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Encyclopedia > Francis of Assisi
Saint Francis of Assisi

El Greco, Saint Francis in Prayer, 1580–85, oil on canvas, 115.5 x 103 cm. Joslyn Art Museum
Confessor; Renewer of the church
Born 26 September 1181 or 1182[1], Assisi, Italy
Died 3 October 1226 (aged 45)[1], Assisi, Italy
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Canonized 16 July 1228, Assisi by Pope Gregory IX
Major shrine Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi
Feast 4 October
Attributes Dove, Stigmata, poor Franciscan habit, cross, Pax et Bonum
Patronage animals, merchants, Italy, Meycauayan, Philippines, Catholic Action, the environment, stowaways[2]
Saints Portal

Saint Francis of Assisi (September 26, 1181 or 1182October 3, 1226) was a Roman Catholic friar and the founder of the Order of Friars Minor, more commonly known as the Franciscans. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For the Vangelis album, see El Greco (album). ... The museums tiled Fountain Court The museums main atrium (seen here from the south) contains a café and gift shop. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ... This article is about the Italian town. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... This article is about the Italian town. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... This article is about the Italian town. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... The Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi (St Francis), the mother church of the Franciscan Order, is a World Heritage Site in Assisi, Italy. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... For other senses of this word, see stigma and stigmata (disambiguation). ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. ... Meycauayan is a municipality in the province of Bulacan in the Philippines. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... In politics and other non-technical contexts, nature or (the) (natural) environment often refers to that part of the natural world that people deem important or valuable, for any reason — economic, aesthetic, philosophical, hedonistic, sentimental, etc. ... A stowaway (also stoweaway) is a person who travels illegally, by airplane, bus, ship or train. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Catholic Church redirects here. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ...


He is known as the patron saint of animals, birds, the environment, and Italy, and it is customary for Catholic churches to hold ceremonies honoring animals around his feast day of October 4.[3] Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ...

Contents

Childhood and early adulthood

Francis was born to Pietro di Bernardone, a rich cloth merchant, and his wife Pica Bourlemont, about whom little is known except that she was originally from France.[4] He was one of seven children. Pietro was in France on business when Francis was born, and Pica had him baptized as Giovanni di Bernardone[3] in honor of Saint John the Baptist, in the hope he would grow to be a great religious leader. When his father returned to Assisi, he was furious about this, as he did not want his son to be a man of the Church. Pietro decided to call him Francesco (Francis), in honor of his commercial success and enthusiasm for all things French.[5] Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ...


As a youth, Francesco became a Troubador and yearned to become a writer of French poetry.[1][5] Although many biographers remark about his bright clothing, rich friends, street brawls, and love of pleasure;[4] his displays of disillusionment toward the world that surrounded him became fairly early, as is shown in the "story of the beggar". In this account, he was selling cloth and velvet in the marketplace on behalf of his father when a beggar came to him and asked for alms. At the conclusion of his business deal, Francis abandoned his wares and ran after the beggar. When he found him, Francis gave the man everything he had in his pockets. His friends quickly chided and mocked him for his act of charity. When he got home, his father scolded him in rage.[6] A troubadour was a composer and performer of songs in particular styles during the Middle Ages in Europe. ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck Charity, meaning selfless giving, is one conventional English translation of the Greek term agapē. // Etymology In the 1400, charity meant the state of love or simple affection which one was in or out of regarding one...


In 1201, he joined a military expedition against Perugia, he was taken as a prisoner at Collestrada, and spent a year as a captive.[7] It is probable that his conversion to more serious thoughts was a gradual process relating to this experience. After his return to Assisi in 1203, Francis recommenced his carefree life. In 1204, however, a serious illness started a spiritual crisis. In 1205 Francis left for Puglia to enlist in the army of the Count of Brienne. In Spoleto, a strange vision made him return to Assisi, deepening his spiritual crisis.[1] Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: , Country Region Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617 ft) Population (July 2006)[1]  - City 161,390  - Density 359/km² (929. ... Apulia is a region of Italy (called Puglia in Italian), bordering on Molise to the north-west, Campania to the south-west, Basilicata to the south, the Adriatic Sea to the east and the Ionian Sea to the south-east. ... The County of Brienne was a medieval county in France centered on Brienne-le-Château. ... Spoleto (Latin: Spoletium), 42°44′ N 12°44′ E, an ancient town in the Italian province of Perugia in east central Umbria, at 385 meters (1391 ft) above sea-level on a foothill of the Apennines. ...

