 1907 - †Jan 26, 1976) was a Franciscan Friar and scripture scholar. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Giovanni di Monte Corvino (ca. ... Peking redirects here. ...


See also

The Association of Franciscan Colleges and Universities or AFCU is an association of 20 Franciscan colleges and universities located in Milwaukee, WI. Alvernia College Cardinal Stritch University Felician College Franciscan University Franciscan School of Theology Hilbert College Lourdes College Madonna University Marian College Neumann College Quincy University Siena College Silver... This is a list of the ministers general of the Order of Friars Minor; // Francis of Assisi (1210-1226) Johannes Parenti (1227-1232) 1st Minister general Elias of Cortona (1232-1239) 2nd Minister general Albert of Pisa (1239-1240) 3rd Minister general Haymo of Faversham (1240-1243) 4th Minister general...

Notes

  1. ^ "The Rule of the Franciscan Order" from the Medieval Sourcebook
  2. ^ Schmucki, Oktavian (1971) "De Initiatione in Vitam Franciscanum Luce Regulae Aliorumque Primaevorum Fontium" Laurentianum 12: pp. 169-197, 241-264.
  3. ^ Franciscan Friars, TOR. The Franciscan Orders. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  4. ^ http://www.sbofmhk.org Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Hong Kong

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Books

  • A History of the Franciscan Order: From Its Origins to the Year 1517 by John Richard Humpidge Moorman, Oxford University Press, Oxford, (1968) ISBN 0-19-826425-9; reprint: Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, IL (1988) ISBN 0-8199-0921-1
  • Franciscan Phylosophy at Oxford in the Thirteenth Century by D.E. Sharp, Oxford University Press, London (1930); (a more recent ed.: ISBN 057699216X)
  • Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages (3rd Edition) by C.H. Lawrence, ISBN 0-582-40427-4
  • The Spiritual Franciscans: From Protest to Persecution in the Century After Saint Francis by David Burr. ISBN 0-271-02128-4
  • Francis and Clare: The Complete Works By Ignatius C. Brady, Regis J. Armstrong, Paulist Press, Mahwah, New Jersy, (1982) ISBN 0-8091-2446-7
  • The Fraternal Economy: A Pastoral Psychology of Franciscan Economics By David B. Couturier, Cloverdale Books, South Bend (2007) ISBN 978-1-929569-23-6

Articles

  • Schmucki, Oktavian (2000) "Die Regel des Johannes von Matha und die Regel des Franziskus von Assisi. Ähnlichkeiten und Eigenheiten. Neue Beziehungen zum Islam" (pp.219-244) in Cipollone, Giulio (ed.). La Liberazione dei 'Captivi' tra Cristianità e Islam: Oltre la Crociata e il Gihâd: Tolleranza e Servizio Umanitario. (CollectaneaArchivi Vaticani, 46.) Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Vatican City.

External links

Official websites of the three branches of First Order

Official websites of Regular and Secular Third Order

  • The Brothers of the Poor of St. Francis of Assisi, CFP located in the United States, Belgium, The Netherlands, and Brazil, Regular Third Order, official website
  • Tertius Ordo Regularis, official website
  • Ordo Franciscanus Saecularis, official website

Other links

Anglican Franciscan links

First Order (Society of Saint Francis, SSF)

First Order (Community of Saint Francis, CSF)

Second Order (Community of Saint Clare, OSC)

  • European Province

Third Order (TSSF)

  • European Province
  • Province of the Americas
  • New Zealand Province

Third Order (OSF)

  • Order of Servant Franciscans

Korean Franciscan Brotherhood (KFB)

  • First Order Brothers

  Results from FactBites:
 
Franciscan Friars - Province of St. John the Baptist in Cincinnati, Ohio (131 words)
Franciscan Friars - Province of St. John the Baptist in Cincinnati, Ohio
Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan Order, wanted his brothers to greet everyone they met with these words.
Our province is only a small part of a worldwide movement of Franciscan women and men filled with a passion for the Gospel, keeping the spirit of St. Francis of Assisi alive all over the world.
Strong Educational Practices at Franciscan University (931 words)
Franciscan University is at or above the norm for its peer institutions in four benchmark areas.
Seniors at Franciscan University are significantly more likely than their peers at other schools to have a capstone experience such as writing a thesis or giving a seminar.
Also, Franciscan students are much more likely than their peers to participate in a study abroad program, a fact recognized by U.S. News and World Report, which placed the rate of student participation in the school’s Austrian Program in the top 3 percent of all colleges and universities nationwide.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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