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Encyclopedia > Francis Crick
Francis Harry Compton Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick
Born 8 June 1916(1916-06-08)
Weston Favell, North Hamptonshire, England
Died 28 July 2004 (aged 88)
San Diego, California, U.S.
Residence UK, U.S.
Nationality British
Field molecular biologist, physicist
Institutions Salk Institute
Alma mater University College London
University of Cambridge
Academic advisor   Max Perutz
Notable students   none
Known for DNA structure, consciousness
Notable awards Nobel Prize (1962)
Religious stance None[1]

Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 191628 July 2004), (Ph.D., Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 1953) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, and most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. He, James D. Watson, and Maurice Wilkins were jointly awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".[2] Image File history File links FrancisHarryComptonCrick. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Weston Favell is a district of Northampton in the English county of Northamptonshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Salk Institute Salk Institute The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is an independent non-profit educational research organization in La Jolla, California. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM (May 19, 1914 – February 6, 2002) was an Austrian-British molecular biologist. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Full name Gonville and Caius College Motto Named after Edmund Gonville & John Caius Previous names Gonville Hall (1348), Gonville & Caius (1557) Established 1348, refounded 1557 Sister College(s) Brasenose College Master Sir Christopher Hum Location Trinity St Undergraduates 468 Postgraduates 291 Homepage Boatclub Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge is a... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecular geometry or molecular structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule, inferred from the spectroscopic studies of the compound. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


His later work, until 1977, at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, has not received as much formal recognition. Crick is widely known for use of the term “central dogma” to summarize an idea that genetic information flow in cells is essentially one-way, from DNA to RNA to protein. Crick was an important theoretical molecular biologist and played an important role in research related to revealing the genetic code.[3] Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation... MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge EXTERNAL LINKS www. ... Information flow in biological systems The central dogma of molecular biology was first enunciated by Francis Crick in 1958[1] and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970:[2] POSTLEWAITE IS A TOOL The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ...


During the remainder of his career, he held the post of J.W. Kieckhefer Distinguished Research Professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. His later research centered on theoretical neurobiology and attempts to advance the scientific study of human consciousness. He remained in this post until his death; "he was editing a manuscript on his death bed, a scientist until the bitter end" said his close associate Christof Koch[4]. Salk Institute Salk Institute The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is an independent non-profit educational research organization in La Jolla, California. ... One of the beaches at La Jolla Cove La Jolla, California, is a seaside resort community comprised of 42,808[1] residents within the city of San Diego. ... Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Christof Koch (born November 13, 1956) is an American neuroscientist. ...

Contents

Biography, family and education

Stained glass window in the dining hall of Caius College, in Cambridge, commemorating Francis Crick and representing the structure of DNA.
Stained glass window in the dining hall of Caius College, in Cambridge, commemorating Francis Crick and representing the structure of DNA.

Francis Crick, the first son of Harry and Annie Elizabeth Crick (nee Wilkins), was born and raised in Weston Favell, then a small village on the edge of the English town of Northampton in which Crick’s father and uncle ran the family’s boot and shoe factory. At an early age, he was attracted to science and what he could learn about it from books. As a child, he was taken to church by his parents, but by about age 12 he told his mother that he no longer wanted to attend.[5] Crick preferred the scientific search for answers over belief in any dogma. He was educated at Northampton Grammar School (now Northampton School For Boys) and, after the age of 14, Mill Hill School in London (on scholarship), where he studied mathematics, physics, and chemistry. At the age of 21, Crick earned a B.Sc. degree in physics from University College London (UCL) [5] after he had failed to gain his intended place at a Cambridge college, probably through failing their requirement for Latin; his contemporaries in British DNA research Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins both went up to Cambridge colleges, to Newnham and St. John's respectively. Crick later became a Ph.D student and Honorary Fellow of Caius College and mainly worked at the Cavendish Laboratory and MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (446x871, 81 KB) Summary Some more information about the stained glass window (thanks to User:Nitramrekcap on en. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (446x871, 81 KB) Summary Some more information about the stained glass window (thanks to User:Nitramrekcap on en. ... Full name Gonville and Caius College Motto Named after Edmund Gonville & John Caius Previous names Gonville Hall (1348), Gonville & Caius (1557) Established 1348, refounded 1557 Sister College(s) Brasenose College Master Sir Christopher Hum Location Trinity St Undergraduates 468 Postgraduates 291 Homepage Boatclub Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge is a... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Weston Favell is a district of Northampton in the English county of Northamptonshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ... A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom. ... Northampton School for Boys (NSB) is a secondary school in Northampton, England. ... Mill Hill School, in Mill Hill, London, is a coeducational independent school for boarding and day pupils aged 13–18. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... B.S. redirects here. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... Full name Newnham College Motto - Named after Its location in the village of Newnham Previous names Newnham Hall Established 1871 Sister College(s) Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford Principal Dame Patricia Hodgson Location Sidgwick Avenue Undergraduates 396 Postgraduates 120 Homepage N/A A view of the Clough and Kennedy buildings of... College name The College of Saint John the Evangelist of the University of Cambridge Motto Souvent me Souvient (Latin: I often remember) Named after The Hospital of Saint John the Evangelist Established 1511 Location St. ... Full name Gonville and Caius College Motto Named after Edmund Gonville & John Caius Previous names Gonville Hall (1348), Gonville & Caius (1557) Established 1348, refounded 1557 Sister College(s) Brasenose College Master Sir Christopher Hum Location Trinity St Undergraduates 468 Postgraduates 291 Homepage Boatclub Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge is a... Plaque, at old site Entrance, old site, Free School Lane The Cavendish Laboratory is the University of Cambridges Department of Physics, and is part of the universitys School of Physical Sciences. ... Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation... MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge EXTERNAL LINKS www. ...


Crick began a Ph.D. research project on measuring viscosity of water at high temperatures (what he later described as "the dullest problem imaginable"[6]) in the laboratory of physicist Edward Neville da Costa Andrade, but with the outbreak of World War II - in particular, an incident during the Battle of Britain when a bomb fell through the roof of the laboratory and destroyed his experimental apparatus [7] - Crick was deflected from a possible career in physics. Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Edward Neville Da Costa Andrade (December 27, 1887 - June 6, 1971), was an English physicist, writer and poet. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about military history. ...


