FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Francis Fukuyama
Francis Fukuyama
Francis Fukuyama

Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1280 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1280 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ...

Contents

Early Life

Francis Fukuyama was born October 27, 1952, in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese-American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church and received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago. His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fukuyama, was born in Kyoto, Japan, and was the daughter of Shiro Kawata, founder of the Economics Department of Kyoto University and first president of Osaka Municipal University in Osaka, Japan. Fukuyama's childhood years were spent in New York City. In 1967 his family moved to State College, Pennsylvania, where he attended high school. Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Japanese Americans ) are Americans of Japanese descent who trace their ancestry to Japan or Okinawa and are residents and/or citizens of the United States. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Location of Kyoto, on the main island of Japan Kyoto (Japanese: 京都市; Kyōto-shi) is a city in Japan that has a population of 1. ... Kyoto University ), abbreviated to Kyodai ) is a national coeducational research university in Kyoto, Japan. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... “State College” redirects here. ...


Education

Francis Fukuyama is currently the Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy and Director of the International Development Program at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at the Johns Hopkins University. He received his B.A. in classics from Cornell University, where he studied political philosophy under Allan Bloom. He earned his Ph.D. from Harvard in Political Science. He has been affiliated with the Telluride Association since his undergraduate years at Cornell, an educational enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including the Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg and the former defense and foreign affairs official, Paul Wolfowitz. Bernard Leon Schwartz is the Chairman of the Board and CEO of Loral Space & Communications, Chairman and CEO of K&F Industries, Inc. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... International political economy (IPE) is a perspective in the social sciences and history that analyzes international relations in combination with political economy. ... The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), based in Washington, D.C., is a graduate school devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and education. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... “Cornell” redirects here. ... Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... The Telluride Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that provides young people with free educational programs emphasizing intellectual curiosity, democratic self-governance, and social responsibility. ... Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American physicist. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ...


Writings

Fukuyama is best known as the author of The End of History and the Last Man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism. The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay The End of History?, published in the international affairs journal The National Interest. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ...

'What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such... That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.'

He has written a number of other books, among them Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity and Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. In the latter, he qualified his original 'end of history' thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter 'human nature', thereby putting Liberal Democracy at risk. One possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ...


The current revolution in biological sciences leads him to theorize that in an environment where science and technology are by no means at an end, but rather opening new horizons, history itself cannot therefore be said to be, as he once thought, at an end.


In another work The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, he explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. This shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules.


Relationship to Neoconservatism

Politically, Fukuyama has in the past been considered neoconservative. He was active in the Project for the New American Century think tank starting in 1997, and signed the organization's letter recommending that President Bill Clinton overthrow the then-President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein [1]. He also signed a second, similar letter to President George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001 attacks that called for removing Saddam Hussein from power 'even if evidence does not link Iraq directly to the attack.'[2]. This article is about Neoconservatism in the United States, for neoconservatism in other regions, see Neoconservatism (disambiguation). ... Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Thereafter, however, he drifted from the neoconservative agenda, which he felt had become overly militaristic and based on muscular, unilateral armed intervention to further democratization within authoritarian regimes (particularly in the Middle East). By late 2003, Fukuyama withdrew his support for the Iraq War [3] and called for Donald Rumsfeld's resignation as Secretary of Defense [4]. He said that he would vote against Bush in the 2004 election,[5] and said Bush had made three major mistakes: A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. Republican politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ...

  • The threat of radical Islam to the US had been overestimated.
  • The Bush administration hadn't foreseen the fierce negative reaction to its benevolent hegemony. From the very beginning it had shown a negative attitude towards the United Nations and other international organizations and hadn't seen that this would increase anti-Americanism in other countries.
  • The Bush administration had misjudged what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and had been overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of Western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general.

Fukuyama's current beliefs include the following: UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Social engineering has several meanings: Social engineering (political science) Social engineering (computer security) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Just as every other country does, the US has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls realistic Wilsonianism, with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. A latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. The US spends more on its military than the rest of the world put together, but Iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. The US should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. The best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. The secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. One thing the US proved to have excelled in in the aftermath of WW2 was the formation of international institutions. A return to support for these structures would combine American power with international legitimacy. But such measures require a lot of patience. This is the central thesis of his most recent work America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Former President of the United States Woodrow Wilson, considered to be a founder of idealism. ...


