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Encyclopedia > Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake
February-March 1540 – January 27, 1595

A 16th century oil on canvas portrait of Sir Francis Drake in Buckland Abbey, painting by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger.
Nickname: El Draque ("The Dragon")
Type: Privateer
Place of birth: Tavistock, Devon, England
Place of death: Portobelo, Colón, Panama
Allegiance: England
Years of service: 15631595
Rank: Vice Admiral
Base of Operations: Caribbean Sea
Commands: Golden Hind
Battles/wars: Anglo–Spanish War (1585)
Battle of Gravelines

Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c. 1540January 27, 1595) was an English privateer, navigator, slave trader, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Drake was knighted in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He died of dysentery after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1595. Sir Francis Drake (1540-1596); Elizabethan naval hero. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (777x1060, 90 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Buckland Abbey is a 700-year-old house in Yelverton, Devon, England, noted for its connection with Sir Francis Drake and presently in the ownership of the National Trust. ... // A painter from Flanders, Belgium who worked in England Marcus Gheeraerts was born in Bruges in 1561 or 1562, and was brought to England in 1568 by his father, a painter of whose work hardly anything is known. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... Tavistock is a town in Devon, England, lying on the River Tavy on the edge of Dartmoor. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the town in Panama. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) An 18th-century pirate flag. ... The Golden Hind was an English ship best known for its global circumnavigation between 1577 and 1580, captained by Sir Francis Drake. ... Combatants Spain England Dutch Republic Commanders Philip II, Philip III, Marquis of Santa Cruz, Duke of Medina Sidonia, Duke of Parma Elizabeth I, Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Earl of Leicester The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England, which was never... The Battle of Gravelines is the name given to two battles: The first was fought on July 13, 1558 during the 1547-59 war between France and Spain. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Elizabethan redirects here. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... For other uses, see San Juan. ...


His exploits were semi-legendary, making him a hero to the English but a simple pirate to the Spaniards. He was known as "El Draque" (from the old Spanish meaning "the Dragon" derived from the Latin draco, meaning 'serpent', an obvious play on his family name which in archaic English has the same etymological root) for his actions. King Philip II was claimed to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats[1] (about £4m or $8m by modern standards) for his life. This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... The ducat was a gold coin that was used throughout Europe. ...

Contents

Birth and early years

Miniature of Drake, age 42 by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581
Miniature of Drake, age 42 by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581
The people of quality dislike him for having risen so high from such a lowely family; the rest say he is the cause of wars.

—Gonzalo González del Castillo in a letter King Philip II 1592. [1] Image File history File links Sfdrake42. ... Image File history File links Sfdrake42. ... Some links to this page should perhaps link to miniature (illuminated manuscript). ... Nicholas Hilliard (c. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories...

Francis Drake was born in the parish of Crowndale, a mile south of Tavistock, Devon, in February or March 1540. [2] He was the eldest of the twelve sons[3] of Edmund Drake (1518–1585), a Protestant farmer who later became a preacher, and his wife Mary Mylwaye. The elder Drake is sometimes confused with his nephew John Drake (1573–1634), who was the son of Edmund's older brother, Richard Drake. (cf. John White, note 2). Francis Drake's maternal grandfather was Richard Mylwaye. Tavistock is a town in Devon, England, lying on the River Tavy on the edge of Dartmoor. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Preacher is a term the for someone who preaches sermons or gives homilies. ... A sketch by John White of Indians at Roanoke. ...


Francis was reportedly named after his godfather Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford,[4] and throughout his cousins' lineages are direct connections to royalty and famous personages, such as Sir Richard Grenville, Ivor Callely, Amy Grenville and Geoffrey Chaucer. However, James Froude states, "He told Camden that he was of mean extraction. He meant merely that he was proud of his parents and made no idle pretensions to noble birth. His father was a tenant of the Earl of Bedford, and must have stood well with him, for Francis Russell, the heir of the earldom, was the boy's godfather." [5] A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ... Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford (c. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... Sir Richard Grenville (June 6, 1542 – September 10, 1591) (sp. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... James Anthony Froude (April 23, 1818 - October 20, 1894) was an English historian, the brother of William Froude, the engineer and naval architect. ... William Camden William Camden (May 2, 1551 - November 9, 1623) was an English antiquarian and historian. ... John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford (c. ...


As with many of Drake's contemporaries, the exact date of his birth is unknown and could be as early as 1535, the 1540 date being extrapolated from two portraits: one a miniature painted by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 when he was allegedly 42, the other painted in 1594 when he was alleged to be 53.[6] Some links to this page should perhaps link to miniature (illuminated manuscript). ... Nicholas Hilliard (c. ...


During the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549, the family was forced to flee to Kent. At about the age of thirteen, Francis took to the sea on a cargo barque, becoming master of the ship at the age of twenty. He spent his early career honing his sailing skills on the difficult waters of the North Sea, and after the death of the captain he became master of his own barque (A ship with more than three masts). At age twenty-three, Drake made his first voyage to the New World under the sails of the Hawkins family of Plymouth, in company with his second cousin, Sir John Hawkins. The Prayer Book Rebellion or Western Rebellion occurred in the southwest of England in 1549. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... A barc is a type of sailing vessel. ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other persons named John Hawkins, see John Hawkins (disambiguation). ...