During World War II, he worked for the Admiralty Research Laboratory, from which emerged a group of many notable scientists; he worked on the design of magnetic and acoustic mines and was instrumental in designing a new mine that was effective against German minesweepers.[8] The Admiralty Research Laboratory, or ARL, was a research laboratory that supported the work of the UK Admiralty in Teddington. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... Polish wz. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ...


After World War II, in 1947, Crick began studying biology and became part of an important migration of physical scientists into biology research. This migration was made possible by the newly won influence of physicists such as John Randall, who had helped win the war with inventions such as radar. Crick had to adjust from the "elegance and deep simplicity" of physics to the "elaborate chemical mechanisms that natural selection had evolved over billions of years." He described this transition as, "almost as if one had to be born again." According to Crick, the experience of learning physics had taught him something important—hubris—and the conviction that since physics was already a success, great advances should also be possible in other sciences such as biology. Crick felt that this attitude encouraged him to be more daring than typical biologists who tended to concern themselves with the daunting problems of biology and not the past successes of physics. For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Sir John Randall Sir John Randall (March 23, 1905 – June 16, 1984) was a British physicist, credited with radical improvement of the cavity magnetron, an essential component of the centimetre radar, which was one of the keys to the Allied victory in the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


For the better part of two years, Crick worked on the physical properties of cytoplasm at Cambridge's Strangeways Laboratory, headed by Honor Bridget Fell, with a Medical Research Council studentship, until he joined Perutz and Kendrew at the Cavendish Laboratory. The Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge was under the general direction of Sir Lawrence Bragg, a Nobel Prize winner in 1915 at the age of 25. Bragg was influential in the effort to beat a leading American chemist, Linus Pauling, to the discovery of DNA's structure (after having been stung by Pauling's success in determining the alpha helix structure of proteins). At the same time Bragg's Cavendish Laboratory was also effectively competing with King's College London, which was under Sir John Randall. (Randall had turned down Francis Crick from working at King's College London.) Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins of King's College London were personal friends, which influenced subsequent scientific events as much as the friendship between Crick and James Watson. Crick and Wilkins first met at King's College London and not as reported at the Admiralty during World War II. Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation... Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM (May 19, 1914 – February 6, 2002) was an Austrian-British molecular biologist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Plaque, at old site Entrance, old site, Free School Lane The Cavendish Laboratory is the University of Cambridges Department of Physics, and is part of the universitys School of Physical Sciences. ... Plaque, at old site Entrance, old site, Free School Lane The Cavendish Laboratory is the University of Cambridges Department of Physics, and is part of the universitys School of Physical Sciences. ... Sir William Lawrence Bragg CH, FRS, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915 with his father Sir William Henry Bragg. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Plaque, at old site Entrance, old site, Free School Lane The Cavendish Laboratory is the University of Cambridges Department of Physics, and is part of the universitys School of Physical Sciences. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... Sir John Randall Sir John Randall,FRSE, (March 23, 1905 – June 16, 1984) was a British physicist, credited with radical improvement of the cavity magnetron, an essential component of centimetric wavelength radar, which was one of the keys to the Allied victory in the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...

  • Spouses: Ruth Doreen Crick, nee Dodd (b. 1913, m. 18 February 1940-1947); Odile Crick, nee Speed (b. 11 August 1920, m. 14 August 1949-2004, d. 5 July 2007)
  • Children: Michael b. November 1940 [by Doreen Crick]; Gabrielle b. 1951 and Jacqueline [later Nichols] b. March 1954 [by Odile Crick];
  • Grandchildren: Alex, Camberley, Francis, and Kindra (Michael and Barbara Crick's children] and Jacqueline Nichols' two stepchildren.

Crick died of colon cancer on 28 July 2004 at The University of California's San Diego Thornton Hospital, San Diego; he was cremated and his ashes scattered into the Pacific Ocean. A memorial service was held at The Salk Institute, La Jolla, near San Diego, California. [9] Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... Cremation is the practice of disposing of a corpse by burning. ... Salk Institute Salk Institute The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is an independent non-profit educational research organization in La Jolla, California. ...


Biology research

Francis Crick
Discovery of the DNA Double Helix

Francis Crick, lecturing ca. 1979
William Astbury Oswald Avery
Francis Crick Erwin Chargaff
Jerry Donohue Rosalind Franklin
Phoebus Levene Linus Pauling
Erwin Schrödinger Alec Stokes
James Watson Maurice Wilkins

Crick was interested in two fundamental unsolved problems of biology. First, how molecules make the transition from the non-living to the living, and second, how the brain makes a conscious mind.[10] He realized that his background made him more qualified for research on the first topic and the field of biophysics. It was at this time of Crick’s transition from physics into biology that he was influenced by both Linus Pauling and Erwin Schrödinger.[11] It was clear in theory that covalent bonds in biological molecules could provide the structural stability needed to hold genetic information in cells. It only remained as an exercise of experimental biology to discover exactly which molecule was the genetic molecule.[12][13] In Crick’s view, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, Gregor Mendel’s genetics and knowledge of the molecular basis of genetics, when combined, reveal the secret of life.[14] The Discovery of the DNA Double Helix Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid by James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Crick. ... William Astbury (1898-1961) was an English biochemist who made X-ray diffraction studies of nucleic acid in 1937. ... Oswald Theodore Avery (October 21, 1877–1955) was a Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. ... // Erwin Chargaff (Czernowitz, August 11, 1905 – New York City, USA, June 20, 2002) was an Austrian biochemist who emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Molecular diagram of a hypothetical tetranucleotide, as proposed (incorrectly) by Phoebus Levene around 1910. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... Alec Stokes (Alexander Rawson Stokes, June 27, 1919–February 5, 2003) was one of the key contributors in the original DNA research team at Kings College London. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... This article is about life in general. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... Covalent redirects here. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... “Mendel” redirects here. ...