Francis of Assisi by José de Ribera
Francis of Assisi by José de Ribera

It is said that thereafter he began to avoid the sports and the feasts of his former companions; in response, they asked him laughingly whether he was thinking of marrying, to which he answered "yes, a fairer bride than any of you have ever seen", meaning his "lady poverty". He spent much time in lonely places, asking God for enlightenment. By degrees he took to nursing lepers, the most repulsive victims in the lazar houses near Assisi. After a pilgrimage to Rome, where he begged at the church doors for the poor, he claimed to have had a mystical experience in the Church of San Damiano just outside of Assisi, in which the Icon of Christ Crucified came alive and said to him three times, "Francis, Francis, go and repair My house which, as you can see, is falling into ruins". He thought this to mean the ruined church in which he was presently praying, and so sold his horse and some cloth from his father's store, to assist the priest there for this purpose.[1][8] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 485 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1082 × 1336 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 485 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1082 × 1336 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Giuseppe Ribera (January 12, 1591 - 1652), commonly called Lo Spagnoletto, or the Little Spaniard, a leading painter of the Neapolitan or partly of the Spanish school, was born near Valencia in Spain, at Xátiva, now named San Felipe. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Look up enlightenment, Enlightenment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A lazar house is a quarantined house or hospital for people with infectious diseases, especially leprosy. ... This article is about the Italian town. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... San Damiano is a church with a monastery near Assisi, Italy. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


His father Pietro, highly indignant, attempted to change his mind, first with threats and then with corporal chastisement. After a final interview in the presence of the bishop, Francis renounced his father and his patrimony, laying aside even the garments he had received from him. For the next couple of months he lived as a beggar in the region of Assisi. Returning to the town for two years this time, he restored several ruined churches, among them the Porziuncola, little chapel of St Mary of the Angels, just outside the town, which later became his favorite abode.[8] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... the Porziuncola Porziuncola, also called Portiuncula (in Latin) or Porzioncula, is a town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from Assisi. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... Santa Maria degli Angeli in Assisi. ...


Founding of the Order of Friars Minor

St. Francis of Assisi in Sacro Speco, Subiaco, Italy
St. Francis of Assisi in Sacro Speco, Subiaco, Italy

At the end of this period (according to Jordanus, on February 24, 1209), Francis heard a sermon that changed his life. The sermon was about Matthew 10:9, in which Christ tells his followers that they should go forth and proclaim that the Kingdom of Heaven was upon them, that they should take no money with them, nor even a walking stick or shoes for the road.[1] Francis was inspired to devote himself to a life of poverty.[1] Download high resolution version (428x1000, 221 KB)St. ... Download high resolution version (428x1000, 221 KB)St. ... Jordanus or Jordan Catalani (f. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Kingdom of Heaven (or the Kingdom of God, Hebrew מלכות השמים, malkhut hashamayim, Greek basileia tou theou) is a key concept detailed in all the three major monotheistic religions of the world — Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ...


Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance.[1] He was soon joined by his first follower, a prominent fellow townsman, the jurist Bernardo di Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work. Within a year Francis had eleven followers. Francis chose never to be ordained a priest and the community lived as "lesser brothers," fratres minores in Latin.[1] Scrip is any substitute for currency which is not legal tender, and is often a form of credit. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Bernard of Quintavalle. ...


The brothers lived a simple life in the deserted lazar house of Rivo Torto near Assisi; but they spent much of their time wandering through the mountainous districts of Umbria, always cheerful and full of songs, yet making a deep impression on their hearers by their earnest exhortations.[1] Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ... Lazar may refer to: Lazar of Serbia; Prince Hrebeljanović Lazar (1329–1389) Branković Lazar, Prince of Rascia, his great-nephew William Lazar IX , Marquess of Montferrat, his nephew, so-called Secondo Lazzaro, also called William Lazar Palaiologos Kantakouzenos Prince Lorence Lazar, A Prince of Saudi Arabia which is the youngest... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ...