In 1569 he was with the Hawkins fleet when it was trapped by the Spaniards in the Mexican port of San Juan de Ulua. He escaped along with Hawkins but the experience is said to have led him to his lifelong revenge against the Spanish. San Juan de Ulúa is a large fortress on an island overlooking the seaport of Veracruz, Mexico. ...


Circumnavigating the world

Entering the Pacific

Statue of Drake in Plymouth, England where he returned to on September 26, 1580 after circumnavigating the world.
Statue of Drake in Plymouth, England where he returned to on September 26, 1580 after circumnavigating the world.

In 1577 Queen Elizabeth sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. He set out from Plymouth on the November 15, 1577, but bad weather threatened him and his fleet, who were forced to take refuge in Falmouth, Cornwall, from where they returned to Plymouth for repair. After this major setback, he set sail once again on December 13, aboard the Pelican, with four other ships and 164 men. He soon added a sixth ship, the Mary (formerly Santa Maria) which had been captured off the coast of Africa from the Spaniards. More importantly, he added its captain, Nuno de Silva, a man with considerable experience navigating in South American waters. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Smeatons tower on the Plymouth Hoe Plymouth is a city in the Westcountry of England, situated at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar in the traditional county of Devon. ... Pacific redirects here. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ... This article is about the city in England. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Drake's fleet suffered great attrition; he scuttled both the Christopher and the flyboat Swan due to loss of men on the Atlantic crossing. At San Julian, Argentina, the Mary was found to be rotten and was burned. After the trial and execution of Thomas Doughty, Drake decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Straits of Magellan. San Julian is a 5th class municipality in the province of Eastern Samar, Philippines. ... Thomas Doughty (?–June 20, 1578) was an English nobleman who was a close friend of Francis Drake. ... San Julian is a 5th class municipality in the province of Eastern Samar, Philippines. ... The Strait of Magellan, near Punta Arenas The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland South America. ...


The three remaining ships of his convoy departed for the Magellan Strait, at the southern tip of South America. The strait is named after the Portuguese navigator who first circumnaviagated the world in 1521. This course established "Drake's Passage" but the route south of Tierra del Fuego around Cape Horn was not discovered until 1616. Drake crossed from the Atlantic to the Pacific through the Magellan Strait. After this passage a storm blew his ship so far south that he realised Tierra del Fuego was not part of a southern continent, as was believed. This voyage established Drake as the first Antarctic explorer, because the southernmost point of his voyage was at least 56 degrees according to astronomical data quoted in Hakluyt's "The Principall Navigators" of 1589. Until James Cook's voyage of 1773, this was the furthest south any seafaring explorer had ventured. The Strait of Magellan, near Punta Arenas The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland South America. ... Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... Cape Horn from the South. ... This article is about the British explorer. ...

A 17th-century pirate flag.
A 17th-century pirate flag.

A few weeks later Drake made it to the Pacific, but violent storms destroyed one of the ships and caused another to return to England. He pushed onwards in his lone flagship, now renamed the Golden Hind in honour of Sir Christopher Hatton (after his coat of arms). The Golden Hind sailed north along the Pacific coast of South America, attacking Spanish ports and rifling towns. Some Spanish ships were captured, and Drake used their more accurate charts. Image File history File links Pirate_Flag_of_Rack_Rackham. ... Image File history File links Pirate_Flag_of_Rack_Rackham. ... The Golden Hind was an English ship best known for its global circumnavigation between 1577 and 1580, captained by Sir Francis Drake. ... Christopher Hatton, c. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


In one of his most notable actions, Drake captured a Spanish ship, laden with riches from Peru, which held 25,000 pesos of pure gold, amounting in value to 37,000 ducats of Spanish money (about £7m by modern standards). Near Lima, they also discovered news of a ship, the Cacafuego, sailing towards Panama. They gave chase and eventually captured her, which was their most profitable capture. They found 80lb of gold, a golden crucifix, jewels, 13 chests full of royals of plate and 26 tons of silver. The peso is a unit of currency. ... The ducat (IPA: ) is a gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Its weight is 3. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Nova Albion

Main article: Nova Albion

On June 17, 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northern-most claim at Point Loma. He found a good port, landed, repaired and restocked his vessels, then stayed for a time, keeping friendly relations with the natives. He claimed the land in the name of the Holy Trinity for the English Crown as called Nova Albion - Latin for "New Britain." Assertions that he left some of his men behind as an embryo "colony" are founded merely on the reduced number who were with him in the Moluccas.[7] This article is about the area claimed by Francis Drake. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... Old Point Loma Lighthouse Jon Sullivan Point Loma is a scenic hill that sits atop San Diego Bay, in California, USA. Point Lomas well known landmark is the Cabrillo National Monument, named after Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese navigator sailing in the service of Spain, the first European... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... This article is about the area claimed by Francis Drake. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


The precise location of the port was carefully guarded to keep it secret from the Spaniards, and several of Drake's maps may even have been altered to this end. All first-hand records from the voyage, including logs, paintings and charts were lost when Whitehall Palace burned in 1698. A bronze plaque inscribed with Drake's claim to the new lands, fitting the description in Drake's own account, was discovered in Marin County, California, but was later declared a hoax. Another location often claimed to be Nova Albion is Whale Cove (Oregon), although to date there is no evidence to suggest this, other than a general resemblance to a single map penned a decade after the landing. The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... The so-called Drakes Plate of Brass. ... Marin County is a county located in Californias San Francisco Bay Area, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Whale Cove is a small cove, approximately one-third of a mile (0. ...