In an essay in the New York Times Magazine in 2006 that was strongly critical of the invasion [6], he identified neoconservatism with Leninism. He wrote that the neoconservatives The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ...

...believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something I can no longer support. For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ...

His previous comments on militarism, for instance, that "[i]t is precisely because American foreign policy is infused with an unusually high degree of morality that other nations find they have less to fear from its otherwise daunting power”, are, no doubt, an expression of 'Wilsonianism' with a realistic touch. He also announced the end of the 'neoconservative moment' and argued for the demilitarization of the war on terrorism: Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ...

"[W]ar" is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. Meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a 'long, twilight struggle' whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary Muslims around the world. For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...

If he has distanced himself from the label of neoconservatism, he nonetheless remains indebted to the thought of Leo Strauss, one of the founding intellectual fathers of neoconservatism, for much of the theoretical basis of his ideas on political economy. In his essay, Our Posthuman Future, he adopts a Straussian perspective in his defence of the classical doctrine of natural right. He says his argument is Aristotelian and that Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... This article is about the philosopher. ...

'Aristotle argued, in effect, that human notions of right and wrong–what we today call human rights–were ultimately based on Human nature. For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ...

(p.12) [citation needed]

Affiliations

In August 2005, Fukuyama – together with a number of other prominent political thinkers – co-founded The American Interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "America in the World". The editorial tone of the publication is largely bi-partisan and is an attempt to transcend the polemical discourse that dominates discussions of contemporary American foreign policy. The American Interest The American Interest (AI) is a bimonthly journal on international relations. ...


Fukuyama was a member of the President's Council on Bioethics from 2001-2005. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Fukuyama is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). The World Academy of Art and Science (WASS) is an informal and non-official international network of individual fellows elected for distinguishing accomplishments in the fields of natural and social sciences, arts and the humanities. ...


Fukuyama is on the steering committee for the Scooter Libby Legal Defense Trust. [7] Fukuyama is a long-time friend of Libby. They served together in the State Department in the 1980s. I. Lewis Libby I. Lewis Scooter Libby Jr. ...


Fukuyama is also a part-time photographer and has a keen interest in classical furniture which he makes by hand. He is married to Laura Holmgren and has three children.


Selected Bibliography

Books

  • The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-910975-2
  • Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-910976-0
  • The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. Free Press, 1999. ISBN 0-684-84530-X
  • Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002. ISBN 0-374-23643-7
  • State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century. Cornell University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8014-4292-3
  • America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy (Yale University Press, 2006). ISBN 0-300-11399-4
  • After the Neo Cons: Where the Right went Wrong. Profile Books, 2006. ISBN 1-86197-922-3 (N.B. Published in the US as America at the Crossroads see above)

The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay The End of History?, published in the international affairs journal The National Interest. ... “Cornell” redirects here. ... America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy is a 2006 book by Francis Fukuyama. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy is a 2006 book by Francis Fukuyama. ...

Essays

This article is about a journal. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... The National Interest is a prominent quarterly international affairs journal, founded in 1985 by Irving Kristol and currently published by the Nixon Center. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Posthuman Future, an illustration by Michael Gibbs for The Chronicle of Higher Educations look at how biotechnology will change the human experience, has become one of the secular icons representing transhumanism. ... A neologism invented by Michel Foucault, the term Biopolitics or Biopolitical can refer to several different yet not incompatible concepts: In the work of Michel Foucault, the style of government that regulates populations through biopower. ...

References

  1. ^ Letter to President Clinton on Iraq. Project for the New American Century. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  2. ^ Letter to President Bush on the War on Terrorism. Project for the New American Century. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  3. ^ Francis Fukuyama (2004-06-01). The Neoconservative Moment. The National Interest. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  4. ^ "Fukuyama Withdraws Bush Support", Today's Zaman, 2004-07-14. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 
  5. ^ Andrew Billen. "Why I won't vote for George Bush", 2004-07-14. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 
  6. ^ Francis Fukuyama. "After Neoconservatism", New York Times Magazine, 2006-02-19. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 
  7. ^ "Defense Fund Raises Money in Libby Case", New York Times, 2006-02-03. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 

Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Interest is a prominent quarterly international affairs journal, founded in 1985 by Irving Kristol and currently published by the Nixon Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Todays Zaman is a major Turkish daily newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m