In 1209 Francis led his first eleven followers to Rome to seek permission from Pope Innocent III to found a new religious order.[9] Upon entry to Rome, the brothers encountered Bishop Guido of Assisi, who had in his company the cardinal bishop of Sabina, Lord John of St Paul. The Cardinal, who was the confessor of Pope Innocent III, was immediately sympathetic to Francis and agreed to represent Francis to the pope. Reluctantly, Pope Innocent agreed to meet with Francis and the brothers the next day. After several days, the pope agreed to informally admit the group, adding that when God increased the group in grace and number, they could return for an official admittance. The group was tonsured and Francis was ordained as a deacon, allowing him to read Gospels in the church.[10] Pope Innocent III (c. ...


Later life

From then on, his new order grew quickly with new vocations.[11] When hearing Francis preaching in the church of San Rufino in Assisi in 1209, Clare of Assisi became deeply touched by his message and she realized her calling.[11] Her brother Rufino also joined the new order. Cathedral of San Rufino The Cathedral of San Rufino (St. ... Santa Chiara redirects here. ...

The Porziuncola
The Porziuncola

On Palm Sunday, 28 March 1211 Francis received Clare at the Porziuncola and hereby established the Order of Poor Dames, later called Poor Clares.[11] In the same year, Francis left for Jerusalem, but he was shipwrecked by a storm on the Dalmatian coast, forcing him to return to Italy. Image File history File links Porziuncola. ... Image File history File links Porziuncola. ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... The Order of Poor Ladies, also known as the Poor Clares, the Poor Clare Nuns, the Clarisse, or the Minoresses is a Franciscan order founded by Saint Clare of Assisi. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


On 8 May 1213 he received the mountain of La Verna (Alverna) as a gift from the count Orlando di Chiusi who described it as “eminently suitable for whoever wishes to do penance in a place remote from mankind.”[12][13] The mountain would become one of his favorite retreats for prayer.[13] In the same year, Francis sailed for Morocco, but this time an illness forced him to break off his journey in Spain. Back in Assisi, several noblemen (among them Tommaso da Celano, who would later write the biography of St. Francis) and some well-educated men joined his order. is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 30 - Battle of Damme; English fleet under William Longsword destroyes a French fleet off the Belgian port in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. ... Basilica on La Verna La Verna, in Latin Alverna and geographically known as Monte Penna, is an isolated mountain of 1283 m (4,210 feet) situated in the centre of the Tuscan Apennines, and rising above the valley of the Casentino. ... Thomas of Celano, in Italian Tommaso da Celano from his hometown of Celano in the Abruzzo, (ca. ...


In 1215 Francis went again to Rome for the Fourth Lateran Council. During this time, he probably met Dominic de Guzman.[2] The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... For other saints named Dominic, see the disambiguation page for Dominic Saint Dominic (Spanish: Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo de Guzmán Garcés (1170 – August 6, 1221) was the founder of the Friars Preachers, popularly called the Dominicans or...


In 1216 Francis received from the new pope Honorius III the confirmation of the indulgence of the Porziuncola, now better known as the Pardon of Assisi, which the Pope decreed to be a complete remission of their sins for all those who prayed in the Porziuncola. Honorius III, né Cencio Savelli (b. ...


In 1217 the growing congregation of friars was divided in provinces and groups were sent to France, Germany, Hungary, Spain and to the East. A compass rose For other uses, see East (disambiguation). ...

St. Francis before the Sultan - the trial by fire (fresco attributed to Giotto)
St. Francis before the Sultan - the trial by fire (fresco attributed to Giotto)

In 1219 Francis left, together with a few companions, on a pilgrimage of non-violence to Egypt. Crossing the lines between the sultan and the Crusaders in Damietta, he was received by the sultan Melek-el-Kamel.[14][2] Francis challenged the Muslim scholars to a test of true religion by fire; but they retreated.[2] When Francis proposed to enter the fire first, under the condition that if he left the fire unharmed, the sultan would have to recognize Christ as the true God, the sultan was so impressed that he allowed Francis to preach to his subjects.[2][15] Though Francis did not succeed in converting the sultan, the last words of the sultan to Francis of Assisi were, according to Jacques de Vitry, bishop of Acre, in his book "Historia occidentalis, De Ordine et praedicatione Fratrum Minorum (1221)" : “Pray for me that God may deign to reveal to me that law and faith which is most pleasing to him.”.[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (826x864, 178 KB) Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337), Basilique Assise, Legend of St Francis, St Francis before the Sultan (Trial by Fire) File links The following pages link to this file: Francis of Assisi ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (826x864, 178 KB) Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337), Basilique Assise, Legend of St Francis, St Francis before the Sultan (Trial by Fire) File links The following pages link to this file: Francis of Assisi ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... Jacques de Vitry (c. ... The Bishop of Acre was a suffragan bishop of the Crusader Archbishop of Tyre. ...