Samuel Bawlf[8] marshalled indications that "Nova Albion" was established at Comox on Vancouver Island, during an undocumented "secret voyage" north. It is known that Drake and his men sailed north from Nova Albion in search of a western opening to the Northwest Passage, a potentially valuable asset to the English at the time. During this venture the sailors accurately mapped the westward trend of the north-western corner of the North American continent, present-day British Columbia and Alaska. They had a rough voyage among the islands of the Alaskan panhandle, and were forced to turn back due to freezing weather. Coordinates: Country Canada Province British Columbia Regional District Comox-Strathcona Incorporated 1953 Government  - Mayor Jim Brass Area  - City 26. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Bawlf argues that Drake's ship reached 56°N, much farther north than was recorded. The reason for this false record, Bawlf writes, was for political reasons: competition with the Spanish in the Americas. Queen Elizabeth wanted to keep any information on the Northwest Passage secret, with the result that the location of Nova Albion and the highest latitude the expedition reached is still a source of controversy today.


Drake's brother endured a long period of torture in South America at the hands of Spaniards, who sought intelligence from him about Francis Drake's voyage. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


His voyage to the west coast of North America is important for a number of reasons. When he landed, his chaplain held Holy Communion; this was one of the first Protestant church services in the New World (though French Huguenots had founded an ill-fated colony in Florida in the 1560s). Drake was seen to be gaining prestige at the expense of the Papacy. North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ...


What is certain of the extent of Drake's claim and territorial challenge to the Papacy and the Spanish crown is that his port was founded somewhere north of Point Loma; that all contemporary maps label all lands above the Kingdoms of New Spain and New Mexico as "Nova Albion", and that all colonial claims made from the East Coast in the 1600s were "From Sea to Sea". The colonial claims were established with full knowledge of Drake's claims, which they reinforced, and remained valid in the minds of the English colonists on the Atlantic coast when those colonies became free states. Maps made soon after would have "Nova Albion" written above the entire northern frontier of New Spain. These territorial claims became important during the negotiations that ended the Mexican-American War between the United States and Mexico. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


Continuing the journey

A modern replica of Drake's Golden Hind
A modern replica of Drake's Golden Hind

Drake now headed westward across the Pacific, and a few months later reached the Moluccas, a group of islands in the south west Pacific, in eastern modern-day Indonesia. While there, the Golden Hind became caught on a reef and was almost lost. After three days of waiting for expedient tides and dumping cargo, the barque was miraculously freed. Drake and his men befriended a sultan king of the Moluccas and involved themselves in some intrigues with the Portuguese there. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 231 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 231 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Golden Hind was an English ship best known for its global circumnavigation between 1577 and 1580, captained by Sir Francis Drake. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ...


He made multiple stops on his way toward the tip of Africa, eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and reached Sierra Leone by July 22, 1580. On September 26 the Golden Hind sailed into Plymouth with Drake and 59 remaining crew aboard, along with a rich cargo of spices and captured Spanish treasures. The Queen's half-share of the cargo surpassed the rest of the crown's income for that entire year. Hailed as the first Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth (and the second such voyage arriving with at least one ship intact, after Elcano's in 1520), Drake was awarded knighthood by Queen Elizabeth aboard the Golden Hind on April 4, 1581,[9] and, in September 1581, became the Mayor of Plymouth.[3] He was also a Member of Parliament in 1581, for an unknown constituency, and again in 1584 for Bossiney.[3] For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan Sebastián Elcano statue in Guetaria For the Spanish training ship, see Juan Sebastián Elcano (Spanish ship). ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... Bossiney was a parliamentary constituency in Cornwall, one of a number of Cornish rotten boroughs, and returned two Members of Parliament to the British House of Commons from 1552 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ...


The Queen ordered all written accounts of Drake's voyage to be considered classified information, and its participants sworn to silence on pain of death; her aim was to keep Drake's activities away from the eyes of rival Spain. Also considering the friction with Spain, on the occasion of the knighting, Elizabeth 1 handed the sword to the Marquis de Marchaumont, ambassador from France, and asked him to dub Drake as the knight. During the Victorian era, in a spirit of nationalism, the story was promoted that Elizabeth 1 had done the actual knighting.[9][10] A typical classified document. ...

