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Encyclopedia > Francis Walsingham
Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail)
Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail)

Sir Francis Walsingham (c. 1532April 6, 1590) is usually remembered as the "spymaster" of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Walsingham is frequently cited as one of the earliest practitioners of modern intelligence both for espionage and for domestic security. He oversaw operations which penetrated the heart of Spanish military preparation, gathered intelligence from across Europe, and disrupted a range of plots against the queen, securing the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. Walsingham was one of the small coterie who directed the Elizabethan state, overseeing foreign, domestic and religious policy, and the subjugation of Ireland. He worked to bring Scotland and England together. Overall, his foreign policy demonstrated a new understanding of the role of England as a maritime, Protestant power in a global economy. He was an innovator in exploration, colonisation and the use of England's potential maritime power. Image File history File links Walsingham. ... Image File history File links Walsingham. ... William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... A Spymaster is a ringleader of a spy ring, run by a secret service. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book... The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... This article is about the country. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...

Contents

Early years

Francis Walsingham was born at the Walsingham family seat, Scadbury Park near Chislehurst, Kent to William Walsingham and Joyce Denny. His father died the following year, and later, his mother married Sir John Carey, a relative by marriage of Queen Anne Boleyn. Chislehurst is a place in the London Borough of Bromley. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ...


Walsingham studied at King's College, Cambridge from 1548 with many Protestants but as an undergraduate of high social status did not sit for a degree. In 1550, he travelled abroad, returning two years later to enroll at Gray's Inn. Upon the death of Edward VI and accession of Catholic Queen Mary, he fled to continue his studies as a law student at the University of Padua. Between April 1556 and November 1558, he visited Switzerland. He cultivated contacts among the leading Protestant statesmen on the continent. For other uses, see Kings College. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Entrance to Grays Inn Grays Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in around the Royal Courts of Justice in London, England to which barristers belong and where they are called to the bar. ... Edward Tudor redirects here. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Gymnasivm Patavinum: The Universitys main Bo palace shown in a 1654 woodcut The University of Padua (Italian Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) located in Padua, Italy was founded in 1222. ...


Serving Elizabeth I

When Elizabeth I ascended to the throne in 1558, Walsingham returned to England and, through the support of Sir William Cecil, was elected to the House of Commons for Banbury in 1559 and then Lyme Regis in 1563. He also married a widow, Ann Carteill, who died two years later leaving Walsingham the care of her two children. In 1566, he married Ursula St. Barbe, widow of Sir Richard Worsley, and they had a daughter, Frances. William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... , The modern Castle Quay Shopping Centre in Banbury alongside the Oxford Canal, with Banbury Museum in the background. ... , Lyme Regis (IPA: ) is a coastal town in West Dorset, England, situated 25 miles west of Dorchester and 25 miles east of Exeter. ... Ursula St. ...


In the following years, Walsingham became active in soliciting support for the Huguenots in France. In 1569, Cecil assigned Walsingham to unravel the Ridolfi plot, his first government role. Walsingham also had links to the Earl of Leicester, to Nicholas Throckmorton and to the second tier of Protestant officials now serving the Queen. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... The Ridolfi plot was meant to put Mary Stewart on the throne of England. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (unknown artist) Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (or Throgmorton) (c. ...


In 1570, the Queen chose Walsingham to support the Huguenots in their negotiations with Charles IX. Later that year, he succeeded Sir Henry Norris as ambassador to France, seeking to prosecute a close alliance between England, Charles IX, the Huguenots, and other European Protestant interests in support of the nascent revolt of the Netherlands, provinces of the Spanish Crown. When Catholic opposition to this course resulted in the death of Coligny and the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, his house in Paris became a temporary sanctuary of Protestant refugees, including Philip Sidney. He returned disappointed to England in April 1573. But he had established himself as someone the Queen could trust. A century later his dispatches would be published as a portrait of "the Complete Ambassador". Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Henry Norris (or Norreys), Baron Norris (c. ... Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... Painting by François Dubois (born about 1529, Amiens, Picardy) The St. ... Philip Sidney. ...


After his return, Walsingham was appointed joint principal secretary ("of state": the phrase was not used at this time in England) with Sir Thomas Smith, succeeding Sir William Cecil. Smith retired unexpectedly in 1576, leaving Walsingham in sole charge. In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Sir Thomas Smith (December 23, 1513–August 12, 1577), was an English scholar and diplomat. ...