Saint Francis of Assisi with the Sultan al-Kamil.15thCentury.
Saint Francis of Assisi with the Sultan al-Kamil.15thCentury.

At Acre, the capital of what remained of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, he rejoined the brothers Elia and Pietro Cattini. Francis then most probably visited the holy places in Palestine in 1220. Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ... For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Although nativity drawings and paintings existed earlier, St Francis of Assisi celebrated Christmas by setting up the first known three-dimensional presepio or crèche (Nativity scene) in the town of Greccio near Assisi, around 1220.[17] He used real animals to create a living scene so that the worshipers could contemplate the birth of the child Jesus in a direct way, making use of the senses, especially sight.[17] Thomas of Celano, a biographer of Francis and Saint Bonaventure both tell how he only used a straw-filled manger (feeding trough) set between a real ox and donkey.[17] According to Thomas, it was beautiful in its simplicity with the manger acting as the altar for the Christmas Mass. A traditional nativity scene from Naples, Italy A nativity scene, also called a crib or crèche (meaning crib or manger in French) generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. ... Saint Bonaventura, John of Fidanza, Franciscan theologian, was born in 1221 at Bagnarea in Tuscany. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ...


When receiving a report of the martyrdom of five brothers in Morocco, Francis returned to Italy via Venice.[18] Cardinal Ugolino di Conti was then nominated by the Pope as the protector of the order. When problems arose in the order, a detailed rule became necessary. On 29 September 1220 Francis handed over the governance of the order to brother Pietro Cattini at the Porziuncola. However, Brother Cattini died on 10 March 1221. He was buried in the Porziuncola. When numerous miracles were attributed to the late Pietro Cattini, people started to flock to the Porziuncola, disturbing the daily life of the Franciscans. Francis then prayed, asking Pietro to stop the miracles and obey in death as he had obeyed during his life. The report of miracles ceased. Brother Pietro was succeeded by brother Elia as vicar of Francis. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Chūkyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


During 1221 and 1222 Francis crossed Italy, first as far south as Catania in Sicily and afterwards as far north as Bologna. The Roman Odeon. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ...


On 29 November 1223 the final rule of the order (in twelve chapters) was approved by Pope Honorius III. is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ...

St. Francis receives the Stigmata (fresco attributed to Giotto)
St. Francis receives the Stigmata (fresco attributed to Giotto)

While he was praying on the mountain of Verna, during a forty day fast in preparation for Michaelmas, Francis is said to have had a vision on or about 14 September 1224, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, as a result of which he received the stigmata.[19] Brother Leo, who had been with Francis at the time, left a clear and simple account of the event, the first definite account of the phenomenon of stigmata.[1][19] "Suddenly he saw a vision of a seraph, a six-winged angel on a cross. This angel gave him the gift of the five wounds of Christ."[19] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (658x744, 105 KB) Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337), Basilique Assise, Legend of St Francis, Stigmatization of St Francis File links The following pages link to this file: Francis of Assisi ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (658x744, 105 KB) Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337), Basilique Assise, Legend of St Francis, Stigmatization of St Francis File links The following pages link to this file: Francis of Assisi ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ... In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different feasts known as Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus. ... For other senses of this word, see stigma and stigmata (disambiguation). ...


Suffering from these Stigmata and from an eye disease, he received care in several cities (Siena, Cortona, Nocera) to no avail. In the end he was brought back to the Porziuncola. He was brought to the transito, the hut for infirm friars, next to the Porziuncola. Here, in the place where it all began, feeling the end approaching, he spent the last days of his life dictating his spiritual testament. He died on the evening of 3 October 1226 singing Psalm 141. His feast day is observed 4 October. For the Catholic Liberal Arts College in New York, see Siena College. ... André Rieu Concert in Piazza Della Republica, Cortona Cortona is a small town in Tuscany, Italy. ... Nocera Umbra (Latin Nuceria Camellaria) is a town in the province of Perugia, Italy, 12 miles by rail north by east of Foligno, at an altitude of 520 m (1706 ft. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 16 July 1228 he was pronounced a saint by the next pope Gregory IX, the former cardinal Ugolino di Conti, friend and protector of St. Francis. The next day, the pope laid the foundation stone for the Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti ( 1143–August 22, 1241), pope from 1227 to 1241, the successor of Honorius III, fully inherited the traditions of Gregory VII and of his uncle Innocent III, and zealously perpetuated their policy of Papal supremacy. ... The Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi (St Francis), the mother church of the Franciscan Order, is a World Heritage Site in Assisi, Italy. ...