"The "Drake Jewel Portrait, by Marcus Gheeraerts, 1591 (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich)
"The "Drake Jewel Portrait, by Marcus Gheeraerts, 1591 (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich)

On his return Drake presented the Queen with a jewel token commemorating the circumnavigation. It bore a ship with an ebony hull, enameled gold taken from a prize off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and an African diamond. For her part, the Queen gave Drake a jewel with her portrait, an uncommon gift to bestow upon a commoner, and one that Drake sported proudly in his portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts, 1591. On one side is a state portrait of Elizabeth by the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard, on the other a sardonyx cameo of double portrait busts, a regal woman and an African male. The "Drake Jewel", as it is known today, is a rare documented survivor among sixteen-century jewels; it is conserved at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.[11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 901 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 901 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Marcus Gheeraerts may refer to the following individuals or/and unusual spellings of the same individuals . ... Marcus Gheeraerts may refer to the following individuals or/and unusual spellings of the same individuals . ... Nicholas Hilliard (c. ... Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. ... The National Maritime Museum, Greenwich The National Maritime Museum (NMM) is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom, and one of the most important in the world. ...


Spanish Armada

Main article: Spanish Armada

War broke out between Spain and England in 1585. Drake sailed to the New World and sacked the ports of Santo Domingo and Cartagena. On the return leg of the voyage, he captured the Spanish fort of San Augustín in Spanish Florida. These exploits encouraged Philip II of Spain to order the planning for an invasion of England. Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... For other places with the same name, see Cartagena (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in St. ... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories...


Cadiz Raid

In a pre-emptive strike, Drake "singed the beard of the King of Spain" by sailing a fleet into Cádiz and also La Coruña, two of Spain's main ports, and occupied the harbours, destroying the thirty-seven naval and merchant ships. The attack delayed the Spanish invasion by a year. [12] Over the next month, Drake patrolled the Iberian Coasts between Lisbon and Cape St. Vincent intercepting and destroying Spanish supply lines. Drake estimated that he captured around 1600-1700 tons of staves to make barrels which is enough to make 25,000 to 30,000 barrels that can contain provisions.[13] Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Torre de Hércules View from the Torre de Hércules A Coruña (Galician name, also known in English as Corunna; in Spanish as La Coruña) is a Galician city, in north-western Spain at 43° 22′ 0″ N 8° 22′ 60″ W. It is the capital of... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The Cabo de São Vicente (Cape St. ...

I would be more greatly worried about this situation if you were not in charge; therefore I expect it will have a good outcome.

King Philip's postscript in a dispatch to the Duke of Medina Sidonia two days after receiving the news of the Cadiz Raid and ordering him to pull out. Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... Dukes of Medina Sidonia (1445) Juan Alfonso de Guzman El Bueno, 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia (1410-1468) Enrique de Guzman El Bueno, 2nd Duke of Medina Sidonia (d. ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Loutherbourg-Spanish_Armada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Loutherbourg-Spanish_Armada. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured...

Defeat of the Spanish Armada

Drake was vice admiral in command of the English fleet (under Lord Howard of Effingham) when it overcame the Spanish Armada that was attempting to invade England in 1588. As the English fleet pursued the Armada up the English Channel in closing darkness, Drake put duty second and captured the Spanish galleon Rosario, along with Admiral Pedro de Valdés and all his crew. The Spanish ship was known to be carrying substantial funds to pay the Spanish Army in the Low Countries. Drake's ship had been leading the English pursuit of the Armada by means of a lantern. By extinguishing this for the capture, Drake put the fleet into disarray overnight. This exemplified Drake's ability, as a privateer, to suspend strategic purpose if a tactical profit were on offer. Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624) was a British statesman and admiral. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured...


On the night of July 29, along with Howard, Drake organised fire-ships, causing the majority of the Spanish captains to break formation and sail out of Calais into the open sea. The next day, Drake was present at the Battle of Gravelines. is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured...

Coming up to them, there has passed some common shot between some of our fleet and some of them; and as far as we perceive, they are determined to sell their lives with blows.

— Letter to Admiral Henry Seymour, after coming upon part of the Spanish Armada, written aboard the Revenge on July 31, 1588 (July 21, 1588 O.S.)[14] is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ...

The most famous (but probably apocryphal) anecdote about Drake relates that, prior to the battle, he was playing a game of bowls on Plymouth Hoe. On being warned of the approach of the Spanish fleet, Drake is said to have remarked that there was plenty of time to finish the game and still beat the Spaniards. There is no known eyewitness account of this incident and the earliest retelling of it was printed 37 years later. [15] Adverse winds and currents caused some delay in the launching of the English fleet as the Spanish drew nearer [15] so it is easy to see how a popular myth of Drake's cavalier attitude to the Spanish threat may have originated. For other uses, see Bowl (disambiguation). ... Plymouth Hoe from Mountbatten Plymouth Hoe, referred to locally as the Hoe, is a large public space in the English port city of Plymouth. ...