Elizabeth called him her "Moor", perhaps due to his small, dark frame or a preference for sombre clothes. She put up with his blunt, often unwelcome, advice because she valued his competence and industry, his passion for her security, and his grasp of foreign affairs.


On December 1, 1577, Walsingham received a knighthood. He spent the years between 1574 and 1578 consolidating his control of the routine business of the English state, foreign and domestic. This included the substantial rebuilding of Dover Harbour, and the coordination of support for Martin Frobisher's attempts to discover the north west passage and exploit the mineral resources of Labrador. Walsingham was among the major promoters of the career of Sir Francis Drake and was a major shareholder in his 1578–1581 circumnavigation of the world. Walsingham's participation in this venture was calculated to promote the Protestant interest by provoking the Spanish and demonstrating the vulnerability of their Pacific possessions. is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... Martin Frobisher by Cornelis Ketel. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... Pacific redirects here. ...


He was sent on special embassies to the Netherlands in 1578, and again in 1581 to the French Court, suggesting both the Queen's high confidence in his abilities, and also that she knew how to exploit his standing as a committed Protestant statesman to threaten the Catholic powers.


Between 1578 and 1581, Walsingham was at the forefront of debate on the attempt by a group at court to encourage the Queen to marry the Duke of Anjou, heir to the French throne. Walsingham passionately opposed the marriage, perhaps to the point of encouraging public opposition. He believed that it would serve England better to seek a military alliance with France against Spanish interests. Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ...


Walsingham would have preferred more direct English intervention in the Low Countries, and eventually, after the deaths of both Anjou and William of Orange in 1584, English military intervention was agreed at the Treaty of Nonsuch in 1585. William of Orange (French: Guillaume, Dutch: Willem, German Wilhelm, Latin Guilelmus) is the name of several historical persons. ... The Treaty of Nonsuch was signed by Elizabeth I of England and the Netherlands on August 20, 1585 at Nonsuch Palace in Surrey. ...


From 1585 to his death, Walsingham was deeply engaged, working closely with Cecil (now Baron Burghley), in preparing England for the war with Spain that could no longer be avoided. He also worked to prepare for the arrival of the Spanish Armada, in particular by victualling the navy, organising a domestic county militia, and fostering the Protestant aggression of the Bond of Association. The title of Marquess of Exeter was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1801 for the Earl of Exeter. ... Belligerents England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 30 Dutch flyboats 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties and losses 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 6,000... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... The ‘bond of association’ or ‘common bond’ is a basic building block of credit unions and co-operative banks. ...


Walsingham secured in 1584 the overthrow of a non-aligned government in Scotland after years of reverses since the 1578 overthrow of the pro-English Regent Morton. Walsingham himself visited the Scottish court in 1583. This lurch towards Anglo-Scottish Protestant amity was at first tentative, but proved to be stable and to pave the way to the succession of James VI to the throne of England. James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ...


These were years of tension in policy towards France, with Walsingham sceptical of the unpredictable Henry III, while the flamboyant English ambassador in Paris, Edward Stafford, argued the case for building on Henry's good intentions. This too was a battle Walsingham won; Stafford found Walsingham's grip of the bureaucratic machine, the Queen's confidence in him, and Walsingham's network of contacts, too formidable. Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... There have been two well-known people by the name of Edward Stafford. ...


Espionage

In the realm of counter-espionage, Walsingham was behind the discovery of the Throckmorton and Babington plots to overthrow Elizabeth I, return England to Catholicism and place Mary, Queen of Scots on the throne. Francis Throckmorton (1554—1584) was a conspirator against Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Walsinghams Decypherer forged this cipher postscript to Marys letter to Babington. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ...


In November 1583, after months of surveillance, Walsingham had Throckmorton arrested. He extracted, under torture, Throckmorton's confession — an admission that he had plotted against Elizabeth with the Spanish ambassador, Bernardino de Mendoza, and others. The plot, which was apparently endorsed by Mary, called for a two-pronged invasion of England and Scotland along with a domestic uprising. Throckmorton was executed in 1584, and Mendoza was expelled from England. For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Bernardino de Mendoza (c. ...


Mary, Queen of Scots was not prosecuted. Walsingham became so concerned about Mary's influence that he became determined to hold her responsible for any further conspiracies. Babington's Plot was the result of that determination. Walsingham drew deeply on his contacts and agents among the English Catholic community and abroad on whose divisions he was adept at playing. This led to Mary's execution in 1587, for which Walsingham had worked since before his advent to power. He was an active participant in her trial and briefly experienced the Queen's displeasure in its aftermath, due to her concerns that executing a fellow monarch would undermine the authority of all monarchy. Look up conspiracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Walsinghams Decypherer forged this cipher postscript to Marys letter to Babington. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...