It's clear that some macromolecule such as protein was likely to be the genetic molecule.[15] However, it was well known that proteins are structural and functional macromolecules, some of which carry out enzymatic reactions of cells.[15] In the 1940s, some evidence had been found pointing to another macromolecule, DNA, the other major component of chromosomes, as a candidate genetic molecule. Oswald Avery and his collaborators showed that a phenotypic difference could be caused in bacteria by providing them with a particular DNA molecule.[13] Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A macromolecule is a molecule composed of a very large number of atoms. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Oswald Theodore Avery (October 21, 1877–1955) was a Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ...

An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. At the time when Crick participated in the discovery of the DNA Double Helix, he was doing his thesis research on X-ray diffraction analysis of protein structure (see below).
An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. At the time when Crick participated in the discovery of the DNA Double Helix, he was doing his thesis research on X-ray diffraction analysis of protein structure (see below).

However, other evidence was interpreted as suggesting that DNA was structurally uninteresting and possibly just a molecular scaffold for the apparently more interesting protein molecules.[16] Crick was in the right place, in the right frame of mind, at the right time (1949), to join Max Perutz’s project at Cambridge University, and he began to work on the X-ray crystallography of proteins.[17] X-ray crystallography theoretically offered the opportunity to reveal the molecular structure of large molecules like proteins and DNA, but there were serious technical problems then preventing X-ray crystallography from being applicable to such large molecules.[17] Image File history File links Summary From a US government website. ... Image File history File links Summary From a US government website. ... Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM (May 19, 1914 – February 6, 2002) was an Austrian-British molecular biologist. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ...


1949-1950

Crick taught himself the mathematical theory of X-ray crystallography. During the period of Crick's study of X-ray diffraction, researchers in the Cambridge lab were attempting to determine the most stable helical conformation of amino acid chains in proteins (the α helix). Pauling was the first to identify the 3.6 amino acids per helix turn ratio of the α helix. Crick was witness to the kinds of errors that his co-workers made in their failed attempts to make a correct molecular model of the α helix; these turned out to be important lessons that could be applied to the helical structure of DNA. For example, he learned the importance of the structural rigidity that double bonds confer on molecular structures which is relevant both to peptide bonds in proteins and the structure of nucleotides in DNA. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Cis-2-butene Trans-2-butene In chemistry, geometric isomerism or cis-trans isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism and describes the orientation of functional groups at the ends of a bond around which no rotation is possible. ... A peptide bond is a chemical bond that is formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ...

Francis Crick's first sketch of the deoxyribonucleic acid double-helix pattern
Francis Crick's first sketch of the deoxyribonucleic acid double-helix pattern

Francis Cricks first sketch of the deoxyribonucleic acid double-helix See also Image:Early sketch of DNA by Crick. ... Francis Cricks first sketch of the deoxyribonucleic acid double-helix See also Image:Early sketch of DNA by Crick. ... DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which carries genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses. ...

1951-1953

In 1951, together with Cochran and V. Vand, Crick assisted in the development of a mathematical theory of X-ray diffraction by a helical molecule.[18] This theoretical result matched well with X-ray data obtained for proteins that contain sequences of amino acids in the Alpha helix conformation (published in Nature in 1952).[19] Helical diffraction theory turned out to also be useful for understanding the structure of DNA. William Gemmell Cochran (15 July 1909 – 29 March 1980) a prominent statistician who was born in Scotland but spent most of his life in the United States. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Late in 1951, Crick started working with James D. Watson at Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, England. Using the X-ray diffraction results of Raymond Gosling and Rosalind Franklin of King's College London, given to them by Gosling and Franklin's colleague Maurice Wilkins, Watson and Crick together developed a model for a helical structure of DNA, which they published in 1953.[20] For this and subsequent work they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962 with Maurice Wilkins.[21] James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Plaque, at old site Entrance, old site, Free School Lane The Cavendish Laboratory is the University of Cambridges Department of Physics, and is part of the universitys School of Physical Sciences. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... Photo 51, an X-ray diffraction image of sodium salt of DNA. B configuration Photo 51 is the name given to an X-ray diffraction image of DNA taken by Rosalind Franklin in 1952[1] that was critical evidence[2] in identifying the structure of DNA.[3] The photo was... The joke funeral card in the names of Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling Raymond Gosling is a distinguished scientist who worked with both Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin at Kings College London in deducing the structure of DNA. He was born in 1926 and attended school in Wembley. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ...


When James D. Watson came to Cambridge, Crick was a 35 year old graduate student and Watson was only 23, but he already had a Ph.D. They shared an interest in the fundamental problem of learning how genetic information might be stored in molecular form.[22][23] Watson and Crick talked endlessly about DNA and the idea that it might be possible to guess a good molecular model of its structure.[24] A key piece of experimentally-derived information came from X-ray diffraction images that had been obtained by Maurice Wilkins and his research student, Raymond Gosling. In November 1951, Wilkins came to Cambridge and shared his data with Watson and Crick. Alexander Stokes (another expert in helical diffraction theory) and Wilkins (both at King's) had reached the conclusion that X-ray diffraction data for DNA indicated that the molecule had a helical structure. Stimulated by Wilkins and a talk given by Rosalind Franklin about her work on DNA, Crick and Watson produced and showed off an erroneous first model of DNA. Watson, in particular, thought they were competing against Pauling and feared that Pauling might determine the structure of DNA.[25] James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... The joke funeral card in the names of Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling Raymond Gosling is a distinguished scientist who worked with both Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin at Kings College London in deducing the structure of DNA. He was born in 1926 and attended school in Wembley. ... Alec Stokes (Alexander Rawson Stokes, June 27, 1919–February 5, 2003) was one of the key contributors in the original DNA research team at Kings College London. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ...