Drake-Norris Expedition

Main article: English Armada

In 1589, the year after defeating the Armada, Drake and Sir John Norreys were given three tasks. They were ordered to first seek out and destroy the remaining ships, second they were to support the rebels in Lisbon, Portugal against King Philip II (king of Spain and Portugal then), and third they were to take the Azores if possible. Drake and Norreys destroyed a few ships in the harbour of La Coruña in Spain but lost more than 12,000 lives and 20 ships.[citation needed] This delayed Drake and he was forced to skip hunting the rest of the surviving ships and head on to Lisbon.[13] The English Armada (also known as the Counter Armada, or The Drake-Norris Expedition, 1589) was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). ... Sir John Norreys frequently referred to as John Norris (1547?–July 3, 1597) was a skillful and courageous English soldier of a Berkshire family of court gentry, son of Henry Norris, 1st Baron Norreys a life-long friend of Queen Elizabeth. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... Torre de Hércules View from the Torre de Hércules A Coruña (Galician name, also known in English as Corunna; in Spanish as La Coruña) is a Galician city, in north-western Spain at 43° 22′ 0″ N 8° 22′ 60″ W. It is the capital of...


Final years

Drake's seafaring career continued into his mid-fifties. In 1595, following a disastrous campaign against Spanish America, where he suffered several defeats in a row, he unsuccessfully attacked San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Spanish gunners from El Morro Castle shot a cannonball through the cabin of Drake's flagship, but he survived. In 1596, he died of dysentery, at age 56 while anchored off the coast of Puerto Bello, Panama where some Spanish treasure ships had sought shelter. He was buried at sea in a lead coffin, near Portobelo. For other uses, see San Juan. ... Aerial view of El Morro. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... Portobelo (formerly Puerto Bello) is a port in Panama. ...


Cultural impact

Sir Francis Drake, circa 1581. This portrait may have been copied from Hilliard's miniature—note that the shirt is the same — and the somewhat oddly proportioned body added by an artist who did not have access to Drake. National Portrait Gallery, London.
Sir Francis Drake, circa 1581. This portrait may have been copied from Hilliard's miniature—note that the shirt is the same — and the somewhat oddly proportioned body added by an artist who did not have access to Drake. National Portrait Gallery, London.

Drake's exploits as an explorer have become an irrevocable part of the world's subconsciousness, particularly in Europe. Numerous stories and fictional adaptations of his adventures exist to this day. Considered a hero in England, it is said that if England is ever in peril, beating Drake's Drum will cause Drake to return to save the country. This is a variation of the sleeping hero folktale. Image File history File links NPG_Drake. ... Image File history File links NPG_Drake. ... Nicholas Hilliard (c. ... Image File history File links Sfdrake42. ... Drakes Drum was with Sir Francis Drake when he circumnavigated my nuts and when he died of dysentery off Panama in 1596. ... A king in the mountain, king under the mountain or sleeping hero is a prominent motif in folklore, that is found in many folktales and legends. ...


Drake's adventures, though less known in the United States, still have some effect. For instance, a major east-west road in Marin County, California is named Sir Francis Drake Boulevard. It connects Point San Quentin on San Francisco Bay with Point Reyes and Drakes Bay. Each end is near a site considered by some to be Drake's landing place. Along that road, in San Anselmo, is Sir Francis Drake High School, the only high school in the United States named after him. A large hotel in Union Square, San Francisco bears his name. Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Sir Francis Drake Boulevard is an east-west arterial road in Marin County, California, running from just west of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge (where it intersects with Interstate 580) to the trailhead for Point Reyes Lighthouse at the end of the Point Reyes Peninsula. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... Point Reyes Point Reyes is a prominent cape on the Pacific coast of northern California in the United States. ... blondes r so crazy!!!!!!!!!!!!!! cuz thier all up in your face and grill???!!111they are dumb peepes they care so much about there looks ... Sir Francis Drake High School is a secondary school located in San Anselmo, California. ... Union Square is the central shopping, hotel and theater district in San Francisco. ...


Drake's will was the focus of a vast confidence scheme which Oscar Hartzell perpetrated in the 1920s and 1930s. He convinced thousands of people, mostly in the Midwest, that Drake's fortune was being held by the British government, and had compounded to a huge amount. If their last name was Drake they might be eligible for a share if they paid Hartzell to be their agent. The swindle continued until a copy of Drake's will was brought to Hartzell's mail fraud trial and he was convicted and imprisoned. [16] Confidence Man redirects here. ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ...


In 1960 the television series Sir Francis Drake debuted on ITV, starring Terence Morgan in the title role. Sir Francis Drake was a British adventure television series starring Terence Morgan as Sir Francis Drake, commander of the sailing ship the Golden Hind. ... For other uses, see ITV (disambiguation). ... Terence Ivan Grant Morgan (8 December 1921 - 25 August 2005) was a British actor in the theatre, cinema and television. ...


Uncharted: Drake's Fortune, a video game for the PlayStation 3 console, features the character Nathan Drake, a fictional descendant of Francis Drake in search of his ancestor's lost treasures of El Dorado. The storyline follows clues supposedly left behind, and examines what mysteries lie within the history of Drake, and his death. The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ...


Drake appears as something of a deus ex machina in The Adventures & Brave Deeds Of The Ship's Cat On The Spanish Maine: Together With The Most Lamentable Losse Of The Alcestis & Triumphant Firing Of The Port Of Chagres, a children's book by Richard Adams. For other uses, see Deus ex machina (disambiguation). ... Richard Adams (ca. ...