Prior to the attack of the Spanish Armada, he received a large number of dispatches from his agents from mercantile communities and foreign courts. Walsingham's recruitment of Anthony Standen in particular represented an intelligence triumph, and Standen's dispatches were deeply revealing. However the close security enforced by Philip II meant that Walsingham remained in the dark about the Spanish strategy and the planned destination of the Armada. This, plus his naturally bold spirit, lay behind his regular encouragement of the more aggressive strategies advocated by Drake in particular. The Cadiz raid in 1587 wrought havoc on Spanish logistics, and Walsingham would have repeated this the following year if more cautious counsels had not prevailed. Belligerents England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 30 Dutch flyboats 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties and losses 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 6,000... This article is about the Spanish city. ...


In foreign intelligence, the full range of Walsingham's network of "intelligencers" (of news as well as secrets) may never be known, but it was substantial. While foreign intelligence was part of the principal secretary's duties, Walsingham brought to it flair and ambition, and large sums of his own money. He also cast his net more widely than others had done hitherto, exploiting the insight into Spanish policy offered at the Italian courts; cultivating contacts in Constantinople and Aleppo, building complex connections with the Catholic exiles. Recent detective work by John Bossy has suggested that he recruited Giordano Bruno, although this remains controversial. Among his more minor spies may have been the playwright Christopher Marlowe, who may have been one of the stream of false converts whom Walsingham planted in foreign seminaries for gathering intelligence and insinuating counter-intelligence[citation needed]. A more central figure was the cryptographer Thomas Phelippes, expert in deciphering letters, creating false handwriting and breaking and repairing seals without detection. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Giordano Bruno Giordano Bruno (1548, Nola – February 17, 1600, Rome) was an Italian philosopher, priest, cosmologist, and occultist. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Thomas Phelippes (1556-1625) was a forger and intelligence gatherer. ... This article is about the authentication means. ...


Legacy

Walsingham was the first English statesman fully to embrace the challenges of the post-Reformation diplomatic world and the new European threats and alliances it offered. Meanwhile, closely linked to the mercantile community, he actively supported the most ambitious trade promotion schemes, including the Muscovy Company and the Levant Company. He supported Davis' voyages to the north west frontier, and sought to follow Drake's circumnavigation with a military-diplomatic mission to the Far East to be led by his beloved stepson, Christopher Carteill. Reformation redirects here. ... Mercantilism is the economic theory that a nations prosperity depended upon its supply of gold and silver, that the total volume of trade is unchangeable. ...


In other affairs, Walsingham acquired a Surrey county seat in Parliament which he retained until his death, but he was not a major participant. In 1584, he was part of the committee that considered letters patent granted to Sir Walter Raleigh. He nominated some of his servants to prominent positions. He also received the appointments of Chancellor of the Order of the Garter and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a sinecure office in the British government. ...


As an advisor on whom Elizabeth depended during the central part of her reign, Walsingham received large sums of money from the Queen over the years. He spent his wealth generously in the Queen's service and the Protestant cause. The Queen knew this, complaining that he would not prosper. He obtained land grants, grants for the export of beer and cloth, and leases of customs in the northern and western outposts. His primary residences, apart from the court, were at Seething Lane by the Tower of London, at Barn Elms in Surrey, and farther afield at Odiham in Hampshire. Nothing remains of any of his houses. For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see Hampshire (disambiguation). ...


Francis Walsingham died on April 6, 1590, leaving considerable financial debt, in part arising from his having underwritten the debts of his son-in-law and colleague, Sir Philip Sidney. His daughter Frances received only £300 annuity. However, she married well, to the Earl of Essex, and Walsingham's widow lived comfortably until her death. After his death, his friends reflected that poor bookkeeping had left him further in the crown's debt than was fair, and a compromise was eventually agreed with his heirs. His public papers were seized for government use and his private papers, which would have revealed much, not least about his finances, were lost. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Philip Sidney. ... The symbol £ represents the pound currency which Britain uses. ...