St. Francis is considered the first Italian poet by literary critics. He believed commoners should be able to pray to God in their own language, and he wrote always in dialect of Umbria instead of Latin. His writings are considered to have great literary value, as well as religious. [20]


Saint Francis, nature, and the environment

A garden statue of Francis of Assisi with birds
A garden statue of Francis of Assisi with birds

Many of the stories that surround the life of St Francis deal with his love for animals.[21] Perhaps the most famous incident that illustrates the Saint’s humility towards nature is recounted in the 'Fioretti' (The "Little Flowers"), a collection of legends and folk-lore that sprang up after the Saint’s death. It is said that one day while Francis was traveling with some companions they happened upon a place in the road where birds filled the trees on either side. Francis told his companions to "wait for me while I go to preach to my sisters the birds".[21] The birds surrounded him, drawn by the power of his voice, and not one of them flew away. Francis spoke to them: Image File history File linksMetadata Saint_Francis_statue_in_garden. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Saint_Francis_statue_in_garden. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ...

My sister birds, you owe much to God, and you must always and in everyplace give praise to Him; for He has given you freedom to wing through the sky and He has clothed you…you neither sow nor reap, and God feeds you and gives you rivers and fountains for your thirst, and mountains and valleys for shelter, and tall trees for your nests. And although you neither know how to spin or weave, God dresses you and your children, for the Creator loves you greatly and He blesses you abundantly. Therefore… always seek to praise God.

Main article: Wolf of Gubbio

Another legend from the Fioretti tells that in the city of Gubbio, where Francis lived for some time, was a wolf “terrifying and ferocious, who devoured men as well as animals”. Francis had compassion upon the townsfolk, and went up into the hills to find the wolf. Soon, fear of the animal had caused all his companions to flee, though the saint pressed on. When he found the wolf, he made the sign of the cross and commanded the wolf to come to him and hurt no one. Miraculously the wolf closed his jaws and lay down at the feet of St. Francis. “Brother Wolf, you do much harm in these parts and you have done great evil…” said Francis. “All these people accuse you and curse you…But brother wolf, I would like to make peace between you and the people.” Then Francis led the wolf into the town, and surrounded by startled citizens made a pact between them and the wolf. Because the wolf had “done evil out of hunger”, the townsfolk were to feed the wolf regularly, and in return, the wolf would no longer prey upon them or their flocks. In this manner Gubbio was freed from the menace of the predator. Francis, ever the lover of animals, even made a pact on behalf of the town dogs, that they would not bother the wolf again. The Little Flowers of St. ... Gubbio is a town and comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian province of Perugia, (Umbria), . At 522 m (1713 ft) above sea-level, it clings to the first slope of Mt. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus italicus Italian wolf range Main article: Gray Wolf The Italian Wolf (Canis lupus italicus) known locally as Lupo, is a subspecies of the Grey Wolf found in the Apennine Mountains in Italy. ...


These legends exemplify the Franciscan mode of charity and poverty as well as the saint's love of the natural world.[22] Part of his appreciation of the environment is expressed in his Canticle of the Sun, a poem written in Umbrian Italian in perhaps 1224 which expresses a love and appreciation of Brother Sun, Sister Moon, Mother Earth, Brother Fire, etc. and all of God's creations personified in their fundamental forms. In "Canticle of the Creatures," he wrote: "All praise to you, Oh Lord, for all these brother and sister creatures."[3] The Canticle of the Sun, also known as the Laudes Creaturarum (Praise of the Creatures), is a religious song composed by Saint Francis of Assisi. ...


Francis's attitude towards the natural world, while poetically expressed, was conventionally Christian.[4] He believed that the world was created good and beautiful by God but suffers a need for redemption because of the primordial sin of man. He preached to man and beast the universal ability and duty of all creatures to praise God (a common theme in the Psalms) and the duty of men to protect and enjoy nature as both the stewards of God's creation and as creatures ourselves.[21]


Legend has it that St. Francis on his deathbed thanked his donkey for carrying and helping him throughout his life, and his donkey wept. Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ...