Controversies

Slave Trading

Drake and Sir John Hawkins made the first English slave-trading expeditions, making their fortunes through the abduction and transportation of West African people, and then exchanging them for high-value goods. Around 1563 Drake first sailed west to the Spanish Main, on a ship owned by his uncle John Hawkins, with a cargo of people forcibly removed from the coast of West Africa. The Englishmen sold their African captives into slavery in Spanish plantations. These activities (which he continued) undermine the tendency to view Drake as simply an English hero'. In general, the kidnap and forced transportation of people was considered to be a criminal offence under English law at the time, although legal protection did not necessarily extend to foreigners, non-Protestants or criminals. Hawkins' own account of his actions (in which Drake took part) cites two sources for their victims. One was military attacks on African towns and villages (with the assistance of rival African warlords). The other was piracy against Portuguese slave ships. Britain's slave trade later came to be regarded as a terrible stain on the moral history of the nation, and Drake's role in laying the technical, legal and political foundations for the slave trade cannot be overlooked. For other persons named John Hawkins, see John Hawkins (disambiguation). ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Spanish Man was a name given to the Caribbean coast of the Spanish Empire in mainland Central and South America. ... For other persons named John Hawkins, see John Hawkins (disambiguation). ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Conflict in the Caribbean

During his early days as a slave-trader, Drake took an immediate dislike to the Spanish, at least in part due to their Catholicism and inherent mistrust of non-Spaniards. His hostility is said to have increased over an incident at San Juan de Ulua in 1568, when, while delivering his African victims, a Spanish fleet took him by surprise. Although he was in an enemy port, it was conventional for the Spanish to 'surrender' for a few hours in order to purchase control of the kidnap victims. Thus it was unusual for a fleet of enemy warships to appear out of the blue. Drake survived the attack largely because of his ability to swim. From then on, he devoted his life to working against the Spanish Empire; the Spanish considered him an outlaw pirate (see also Piracy in the Caribbean), but to England he was simply a sailor and privateer. On his second such voyage, he fought a battle against Spanish forces that cost many English lives but earned him the favour of Queen Elizabeth An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) An 18th-century pirate flag. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ...


The most celebrated of Drake's adventures along the Spanish Main was his capture of the Spanish Silver Train at Nombre de Dios in March 1573. With a crew including many French privateers and Maroons — African slaves who had escaped the Spanish — Drake raided the waters around Darien (in modern Panama) and tracked the Silver Train to the nearby port of Nombre de Dios. He made off with a fortune in gold, but had to leave behind another fortune in silver, because it was too heavy to carry back to England. It was during this expedition that he climbed a high tree in the central mountains of the Isthmus of Panama and thus became the first Englishman to see the Pacific Ocean. He remarked as he saw it that he hoped that one day an Englishman would be able to sail it, which he would years later as part of his circumnavigation of the world. The Spanish Man was a name given to the Caribbean coast of the Spanish Empire in mainland Central and South America. ... Nombre de Dios (Spanish: Name of God) is a town on the Atlantic coast of Panama, near the mouth of the Río Chagres. ... Body of Ndyuka Maroon child brought before a shaman, Suriname 1955 A Maroon (from the word marronage or American/Spanish cimarrón: fugitive, runaway, lit. ... Santa María la Antigua del Darién (Darién) is a city in what is now Darién Province, Panama. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ...


When Drake returned to Plymouth on August 9, 1573, a mere thirty Englishmen returned with him, every one of them rich for life. However, Queen Elizabeth, who had up to this point sponsored and encouraged Drake's raids, signed a temporary truce with King Philip II of Spain, and so was unable to officially acknowledge Drake's accomplishment. is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1573 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories...


Though considered a hero in England in his own time and regarded as a significant historical figure; Spanish history perceives him as a mere pirate who mercilessly plundered Spanish New World shipping and harbours. Drake, "el Draque", as he was referred to by the Spanish, was used as a bogeyman for centuries after his "vicious" raids.[17] For other uses, see Bogeyman (disambiguation). ...


Atrocities in Ireland

In 1575 Drake was present at Rathlin Island, part of the English plantation effort in Ulster when 600 men, women, and children were massacred after surrendering.[18] Rathlin Islands location Bird sanctuary on Rathlin Island False-colour NASA Landsat image showing Rathlin, the Antrim coast, and Kintyre Rathlin Island (Irish: Reachlainn) is an island off the coast of County Antrim in Northern Ireland, and is the northernmost point of the region. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Ulster. ...


Francis Drake was in charge of the ships which transported John Norreys' Troops to Rathlin Island, commanding a small frigate called "Falcon", with a total complement of 25. At the time of the massacre, he was charged with the task of keeping Scottish vessels from bringing reinforcements to Rathlin Island. The people who were massacred were, in fact, the families of Sorley Boy MacDonnell's followers.[19] Sir John Norreys frequently referred to as John Norris (1547?–July 3, 1597) was a skillful and courageous English soldier of a Berkshire family of court gentry, son of Henry Norris, 1st Baron Norreys a life-long friend of Queen Elizabeth. ... Somhairle Buidh Mac Domhnaill (Charles of the Yellow Hair, son of Donnell) anglicised Sorley Boy MacDonnell (in Scotland, MacDonald) (c. ...