Many have speculated about what might have happened had Pauling been able to travel to Britain as planned in May of 1952.[26] He might have seen some of the Wilkins/Gosling/Franklin X-ray diffraction data and such an event might have led him to a double helix model. As it was, his political activities caused his travel to be restricted by the U. S. government and he did not visit the UK until later, at which point he met none of the DNA researchers in England.[27] Watson and Crick were not officially working on DNA. Crick was writing his Ph.D. thesis. Watson also had other work such as trying to obtain crystals of myoglobin for X-ray diffraction experiments. In 1952, Watson did X-ray diffraction on tobacco mosaic virus and found results indicating that it had helical structure. Having failed once, Watson and Crick were now somewhat reluctant to try again and for a while they were forbidden to make further efforts to find a molecular model of DNA. Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... The joke funeral card in the names of Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling Raymond Gosling is a distinguished scientist who worked with both Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin at Kings College London in deducing the structure of DNA. He was born in 1926 and attended school in Wembley. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Digram that emphasizes the phosphate backbone of DNA. Watson and Crick first made helical models with the phosphates at the center of the helices.
Digram that emphasizes the phosphate backbone of DNA. Watson and Crick first made helical models with the phosphates at the center of the helices.

Of great importance to the model building effort of Watson and Crick was Rosalind Franklin's understanding of basic chemistry, which indicated that the hydrophilic phosphate-containing backbones of the nucleotide chains of DNA should be positioned so as to interact with water molecules on the outside of the molecule while the hydrophobic bases should be packed into the core. Franklin shared this chemical knowledge with Watson and Crick when she pointed out to them that their first model (1951, with the phosphates inside) was obviously wrong. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ...


Crick described what he saw as the failure of Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin to cooperate and work towards finding a molecular model of DNA as a major reason why he and Watson eventually made a second attempt to make a molecular model of DNA. They asked for, and received, permission to do so from both Bragg and Wilkins. In order to construct their model of DNA, Watson and Crick made use of information from unpublished X-ray diffraction images of Franklin's (shown at meetings and shared by Wilkins), and preliminary accounts of Franklin's detailed analysis of the X-ray images that were included in a written progress report for the King's laboratory of John Randall from late 1952. Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Sir William Lawrence Bragg CH, FRS, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915 with his father Sir William Henry Bragg. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... Alexander John Randall (born 1955) is a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom. ...


It is a matter of debate whether Watson and Crick should have had access to Franklin's results without her knowledge or permission and before she had a chance to formally publish the results of her detailed analysis of her X-ray diffraction data that were included in the progress report. In an effort to clarify this issue, Perutz later published[28] what had been in the progress report, and suggested that nothing was in the report that Franklin herself had not said in her talk (attended by Watson) in late 1951. Further, Perutz explained that the report was to a Medical Research Council (MRC) committee that had been created in order to "establish contact between the different groups of people working for the Council". Randall's and Perutz's labs were both MRC funded laboratories. James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... Max Ferdinand Perutz (May 19, 1914 - February 6, 2002) was an Austrian molecular biologist. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation... Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation...


It is also not clear how important Franklin's unpublished results from the progress report actually were for the model building done by Watson and Crick. After the first crude X-ray diffraction images of DNA were collected in the 1930s, William Astbury had talked about stacks of nucleotides spaced at 3.4 angstrom (0.34 nanometre) intervals in DNA. A citation to Astbury's earlier X-ray diffraction work was one of only 8 references in Franklin's first paper on DNA.[29] Analysis of Astbury's published DNA results and the better X-ray diffraction images collected by Wilkins, Gosling and Franklin revealed the helical nature of DNA. It was possible to predict the number of bases stacked within a single turn of the DNA helix (10 per turn; a full turn of the helix is 27 angstroms [2.7 nm] in the compact A form, 34 angstroms [3.4 nm] in the wetter B form). Wilkins shared this information about the B form of DNA with Crick and Watson. Crick did not see Franklin's B form X-ray images until after the DNA double helix model was published[30]. Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... William Astbury (1898-1961) was an English biochemist who made X-ray diffraction studies of nucleic acid in 1937. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... William Astbury (1898-1961) was an English biochemist who made X-ray diffraction studies of nucleic acid in 1937. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... Photo 51, an X-ray diffraction image of sodium salt of DNA. B configuration Photo 51 is the name given to an X-ray diffraction image of DNA taken by Rosalind Franklin in 1952[1] that was critical evidence[2] in identifying the structure of DNA.[3] The photo was...


One of the few references cited by Watson and Crick when they published their model of DNA, was to a published article that included Sven Furberg’s DNA model that had the bases on the inside. Thus, the Watson and Crick model was not the first "bases in" model to be published. Furberg's results had also provided the correct orientation of the DNA sugars with respect to the bases. During their model building, Crick and Watson learned that an antiparallel orientation of the two nucleotide chain backbones worked best to orient the base pairs in the centre of a double helix. Crick's access to Franklin's progress report of late 1952 is what made Crick confident that DNA was a double helix with anti-parallel chains, but there were other chains of reasoning and sources of information that also led to these conclusions. James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ...


As a result of leaving King's College for another institution, Franklin was asked by John Randall to give up her work on DNA. When it became clear to Wilkins and the supervisors of Watson and Crick that Franklin was going to the new job, and that Pauling was working on the structure of DNA, they were willing to share Franklin's data with Watson and Crick, in the hope that they could find a good model of DNA before Pauling was able. Franklin's X-ray diffraction data for DNA and her systematic analysis of DNA's structural features was useful to Watson and Crick in guiding them towards a correct molecular model. The key problem for Watson and Crick, which could not be resolved by the data from King's College, was to guess how the nucleotide bases pack into the core of the DNA double helix. For other uses, see Kings College. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Alexander John Randall (born 1955) is a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ...

Diagrammatic representation of some key structural features of DNA. The similar structures of guanine:cytosine and adenine:thymine base pairs is illustrated. The base pairs are held together by hydrogen bonds. The phosphate backbones are anti-parallel.
Diagrammatic representation of some key structural features of DNA. The similar structures of guanine:cytosine and adenine:thymine base pairs is illustrated. The base pairs are held together by hydrogen bonds. The phosphate backbones are anti-parallel.