Main sources for the life of Saint Francis

Basilica of St. Francis, Assisi.
Basilica of St. Francis, Assisi.
  • Friar Elias, Epistola Encyclica de Transitu Sancti Francisci, 1226.
  • Pope Gregory IX, Bulla "Mira circa nos" for the canonization of St. Francis, 19 July 1228.
  • Friar Tommaso da Celano: Vita Prima Sancti Francisci, 1228; Vita Secunda Sancti Francisci, 1246 – 1247; Tractatus de Miraculis Sancti Francisci, 1252 – 1253.
  • Friar Julian of Speyer, Vita Sancti Francisci, 1232 – 1239.
  • St. Bonaventure of Bagnoregio, Legenda Maior Sancti Francisci, 1260 – 1263.
  • Ugolino da Montegiorgio, Actus Beati Francisci et sociorum eius, 1327 – 1342.
  • Fioretti di San Francesco, the "Little Flowers of St. Francis", end of the 14th century: an anonymous Italian version of the Actus; the most popular of the sources, but very late and therefore not the best authority by any means.

For an exhaustive list of sources, see [1]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 638 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 638 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... Thomas of Celæno, also known as Thomas of Celano (around 1200 - around 1255), was a Franciscan monk and hymnodist whose chief claim to fame is his authorship of the Dies Iræ. Thomas was one of the first disciples of St Francis of Assisi and joined the order around 1215. ... Julian of Speyer (d. ... The Little Flowers of St. ...


Main writings by St. Francis

  • Canticum Fratris Solis or Laudes Creaturarum, Canticle of the Sun.
  • Prayer before the Crucifix, 1205 (extant in the original Umbrian dialect as well as in a contemporary Latin translation).
  • Regula non bullata, the Earlier Rule, 1221.
  • Regula bullata, the Later Rule, 1223.
  • Testament, 1226.
  • Admonitions.
  • The Little Flowers of Saint Francis (Translated by Raphael Brown), Doubleday, 1998. ISBN 978-0-385-07544-2

For a complete list, see [2]. The Canticle of the Sun, also known as the Laudes Creaturarum (Praise of the Creatures), is a religious song composed by Saint Francis of Assisi. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

A medieval Roman Catholic group which can trace its origins to the Franciscan Spirituals, but which came into being as a separate entity - and problem - for the Church in 1318, when Angelo da Clareno defied the authority of Pope John XXII. Other figures included Michael of Cesena and Peter Olivi. ... The Knights and Ladies of the Holy Sepulchre walk in a procession at the First Annual Southeastern Eucharistic Congress in Charlotte, NC. The Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre (formally Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem) has a foundation myth that connects it with Godfrey of Bouillon or... Graham Faulkner as Francesco, or Francis Franco Zeffirellis Brother Sun, Sister Moon (1972), conceived and executed in much the same visual manner as his Oscar winning Romeo and Juliet (1968), attempts to draw parallels between the work and philosophy of Francis of Assisi and the ideology that underpinned the... Franco Zeffirelli (born Gianfranco Corsi on February 12, 1923), is an Italian film director. ... The Prayer of Saint Francis is a Christian prayer for Peace widely attributed to the 13th century saint Francis of Assisi, although the prayer in its present form cannot be traced back further than 1912, when it was printed in France in French, in a small spiritual magazine called La... St. ... For other uses, see Saint David (disambiguation). ... St. ... Not to be confused with the separate University of Saint Francis in Fort Wayne, Indiana. ... North Campus Saint Francis University is a four-year, coeducational Catholic liberal arts university in Loretto, Pennsylvania. ... This is a list of people on the postage stamps of the Republic of Ireland, including the years when they appeared on a stamp. ... St. ... Saint François dAssise is a French opera in three acts and eight scenes by composer and librettist Olivier Messiaen, written from 1975 to 1983. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... The Society of Saint Francis is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion. ... The Flowers of St. ... Roberto Rossellini (May 8, 1906 - June 3, 1977), was an Italian film director. ... Not everyone listed here is Christian or a mystic, but all have contributed to the Christian understanding of connection to or direct experience of God. ... Siena College is a nationally recognized independent Catholic Liberal Arts College situated on US 9 in the suburban community of Loudonville, New York, two miles (3. ... Saint-François is the name of: A residential district located in the city of Laval, QC, Canada : See Saint-François, Quebec A county located in Missouri, United States : See Saint Francois County, Missouri A range of mountains located in Missouri, United States : See Saint Francois Mountains A community... Lynn Townsend White, Jr. ...