Execution of Thomas Doughty

And after this holy repast, they dined also at the same table together, as cheerfully, in sobriety, as ever in their lives they had done aforetime, each cheering up the other, and taking their leave, by drinking each to other, as if some journey only had been in hand.

—Francis Fletcher in his account of the Communion Thomas Doughty (?–June 20, 1578) was an English nobleman who was a close friend of Francis Drake. ...

In 1578, Drake accused his co-commander Thomas Doughty of witchcraft in a shipboard trial.[10] Doughty was charged with mutiny and treason. Drake then denied his requests to see Drake's commission from the Queen to carry out such acts and was denied a trial in England. The two main pieces of evidence against Doughty were the testimony of the ship's carpenter, Edward Bright and also that Doughty admitted to telling Lord William Burghley of the voyage. Drake consented to his request of Communion and dined with him. Thomas Doughty was beheaded the next day. Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1521–4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Drake's Drum

Main article: Drake's Drum

Drake's Drum is a snare drum with his coat of arms. He took it when he circumnavigated the world. When Francis Drake was on his deathbed, he ordered the drum to be taken to Buckland Abbey where it still hangs today. Drake vowed that if England was ever in danger, someone was to beat the drum and he would return to defend England.[20] People have claimed they have heard the drum being played several times throughout history including three within the 1900s. First in 1914 when World War I first began, second in 1918 on the battleship Royal Oak and then again in the retreat from Dunkirk during World War II. Reportedly, on the Royal Oak, a victory drum roll from a drum was heard when the German navy surrendered. The ship was then searched twice by the officers and then again by the captain and neither a drum nor a drummer were found on board.[20][21] Drakes Drum was with Sir Francis Drake when he circumnavigated my nuts and when he died of dysentery off Panama in 1596. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Buckland Abbey is a 700-year-old house in Yelverton, Devon, England, noted for its connection with Sir Francis Drake and presently in the ownership of the National Trust. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the British Royal Navy, torpedoed in Scapa Flow by the German submarine U-47 on 14 October 1939. ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the British Royal Navy, torpedoed in Scapa Flow by the German submarine U-47 on 14 October 1939. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air...


See also

// In 1579, Francis Drake sailed out in the Pacific, then turned east seeking the Strait of Anián (a water passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic, known in the reverse direction as the Northwest Passage), or for a place to repair his ships. ... Buckland Abbey is a 700-year-old house in Yelverton, Devon, England, noted for its connection with Sir Francis Drake and presently in the ownership of the National Trust. ... Giovanni Battista Boazio was an Italian draftsman and cartographer. ... Drakes Leat Drakes Leat, also known as Plymouth Leat, was a watercourse constructed in the late 16th century to tap the River Meavy on Dartmoor, England in order to supply Plymouth with water. ... Thomas Doughty (?–June 20, 1578) was an English nobleman who was a close friend of Francis Drake. ... Francis William Drake (baptized August 22, 1724 – December 18, 1787) born in Buckland Monocharum, Devon the third son of Anne Heathcote and Sir Francis Henry Drake, a descendant of Sir Francis Drake. ... The Golden Hind was an English ship best known for its global circumnavigation between 1577 and 1580, captained by Sir Francis Drake. ... Naughty Dog is an American video game company founded by Andy Gavin and Jason Rubin in 1986. ... Iceman (Bobby Drake) is a Marvel Comics superhero, a member of the X-Men. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Cummins, John, Francis Drake: The Lives of a Hero, 1996, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0312163657
  2. ^ Turner, Michael. (2005). In Drake's Wake - The Early Voyages, Paul Mould Publishing. ISBN 978-1904959212
  3. ^ a b c Thomson,George Malcolm(1972), ‘Sir Francis Drake’, William Morrow & Company Inc. ISBN 978-0436520495
  4. ^ Tudor Place -Francis Drake bio
  5. ^ Froude, James Anthony, English Seamen in the Sixteenth Century, London 1896
  6. ^ 1921/22 edition of the Dictionary of National Biography, which quotes Barrow's Life of Drake (1843) p. 5.
  7. ^ Dismissed by John Cummins, Francis Drake: The Lives of a Hero 1997:118: "In view of the prominence given in different versions to the crowning of Drake it would be odd if the establishment of a colony had gone unrecorded."
  8. ^ R. Samuel Bawlf, The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake: 1577-1580 (Walker Publishing) 2003.
  9. ^ a b The Encyclopaedia of Plymouth History: Sir Francis Drake
  10. ^ a b Coote, Stephen, Drake: The Life and Legend of an Elizabethan Hero Saint Martin's Press, New York, 2003. ISBN 0-312-34165-2
  11. ^ "The Drake Jewel"
  12. ^ Thompson, E. and Freeman, E.A. History of England, p. 188.
  13. ^ a b Kraus, Hans. Sir Francis Drake: A Pictorial Biography, 1970
  14. ^ Turner, Sharon. The History of England from the Earliest Period to the Death of Elizabeth, 1835
  15. ^ a b Kelsey, Harry, Sir Francis Drake; The Queen's Pirate, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1998, ISBN 0-300-07182-5
  16. ^ Rayner, Richard. The Admiral and the Con Man The New Yorker, April 22, 2002, p. 150
  17. ^ See especially Drake's Spanish nickname and its mythic power to frighten naughty children. John Cummins, Francis Drake: The Lives of a Hero, page 273. ISBN 0312163657.
  18. ^ Brief mention of the massacre
  19. ^ John Sugden, "Sir Francis Drake" Simon Schuster New York, ISBN 0671758632
  20. ^ a b Paranormality: Drakes' Drum
  21. ^ Xroyvision: Drake's Drum