Another key to finding the correct structure of DNA was the so-called Chargaff ratios, experimentally determined ratios of the nucleotide subunits of DNA: the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. A visit by Erwin Chargaff to England in 1952 reinforced the salience of this important fact for Watson and Crick. The significance of these ratios for the structure of DNA were not recognized until Watson, persisting in building structural models, realized that A:T and C:G pairs are structurally similar. In particular, the length of each base pair is the same. The base pairs are held together by hydrogen bonds, the same non-covalent interaction that stabilizes the protein α helix. Watson’s recognition of the A:T and C:G pairs was aided by information from Jerry Donohue[31] about the most likely structures of the nucleobases. After the discovery of the hydrogen bonded A:T and C:G pairs, Watson and Crick soon had their double helix model of DNA with the hydrogen bonds at the core of the helix providing a way to unzip the two complementary strands for easy replication: the last key requirement for a likely model of the genetic molecule. As important as Crick’s contributions to the discovery of the double helical DNA model were, he stated that without the chance to collaborate with Watson, he would not have found the structure by himself. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Chargaffs rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... // Erwin Chargaff (Czernowitz, August 11, 1905 – New York City, USA, June 20, 2002) was an Austrian biochemist who emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... DNA replication. ...


Crick did tentatively attempt to perform some experiments on nucleotide base pairing, but he was more of a theoretical than an experimental biologist. There was another close approach to discovery of the base pairing rules in early 1952. Crick had started to think about interactions between the bases. He asked John Griffith to try to calculate attractive interactions between the DNA bases from chemical principles and quantum mechanics. Griffith's best guess was that A:T and G:C were attractive pairs. At that time, Crick was not aware of Chargaff's rules and he made little of Griffith's calculations. It did start him thinking about complementary replication. Identification of the correct base-pairing rules (A-T, G-C) was achieved by Watson "playing" with cardboard cut-out models of the nucleotide bases, much in the manner that Pauling had discovered the protein alpha helix a few years earlier. The Watson and Crick discovery of the DNA double helix structure was made possible by their correct interpretation of the significance of experimental results that had been obtained by others. A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... // Erwin Chargaff (Czernowitz, August 11, 1905 – New York City, USA, June 20, 2002) was an Austrian biochemist who emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ...


Molecular biology

In 1954, at the age of 37, Crick completed his Ph.D. thesis: "X-Ray Diffraction: Polypeptides and Proteins" and received his degree. Crick then worked in the laboratory of David Harker at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, where he continued to develop his skills in the analysis of X-ray diffraction data for proteins, working primarily on ribonuclease and the mechanisms of protein synthesis. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Polytechnic University (Brooklyn Poly, Poly, or Polytech), located in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City, is the United States second oldest private technological university, founded in 1854. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ...


After the discovery of the double helix model of DNA, Crick’s interests quickly turned to the biological implications of the structure. In 1953, Watson and Crick published another article in Nature which stated: "it therefore seems likely that the precise sequence of the bases is the code that carries the genetical information".[32] The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ...

Collagen triple helix.
Collagen triple helix.

In 1956, Crick and Watson speculated on the structure of small viruses. They suggested that spherical viruses such as Tomato bushy stunt virus had icosahedral symmetry and were made from 60 identical subunits.[33] Image File history File links Summary Ribbon model of the collagen triple helix. ... Image File history File links Summary Ribbon model of the collagen triple helix. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Tomato bushy stunt virus is a tombusvirus first reported in tomatoes in 1935. ...


After his short time in New York, Crick returned to Cambridge where he worked until 1976, at which time he moved to California. Crick engaged in several X-ray diffraction collaborations such as one with Alexander Rich on the structure of collagen.[34] However, Crick was quickly drifting away from continued work related to his expertise in the interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of proteins. This article is about the state. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Alexander Rich, MD (American; born 1925) is a biologist and biophysicist. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ...


George Gamow established a group of scientists interested in the role of RNA as an intermediary between DNA as the genetic storage molecule in the nucleus of cells and the synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm. It was clear to Crick that there had to be a code by which a short sequence of nucleotides would specify a particular amino acid in a newly synthesized protein. In 1956, Crick wrote an informal paper about the genetic coding problem for the small group of scientists in Gamow’s RNA group.[35] In this article, Crick reviewed the evidence supporting the idea that there was a common set of about 20 amino acids used to synthesize proteins. Crick proposed that there was a corresponding set of small adaptor molecules that would hydrogen bond to short sequences of a nucleic acid and also link to one of the amino acids. He also explored the many theoretical possibilities by which short nucleic acid sequences might code for the 20 amino acids. George Gamow (pronounced GAM-off) (March 4, 1904 – August 19, 1968) , born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Георгий Антонович Гамов) was a Ukrainian born physicist and cosmologist. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In cell biology, the nucleus is an organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells, which contains most of the cells genetic material. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ...

Molecular model of a tRNA molecule. Crick predicted that such adaptor molecules might exist as the links between codons and amino acids.
Molecular model of a tRNA molecule. Crick predicted that such adaptor molecules might exist as the links between codons and amino acids.

During the mid-to-late 1950s Crick was very much intellectually engaged in sorting out the mystery of how proteins are synthesized. By 1958, Crick’s thinking had matured and he could list in an orderly way all of the key features of the protein synthesis process:[36] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x1056, 525 KB) Summary Three dimensional image of a tRNA. Coloring: CCA tail in orange Acceptor stem in purple D arm in red Anticodon arm in blue with Anticodon in black. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x1056, 525 KB) Summary Three dimensional image of a tRNA. Coloring: CCA tail in orange Acceptor stem in purple D arm in red Anticodon arm in blue with Anticodon in black. ... Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... RNA codons. ...

  • genetic information stored in the sequence of DNA molecules
  • a “messenger” RNA molecule to carry the instructions for making one protein to the cytoplasm
  • adaptor molecules (“they might contain nucleotides”) to match short sequences of nucleotides in the RNA messenger molecules to specific amino acids
  • ribonucleic-protein complexes that catalyse the assembly of amino acids into proteins according to the messenger RNA

The “adaptor molecules” were eventually shown to be tRNAs and the catalytic “ribonucleic-protein complexes” became known as ribosomes. An important step was later (1960) realization that the messenger RNA was not the same as the ribosomal RNA. None of this, however, answered the fundamental theoretical question of the exact nature of the genetic code. In his 1958 article, Crick speculated, as had others, that a triplet of nucleotides could code for an amino acid. Such a code might be “degenerate”, with 4x4x4=64 possible triplets of the four nucleotide subunits while there were only 20 amino acids. Some amino acids might have multiple triplet codes. Crick also explored other codes in which for various reasons only some of the triplets were used, “magically” producing just the 20 needed combinations. Experimental results were needed; theory alone could not decide the nature of the code. Crick also used the term “central dogma” to summarize an idea that implies that genetic information flow between macromolecules would be essentially one-way: Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... The life cycle of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. ... Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a type of RNA synthesized in the nucleolus by RNA Pol I, is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Information flow in biological systems The central dogma of molecular biology was first enunciated by Francis Crick in 1958[1] and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970:[2] POSTLEWAITE IS A TOOL The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of... Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ...


