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Encyclopedia > Francis Poulenc

Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (IPA: [fʀɑ̃sis ʒɑ̃ maʀsɛl pulɛ̃k]) (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer and a member of the French group Les Six. He composed music in all major genres, including art song, chamber music, oratorio, opera, ballet music and orchestral music. Critic Claude Rostand, in a July 1950 Paris-Presse article, described Poulenc as "half bad boy, half monk" ("le moine et le voyou"), a tag that was to be attached to his name throughout his career.[1] For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Le Groupe des Six, 1922, by Jacques-Emile Blanche. ... An art song is a vocal music composition, usually written for one singer and often with piano accompaniment. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A philharmonic orchestra An orchestra is a musical ensemble used most often in classical music. ...


Francis Poulenc was born in Paris. His mother, an amateur pianist, taught him to play, and music formed a part of family life.


An outstanding pianist[citation needed], the keyboard dominated much of his early compositions. He also, throughout his career, borrowed from his own compositions as well as those of Mozart and Saint-Saëns. Later in his life, the loss of some close friends, coupled with a pilgrimage to the Black Madonna of Rocamadour, led him to rediscovery of his faith and resulted in compositions of a more sombre, austere tone. His opera Dialogues of the Carmelites was written at this time. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns (IPA: [ʃaʁl. ... Rocamadour Alleged fragment of Durandal in Rocamadour Rocamadour is a commune of southwestern France. ... Dialogues of the Carmelites ( in French, Dialogues des Carmélites, Opéra en trois actes et douze tableaux) is an opera by Francis Poulenc. ...


Poulenc was a member of Les Six, a group of young French composers, Milhaud, Auric, Durey, Honegger and Tailleferre, who also had links with Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau. He embraced the Dada movement's techniques, creating melodies that would have been appropriate for Parisian music halls. Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... Georges Auric (February 15, 1899 – July 23, 1983) was a French composer, born in Lodève, Hérault, Languedoc-Roussillon, France. ... Louis Durey ( May 27, 1888 - July 3, 1979) was a French composer. ... Arthur Honegger in 1921. ... Germaine Tailleferre (April 19, 1892 - November 7, 1983) was a French composer and the only female member of the famous Group Les Six. ... Eric Alfred Leslie Satie (Honfleur, 17 May 1866 – Paris, 1 July 1925) was a French composer, pianist and writer. ... Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... DaDa is an album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983 (see 1983 in music). ...


Among Poulenc's last series of major works is a series of works for wind instruments and piano. He was particularly fond of woodwinds, and planned a set of sonatas for all of them, yet only lived to complete four: the Flute Sonata (1956), and sonatas for oboe, clarinet, and horn. A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ...


Poulenc died of heart failure in Paris in 1963.

Contents

Works

An early work, Rapsodie nègre (1917), written for baritone, piano, string quartet, flute, and clarinet, sets nonsense syllables purportedly by a black Liberian poet. The piece, dedicated to Satie, kept him out of the Conservatoire de Paris, composition teacher Paul Vidal saying, according to Poulenc[citation needed], "Your work stinks, it's inept, infamous balls ... Ah! I see you're a follower of the Stravinsky and Erik Satie gang. Well, goodbye!" Stravinsky, hearing of this story, arranged to have the piece printed. Former Conservatoire building (until 1911), still used as Théâtre du Conservatoire The Conservatoire de Paris (full contemporary name Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse de Paris) is a music school in Paris, France. ... Paul Antoine Vidal (June 16, 1863 - April 9, 1931) was a French composer, conductor and music teacher. ...

His works of chamber music include:

  • Sonata for 2 Clarinets, op. 7 (1918/1945)
  • Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 12 (1918)
  • Piano Suite (1920)
  • Sonata for Clarinet and Bassoon, op. 32 (1922/1945)
  • Sonata for Horn, Trumpet and Trombone, op. 33 (1922/1945)
  • Trio for Oboe, Bassoon and Piano, op. 43 (1926)
  • Villanelle for Pipe (pipeau) and Piano, op. 74 (1934)
  • Suite française for 2 Oboes, 2 Bassoons, 2 Trumpets, 3 Trombones, Percussion and Cembalo, op. 80 (1935)
  • Sextet for Piano and Wind Quintet, op. 100 (1932-9)
  • Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 119 (1942-3/1949)
  • Sonata for Cello and Piano. op. 143 (1940-48)
  • Trois mouvements perpétuels for 9 Instruments, op. 14 (1946)
  • Flute Sonata, op. 164 (1956-7)
  • Elégie for Horn and Piano, op. 168 (1957)
  • Sarabande for Guitar, op. 179 (1960)
  • Clarinet Sonata, op. 184 (1962)
  • Oboe Sonata, op. 185 (1962)

Other works include: The Flute Sonata by Francis Poulenc, for flute and piano, was written in 1957. ... Francis Poulencs Clarinet Sonata for clarinet and piano dates from 1962. ... Francis Poulencs Oboe Sonata for oboe and piano dates from 1962. ...