Saint Francis in other media

  • Francesco (1990), a film by Liliana Cavani, somewhat slow moving film which follows Francis of Assisi's evolution from rich man's son to religious humanitarian and eventually to full-fledged self-tortured saint. This movie was inspired by Hermann Hesse's novel Peter Camenzind. St. Francis is played by Mickey Rourke, and the woman who later became Saint Clare, is played by Helena Bonham Carter
  • Reluctant Saint: The Life of Francis of Assisi a book by Donald Spoto (2002)
  • Flowers for St Francis (2005), a book by Raj Arumugam
  • Saint Francis et His Four Ladies (1970) a book by Joan Mowat Erikson
  • Brother, Sister (2006), third full-length album by indie rock band mewithoutYou, featuring the song The Sun and Moon

Liliana Cavani (Carpi (Modena), 1933) is an Italian director and screenwriter, best known for her 1974 feature film Il portiere di notte (The Night Porter) which launched actress Charlotte Rampling to international stardom. ... Hermann Hesse (pronounced ) (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. ... Peter Caminzind was the first novel by Hermann Hesse and contains a number of themes that were to preoccupy many of Hesses later works, most notably the individuals search for a unique spiritual and physical identity amidst the backdrops of nature and modern civilization and the role of... Philip Andre Mickey Rourke, Jr. ... Helena Bonham Carter (born 26 May 1966) is an Academy Award- and Golden Globe-nominated English actress, known for her portrayals of Bellatrix Lestrange in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Marla Singer in the film Fight Club, her Oscar-nominated performance as Kate Croy in The Wings... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... mewithoutYou is a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-based indie rock band. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Robinson, Paschal (09/01/1909). "St. Francis of Assisi". The Catholic Encyclopedia VI. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Chesterton(1924), p.126
  3. ^ a b c Blessing All Creatures, Great and Small. Duke Magazine (2006-11). Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  4. ^ a b c Englebert, Omer (1951). The Lives of the Saints. Barnes & Noble, 529. ISBN 978-1566195164. 
  5. ^ a b Chesterton, Gilbert Keith (1924), St. Francis of Assisi (14 ed.), Garden City, New York: Image Books, pp. 158 
  6. ^ Chesterton(1924), pp.40-41
  7. ^ Bonaventure & Cardinal Manning (1867), The Life of St. Francis of Assisi from the Legenda Sancti Francisci (1988 ed.), Rockford, Illinois: TAN Books & Publishers, pp. 190, ISBN 978-0895553430 
  8. ^ a b Chesterton(1924), pp.54-56
  9. ^ Chesterton(1924), pp.107-108
  10. ^ Galli(2002), pp.74-80
  11. ^ a b c Chesterton(1924), pp.110-111
  12. ^ Fioretti quoted in: St. Francis, The Little Flowers, Legends, and Lauds, trans. N. Wydenbruck, ed. Otto Karrer (London: Sheed and Ward, 1979) 244.
  13. ^ a b Chesterton(1924), p.130
  14. ^ Francis of Assisi in the Holy land.
  15. ^ Life of St. Francis of Assisi by Paul Sabatier.
  16. ^ St. Francis lecture.
  17. ^ a b c Bonaventure (1867), pp.178
  18. ^ Bonaventure (1867), pp.162
  19. ^ a b c Chesterton(1924), p.131
  20. ^ Chesterton, G.K. (1987). St. Francis. Image, 160 p.. ISBN 0385029004. 
  21. ^ a b c Bonaventure (1867), pp.78-85
  22. ^ Bonaventure (1867), pp.67-68

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... Garden City, New York, is a village in central Nassau County, New York, in the USA, which was founded by multi-millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart in 1869. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... , Nickname: The Forest City Country State County Township Elevation 715 ft (218 m) Coordinates , Area 56. ...

External links

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Francis of Assisi
Persondata
NAME St. Francis of Assisi
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Bernardone, Giovanni di
SHORT DESCRIPTION Catholic saint and founder of the Franciscan order
DATE OF BIRTH 1182
PLACE OF BIRTH Assisi, Italy
DATE OF DEATH 3 October 1226
PLACE OF DEATH Assisi, Italy
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