DNA → RNA → Protein


Some critics thought that by using the word "dogma" Crick was implying that this was a rule that could not be questioned, but all he really meant was that it was a compelling idea without much solid evidence to support it. In his thinking about the biological processes linking DNA genes to proteins, Crick made explicit the distinction between the materials involved, the energy required, and the information flow. Crick was focused on this third component (information) and it became the organizing principle of what became known as molecular biology. Crick had by this time become a dominant, if not the dominant, theoretical molecular biologist. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ...


Proof that the genetic code is a degenerate triplet code finally came from genetics experiments, some of which were performed by Crick.[37] The details of the code came mostly from work by Marshall Nirenberg and others who synthesized synthetic RNA molecules and used them as templates for in vitro protein synthesis[38]. For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Marshall Nirenberg Marshall Warren Nirenberg (born April 10, 1927) is a U.S. biochemist and geneticist. ...


Controversy about using King's College London's results

An enduring controversy has been generated by Watson and Crick's use of DNA X-ray diffraction data collected by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling. The controversy arose from the fact that some of the data were shown to them, without her knowledge, by her estranged colleague, Maurice Wilkins, and by Max Perutz.[39] Her experimental results provided estimates of water content of DNA crystals and these results were most consistent with the three[40] sugar-phosphate backbones being on the outside of the molecule. Franklin personally told Crick and Watson that the backbones had to be on the outside. Her identification of the space group for DNA crystals revealed to Crick that the DNA strands were antiparallel, which helped Watson and Crick decide to look for DNA models with two polynucleotide strands. The X-ray diffraction images collected by Gosling and Franklin provided the best evidence for the helical nature of DNA. Franklin's superb experimental work thus proved crucial in Watson and Crick's discovery. James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... The joke funeral card in the names of Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling Raymond Gosling is a distinguished scientist who worked with both Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin at Kings College London in deducing the structure of DNA. He was born in 1926 and attended school in Wembley. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The space group of a crystal is a mathematical description of the symmetry inherent in the structure. ... Two antiparallel molecules run side-by-side in opposite directions. ...


Prior to publication of the double helix structure, Watson and Crick had little interaction with Franklin. Crick and Watson felt that they had benefited from collaborating with Maurice Wilkins. They offered him a co-authorship on the article that first described the double helix structure of DNA. Wilkins turned down the offer and was in part responsible for the terse character of the acknowledgment of experimental work done at King's College. Rather than make any of the DNA researchers at King's College co-authors on the Watson and Crick double helix article, the solution that was arrived at was to publish two additional papers from King's College along with the helix paper. Brenda Maddox suggested that because of the importance of her work to Watson and Crick's model building, Franklin should have had her name on the original Watson and Crick paper in Nature.[41] Watson and Crick offered joint authorship to Wilkins which he turned down at the time, but which he may have subsequently regretted. (Franklin and Ray Gosling submitted their own joint 'second' paper to Nature at the same time as Wilkins, Stokes and Wilson submitted theirs, i.e., the 'third' paper on DNA.) Academic publishing describes a system of publishing that is necessary in order for academic scholars to review work and make it available for a wider audience. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... The biographer Brenda Maddox is a Harvard graduate who has lived for many years in the UK. Her biographies of Elizabeth Taylor, D.H. Lawrence, Nora Joyce, W.B. Yeats and Rosalind Franklin have been widely acclaimed. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...


Views on religion

Crick once joked, "Christianity may be OK between consenting adults in private but should not be taught to young children."[42]


In his book Of Molecules and Men, Crick expressed his views on the relationship between science and religion.[43] After suggesting that it would become possible for people to wonder if a computer might be programmed so as to have a soul, he wondered: at what point during biological evolution did the first organism have a soul? At what moment does a baby get a soul? Crick stated his view that the idea of a non-material soul that could enter a body and then persist after death is just that, an imagined idea. For Crick, the mind is a product of physical brain activity and the brain had evolved by natural means over millions of years. Crick felt that it was important that evolution by natural selection be taught in public schools and that it was regrettable that English schools had compulsory religious instruction. Crick felt that a new scientific world view was rapidly being established, and predicted that once the detailed workings of the brain were eventually revealed, erroneous Christian concepts about the nature of man and the world would no longer be tenable; traditional conceptions of the "soul" would be replaced by a new understanding of the physical basis of mind. He was skeptical of organized religion, referring to himself as a skeptic and an agnostic with "a strong inclination towards atheism".[44] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the machine. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ...


In 1960, Crick accepted a fellowship at Churchill College Cambridge, one factor being that the new college did not have a chapel. Sometime later a large donation was made to establish a chapel and the fellowship elected to accept it. Crick resigned his fellowship in protest[45]. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Full name Churchill College Motto Forward Named after Sir Winston Churchill Previous names - Established 1966 Sister College Trinity College Master Sir John Boyd Location Storeys Way Undergraduates 210 Graduates 440 Homepage Boatclub Churchill College Churchill College was founded in 1960 as the national and commonwealth memorial to Winston Churchill. ...


In October 1969, Crick participated in a celebration of the 100th year of the journal Nature. Crick attempted to make some predictions about what the next 30 years would hold for molecular biology. His speculations were later published in Nature.[46] Near the end of the article, Crick briefly mentioned the search for life on other planets, but he held little hope that extraterrestrial life would be found by the year 2000. He also discussed what he described as a possible new direction for research, what he called "biochemical theology". Crick wrote, "So many people pray that one finds it hard to believe that they do not get some satisfaction from it...." For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Green people redirects here. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the concept. ...