Les Biches is a ballet by Francis Poulenc, premiered by the Ballets Russes in 1924. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Concert champêtre is a harpsichord concerto by Francis Poulenc, which also exists in a version for Piano Solo. ... Harpsichord in Flemish style; for more info, click the image. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cover of the first Babar story published 1931 Cover of the second Babar story published 1932 Babar the Elephant is a popular French childrens fictional character who first appeared in LHistoire de Babar by Jean de Brunhoff in 1931 and enjoyed immediate success. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Les Mamelles de Tirésias (The Breasts of Tiresias) is a two act opera by Francis Poulenc based on a text by Guillaume Apollinaire. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Dialogues of the Carmelites ( in French, Dialogues des Carmélites, Opéra en trois actes et douze tableaux) is an opera by Francis Poulenc. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... La voix humaine (English: The Human Voice) is a one act opera for one character, with music by Francis Poulenc and a libretto by Jean Cocteau, based on his 1932 play. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gloria by Francis Poulenc (FP 177) was written in 1959 and is one of his most celebrated works. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...

Personal life

Poulenc "adored women, but loved men"[2]. His first serious relationship was with painter Richard Chanlaire to whom he dedicated his Concert champêtre: "You have changed my life, you are the sunshine of my thirty years, a reason for living and working."[1] He also once said, "You know that I am as sincere in my faith, without any messianic screamings, as I am in my Parisian sexuality."[3] The Concert champêtre is a harpsichord concerto by Francis Poulenc, which also exists in a version for Piano Solo. ...


Poulenc also had a number of relationships with women. He fathered a daughter, Marie-Ange, although he never formally admitted that he was indeed her father. He was also a very close friend of the singer Pierre Bernac for whom he wrote many songs; some sources[citation needed] have hinted that this long friendship had sexual undertones; however, the now-published correspondence between the two men strongly suggests that this was not the case. Pierre Bernac was born as Pierre Bertin on 12 January 1899. ...


Poulenc was profoundly affected by the death of friends.[citation needed] First came the death of the young woman he had hoped to make his wife, Raymonde Linossier, the soul-mate of his early years. Then, in 1923 he was "unable to do anything" for two days after the death from typhoid fever of his twenty year old friend, novelist Raymond Radiguet. However, two weeks later he had moved on, joking to Diaghilev at the rehearsals he was unable to leave, about helping a dancer "warm up".[1] He was also affected by the death of painter Christian Bérard, who was decapitated in a car accident in the early 30's and by the death of composer and critic Pierre-Octave Ferroud also in a car accident in 1936. These losses, coupled with a pilgrimage to the Black Madonna of Rocamadour, led him to rediscover his Catholic faith, which was to inspire him for the rest of his life. Raymond Radiguet (June 18, 1903 - December 12, 1923) was a French author. ... Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Сергей Павлович Дягилев) (March 19, 1872 – August 19, 1929), often known as Serge, was a Russian ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous... Christian Berard (1902-1949) AKA Bébé was a French artist, fashion illustrator, and designer. ... The Black Madonna of CzÄ™stochowa, Poland A Black Madonna or Black Virgin is a statue or painting of Mary in which she is depicted with dark or black skin. ... Rocamadour Alleged fragment of Durandal in Rocamadour Rocamadour is a commune of southwestern France. ...


See also

  • Category:Compositions by Francis Poulenc

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Ivry, Benjamin (1996). Francis Poulenc, 20th-Century Composers series. Phaidon Press Limited. ISBN 0-7148-3503-X.
  2. ^ In the words of his muse Denise Duval
  3. ^ Aldrich, Robert and Wotherspoon, Gary (Eds.) (2001). Who's Who in Contemporary Gay & Lesbian History: From World War II to the Present Day. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22974-X.

 
 

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