The Dictionary of National Biography (or DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history. ... Sir John Barrow, FRS , FRGS , LL.D (June 19, 1764 – November 23, 1848) was an English statesman. ...

Bibliography

  • Bawlf, Samuel (2003). The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake, 1577-1580. Walker & Company. ISBN 0802714056.
  • Hughes-Hallett, Lucy (2004). Heroes: A History of Hero Worship. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York. ISBN 1-4000-4399-9.
  • Kelsey, Harry (1998). Sir Francis Drake, the Queen's Pirate. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300071825.
  • Mattingly, Garett (1959). The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. ISBN 0-395-08366-4. – a detailed account of the defeat of the Spanish Armada, it received a special citation from the Pulitzer Prize committee in 1960.
  • Merideth, Mrs. Charles, Notes and Sketches of New South Wales, during a residence in that colony from 1839 to 1844; BOUND WITH: "Life of Drake" by John Barrow (1st ed, 1844) [xi, 164; and xii, 187 pp. respectfully]
  • Rodger, N.A.M. The Safeguard of the Sea; A Naval History of Britain 660-1649. (London, 1997).
  • Wilson, Derek (1977). The World Encompassed: Drake’s Great Voyage, 1577–80. Harper & Row. ISBN 0060146796.

Garrett Mattingly (1900-1962) was a professor of European history at Columbia University, specializing in early modern diplomatic history. ... The Defeat of the Spanish Armada is a book by Garrett Mattingly, a popular history of the Spanish Armadas attempt to invade England. ... Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet, FRS , FRGS , LL.D (June 19, 1764 – November 23, 1848) was an English statesman. ... N. A. M. Rodger (born 1949) is professor of naval history at the University of Exeter, England. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Drake, Francis
ALTERNATIVE NAMES El Draque
SHORT DESCRIPTION Privateer; circumnavigator of the world
DATE OF BIRTH c. 1540
PLACE OF BIRTH Crowndale, Devon, England
DATE OF DEATH January 27, 1596
PLACE OF DEATH Off the coast of Puerto Bello, Panama
For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... Portobelo (formerly Puerto Bello) is a port in Panama. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Look up corsair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Edward_England. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) An 18th-century pirate flag. ... Piracy in the Strait of Malacca was common in the past, and is currently on the rise again in recent years possibly for terrorism-related reasons. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... Tortuga (Île de la Tortue in French) is a Caribbean island that forms part of Haiti, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Libertatia (also known as Libertalia) was a legendary country, or free colony, forged by pirates, under the leadership of Captain Misson in the late 1600s. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Blackbeard (disambiguation). ... Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... Anne Bonny (c. ... Roche Braziliano (born c. ... Roberto Cofresí (June 17, 1791-March 29, 1825) born Roberto Cofresí y Ramírez de Arellano in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico, is Puerto Ricos most famous pirate and is better known as El Pirata Cofresí. Monument of Roberto Cofresí // The origin of Cofresís father is unknown and has... Henry Every or Avery (born c. ... For the musician, orchestrator, and composer, see William Kidd (composer). ... A portrait of Edward Lowe hanging in the National Maritime Museum in London Edward Ned Lowe (or Low, or Loe), often known as Ned Low was a notorious pirate during the Golden Age of Piracy. ... Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... The meeting of Grace OMalley and Queen Elizabeth I Gráinne Ní Mháille (c. ... John Rackham (died November 17, 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... For Mary Karen Read, see List of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre Mary Read (c. ... Oruç Reis captures a galley Aruj or Oruc Reis (Turkish: Oruç Reis) (c. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... Statue in St Malo René Trouin, Sieur du Gué, usually called Réné Duguay-Trouin, (Saint Malo, 10 June 1673 -- 1736) was a famous French privateer, Lieutenant-Général des armées navales du roi (admiral) and Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis. ... Blackbeards severed head hanging from Maynards bow Robert Maynard was a lieutenant in the British Royal Navy, captain of HMS Pearl, and is most famous for defeating the infamous pirate Blackbeard in battle. ... Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ... Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character N). Many pirates created their own individualized versions. ... A painting depicting the era. ... This is a timeline of the history of piracy. ... List of pirate films is is an alphabetical list of films dealing with piracy, primarily during the Golden Age of Piracy in the Caribbean Sea in the 16th century to 18th century. ... This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, and others involved in piracy. ...

 
 

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