Crick suggested that it might be possible to find chemical changes in the brain that were molecular correlates of the act of prayer. He speculated that there might be a detectable change in the level of some neurotransmitter or neurohormone when people pray. Crick may have been imagining substances such as dopamine that are released by the brain under certain conditions and produce rewarding sensations. Crick's suggestion that there might some day be a new science of "biochemical theology" seems to have been realized under an alternative name: there is now the new field of Neurotheology.[47] Crick's view of the relationship between science and religion continued to play a role in his work as he made the transition from molecular biology research into theoretical neuroscience. A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... A neurohormone is any hormone produced by neurosecretory cells, usually in the brain. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Not to be confused with neuroethology. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... This article is about the concept. ...


Directed panspermia

During the 1960s, Crick became concerned with the origins of the genetic code. In 1966, Crick took the place of Leslie Orgel at a meeting where Orgel was to talk about the origin of life. Crick speculated about possible stages by which an initially simple code with a few amino acid types might have evolved into the more complex code used by existing organisms.[48] At that time, everyone thought of proteins as the only kind of enzymes and ribozymes had not yet been found. Many molecular biologists were puzzled by the problem of the origin of a protein replicating system that is as complex as that which exists in organisms currently inhabiting Earth. In the early 1970s, Crick and Orgel further speculated about the possibility that the production of living systems from molecules may have been a very rare event in the universe, but once it had developed it could be spread by intelligent life forms using space travel technology, a process they called “Directed Panspermia”.[49] In a retrospective article,[50] Crick and Orgel noted that they had been overly pessimistic about the chances of abiogenesis on Earth when they had assumed that some kind of self-replicating protein system was the molecular origin of life. Leslie Eleazer Orgel (born Jan 12, 1927 in London) is a chemist. ... For the definition, see Life. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... This article is about the chemical. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer-Earth objects and generally anything that involves the technologies, science, and politics regarding space endeavors. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Panspermia is a proven process (based on the principles of Biology, Microbiology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and assumption that life existed already in the universe) that explains how all life in the universe and/or solar system comes from a seed of life. ... This article focuses on the history of thought regarding abiogenesis (the spontaneous generation of life from non-living sources). ...


Neuroscience, other interests

Results from an fMRI experiment in which people made a conscious decision about a visual stimulus. The small region of the brain coloured orange shows patterns of activity that correlate with the decision making process. Crick stressed the importance of finding new methods to probe human brain function.
Results from an fMRI experiment in which people made a conscious decision about a visual stimulus. The small region of the brain coloured orange shows patterns of activity that correlate with the decision making process. Crick stressed the importance of finding new methods to probe human brain function.

Crick's period at Cambridge was the pinnacle of his long scientific career, but he left Cambridge in 1977 after 30 years, having been offered (and having refused) the Mastership of Gonville & Caius. James Watson claimed at a Cambridge conference marking the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the structure of DNA in 2003: "Now perhaps it's a pretty well kept secret that one of the most uninspiring acts of Cambridge University over this past century was to turn down Francis Crick when he applied to be the Professor of Genetics, in 1958. Now there may have been a series of arguments, which lead them to reject Francis. It was really saying, don't push us to the frontier."[citation needed] The apparently "pretty well kept secret" had already been recorded in Soraya De Chadarevian's "Designs For Life: Molecular Biology After World War II", published by CUP in 2002. His major contribution to molecular biology in Cambridge is well documented in The History of the University of Cambridge: Volume 4 (1870 to 1990), which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1992. Image File history File links US government image. ... Image File history File links US government image. ... Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (or fMRI) describes the use of MRI to measure hemodynamic signals related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... Full name Gonville and Caius College Motto - Named after Edmund Gonville & John Caius Previous names Gonville Hall (1348), Gonville & Caius (1557) Established 1348 Sister College Brasenose College Master Neil McKendrick Location Trinity St Undergraduates 468 Graduates 291 Homepage Boatclub Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, generally known as Caius (though pronounced... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The Arthur Balfour Professorship of Genetics is one of the senior professorships in biochemistry at the University of Cambridge, founded in 1912. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...


According to the University of Cambridge's genetics department official website, the electors of the professorship could not reach consensus, prompting the intervention of then University Vice-Chancellor Lord Adrian. Lord Adrian first offered the professorship to a compromise candidate, Guido Pontecorvo, who refused, and is said to have offered it then to Crick, who also refused. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... A Vice-Chancellor (commonly called the VC) of a university in the United Kingdom, other Commonwealth countries, and some universities in Hong Kong, is the de facto head of the university. ... Edgar Douglas Adrian won a Nobel Prize in 1932 Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian OM PRS (London, 30 November 1889 – 8 August 1977) was a British electrophysiologist and recipient of the 1932 Nobel Prize for Physiology, won jointly with Sir Charles Sherrington for work on the function of neurons. ... Edgar Douglas Adrian won a Nobel Prize in 1932 Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian OM PRS (London, 30 November 1889 – 8 August 1977) was a British electrophysiologist and recipient of the 1932 Nobel Prize for Physiology, won jointly with Sir Charles Sherrington for work on the function of neurons. ... Guido Pontecorvo was a British scientist and a Fellow of the Royal Society. ...


In 1976, Crick took a sabbatical year at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. Crick had been a nonresident fellow of the Institute since 1960. Crick wrote, "I felt at home in Southern California."[51] After the sabbatical, Crick left Cambridge in order to continue working at the Salk Institute. He was also a professor at the University of California, San Diego. He taught himself neuroanatomy and studied many other areas of neuroscience research. It took him several years to disengage from molecular biology because exciting discoveries continued to be made, including the discovery of alternative splicing and the discovery of restriction enzymes, which helped make possible genetic engineering. Eventually, in the 1980s, Crick was able to devote his full attention to his other interest, consciousness. His autobiographical book, What Mad Pursuit, includes a description of why he left molecular biology and switched to neuroscience. A sabbatical year is a prolonged hiatus, typically one year, in the career of an individual taken in order to fulfill some goal, e. ... Salk Institute Salk Institute The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is an independent non-profit educational research organization in La Jolla, California. ... One of the beaches at La Jolla Cove La Jolla, California, is a seaside resort community comprised of 42,808[1] residents within the city of San Diego. ... A sabbatical year is a prolonged hiatus, typically one year, in the career of an individual taken in order to fulfill some goal, e. ... Salk Institute Salk Institute The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is an independent non-profit educational research organization in La Jolla, California. ... The University of California, San Diego (popularly known as UCSD, or sometimes UC San Diego) is a highly selective, research-oriented[1] public university located in La Jolla, a seaside resort community of San Diego, California. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... This article is about the concept. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Various modes of alternative splicing Alternative splicing is the process that occurs in eukaryotes in which the splicing process of a pre-mRNA transcribed from one gene can lead to different mature mRNA molecules and therefore to different proteins. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the sugar-phosphate backbones (i. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...