Walsingham attracts controversy still. Catholic defenders, from the Victorian era onwards, have sorted through the various conspiracies surrounding him to portray a ruthless, devious man driven by an excessive love of intrigue. So thoroughly did he cover his tracks that it is still impossible to determine the extent of his use of agents provocateurs in creating politically desirable events. He regularly features in fringe debates particularly about the authorship of Shakespeare and the death of Christopher Marlowe, and is the subject of conspiracy theories to this day. The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ...


Walsingham in fiction

  • In Anthony Burgess' novel A Dead Man in Deptford about the life of Christopher Marlowe, the protagonist is shown fatally caught up in the webs spun by Walsingham.
  • The film Elizabeth gives considerable, although historically inaccurate, prominence to the espionage skills of Walsingham (portrayed by Geoffrey Rush). The film overstates Walsingham's influence, showing him triumphing over Burghley, and paints him as a Machiavellian, irreligious and sexually ambiguous politician. It inaccurately suggests that he himself murdered Mary of Guise, or personally had her killed. Rush reprised his role as Walsingham in the 2007 sequel, Elizabeth: The Golden Age.
  • Walsingham was played by Stephen Murray in the BBC series Elizabeth R (1970).
  • Walsingham was portrayed by actor Patrick Malahide in the HBO miniseries Elizabeth I
  • Walsingham appears as Christopher Marlowe's taskmaster in the BBC Radio 4 comedy series The Christopher Marlowe Mysteries.
  • Walsingham and his fictional niece appear in Lucy's Blade by John Lambshead
  • Walsingham provided the basis for Sir Nicholas Fury in Neil Gaiman's comics miniseries 1602
  • Sir Jack Wilton in The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: Black Dossier is the analogue of Walsingham in the "Glorianan Era". Wilton is also stated as being the first "M."

Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... A Dead Man in Deptford is a book written later in Anthony Burgesss life, and the last of his novels to be published during his lifetime. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... Elizabeth is a 1998 movie about the early reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Geoffrey Roy Rush (born 6 July 1951) is an Academy Award- and Emmy Award-winning Australian actor. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Marie de Guise Marie de Guise (in English, Mary of Guise) (November 22, 1515 – June 11, 1560) was the Queen Consort of James V of Scotland and the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Glenda Jackson as Elizabeth I Elizabeth R is a BBC television drama serial that was broadcast in six, 85 minute parts on terrestrial channel BBC Two from February to March 1971. ... Patrick Malahide (born March 24, 1945) is an English actor, who has played many major film and television roles. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Image:Helen duke. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... For the French hip hop artist, see Nikkfurie. ... Neil Richard Gaiman (IPA: ) (born November 10, 1960[2]) is an English author of science fiction and fantasy short stories and novels, graphic novels, comics, and films. ... Marvel 1602 is an eight-issue Marvel comic limited series, published in 2003, written by Neil Gaiman, illustrated by Andy Kubert, and digitally painted by Richard Isanove. ... The Unfortunate Traveller by Thomas Nashe (1594) is a picaresque novel set during the reign of Henry VIII of England. ... Gloriana is an opera in three acts by Benjamin Britten to an English libretto by William Plomer, based on historical incidents. ... M is a fictional character in Ian Flemings James Bond series, as well as the films in the Bond franchise. ...

References

  • Alan Haynes. 2004. Walsingham: Elizabeth's spymaster.
  • Alan Haynes. 1992. The Elizabethan Secret Services. Sutton Publishing. Reprint, 2001.
  • Stephen Budiansky. 2005. Her Majesty's Spymaster: Elizabeth I, Sir Francis Walsingham, and the Birth of Modern Espionage.
  • John Burke and John Bernard Burke, 1844. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland, and Scotland.
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Smith
Lord Privy Seal
15761590
Succeeded by
The Lord Burghley
Preceded by
Sir Ralph Sadler
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1587–1590
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Heneage
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Marquess of Winchester
Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire
bef. 1577–1590
Succeeded by
Sir George Carey
Sir Thomas Smith (December 23, 1513–August 12, 1577), was an English scholar and diplomat. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ... Sir Ralph Sadler (1507 - 30 March 1587) was an English statesman of the 16th century, and served as a Secretary of State for King Henry VIII. Sadler was born in Hackney, Middlesex to a minor official in the service of the Marquess of Dorset and Sir Edward Belknap. ... The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a sinecure office in the British government. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester (abt. ... This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire. ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... George Carey (1547 - 8 September 1603) was the eldest son of Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon and Anne Morgan. ...

 
 

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