Upon taking up work in theoretical neuroscience, Crick was struck by several things: Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...

  • there were many isolated subdisciplines within neuroscience with little contact between them
  • many people who were interested in behaviour treated the brain as a black box
  • consciousness was viewed as a taboo subject by many neurobiologists

Crick hoped he might aid progress in neuroscience by promoting constructive interactions between specialists from the many different subdisciplines concerned with consciousness. He even collaborated with neurophilosophers such as Patricia Churchland. Crick established a collaboration with Christof Koch that lead to publication of a series of articles on consciousness during the period spanning from 1990[52] to 2005. Crick made the strategic decision to focus his theoretical investigation of consciousness on how the brain generates visual awareness within a few hundred milliseconds of viewing a scene. Crick and Koch proposed that consciousness seems so mysterious because it involves very short-term memory processes that are as yet poorly understood. Crick also published a book describing how neurobiology had reached a mature enough stage so that consciousness could be the subject of a unified effort to study it at the molecular, cellular and behavioural levels.[53] Crick's book The Astonishing Hypothesis made the argument that neuroscience now had the tools required to begin a scientific study of how brains produce conscious experiences. Crick was skeptical about the value of computational models of mental function that are not based on details about brain structure and function. Black box is technical jargon for a device or system or object when it is viewed primarily in terms of its input and output characteristics. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Neurophilosophy is the interdisciplinary study of neuroscience and philosophy. ... Patricia Smith Churchland (born July 16, 1943 in Oliver, British Columbia, Canada) is a Canadian-American philosopher working at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) since 1984. ... Christof Koch (born November 13, 1956) is an American neuroscientist. ... Academic publishing describes a system of publishing that is necessary in order for academic scholars to review work and make it available for a wider audience. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... In biological psychology, awareness describes a human or animals perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Astonishing Hypothesis is Francis Cricks book about consciousness. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Connectionism is an approach in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


Crick was elected a fellow of CSICOP in 1983 and a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism in the same year. In 1995, Francis Crick was one of the original endorsers of the Ashley Montagu Resolution to petition for an end to the genital mutilation of children. The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, or CSICOP, is an organization formed to encourage open minded, critical investigation of paranormal and pseudoscientific claims from a responsible, scientific point of view. ... The Council for Secular Humanism (originally the Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism, or CODESH) is a secular humanist organization headquartered in Amherst, New York. ... The Ashley Montagu Resolution refers to the petition to the World Court to end the genital modification and mutilation of children worldwide. ... Circumcision is the removal of some or all of the prepuce (foreskin). ...


Reactions to Crick and his work

Crick has widely been described as talkative, brash, and lacking modesty.[54] His personality combined with his scientific accomplishments produced many opportunities for Crick to stimulate reactions from others, both inside and outside of the scientific world, which was the centre of his intellectual and professional life.[55] Crick spoke rapidly, and rather loudly, and had an infectious and reverberating laugh, and a lively sense of humour. One colleague from the Salk Institute described him as "a brainstorming intellectual powerhouse with a mischievous smile..." Francis was never mean-spirited, just incisive. He detected microscopic flaws in logic. In a room full of smart scientists, Francis continually reearned his position as the heavyweight champ."[56] Salk Institute Salk Institute The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is an independent non-profit educational research organization in La Jolla, California. ...


Religious beliefs

The conservative political analyst Mark Steyn published an obituary of Crick and attempted a deconstruction of Crick's scientific motivations.[57] Steyn characterized Crick as a militant atheist and asserted that it was his atheism that "drove" Crick to move beyond conventional molecular biology towards speculative topics such as panspermia. Steyn described the theory of directed panspermia as amounting to, "gods in the skies who fertilize the earth and then retreat to the heavens beyond our reach." Steyn categorized Crick’s ideas on directed panspermia as a result of "hyper-rationalism" that, "lead him round to embracing a belief in a celestial creator of human life, indeed a deus ex machina." Mark Steyn (born 1959) is a Canadian journalist, columnist, and film and music critic. ... The term deconstruction is often used in a loose way as a synonym of critical analysis, especially the kind of uncooperative critical analysis that subjects a work or a text to close scrutiny in order to expose contradictions, poor logic or unwelcome affinities with other works or cultural objects. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Panspermia is a proven process (based on the principles of Biology, Microbiology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and assumption that life existed already in the universe) that explains how all life in the universe and/or solar system comes from a seed of life. ... For other uses, see Deus ex machina (disambiguation). ...


Steyn's critique of Crick ignored the fact that Crick never held a belief in panspermia. Crick explored the hypothesis that it might be possible for life forms to be moved from one planet to another. What "drove" Crick towards speculation about directed panspermia was the difficulty of imagining how a complex system like a cell could arise under pre-biotic conditions from non-living chemical components. After ribozymes were discovered, Crick became much less interested in panspermia because it was then much easier to imagine the pre-biotic origins of life as being made possible by some set of simple self-replicating polymers.[50] Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... This article is about the chemical. ... For the definition, see Life. ...


Eugenics

Crick occasionally expressed his views on eugenics, usually in private letters. For example, Crick advocated a form of positive eugenics in which wealthy parents would be encouraged to have more children.[58] He once remarked, "In the long run, it is unavoidable that society will begin to worry about the character of the next generation... It is not a subject at the moment which we can tackle easily because people have so many religious beliefs and until we have a more uniform view of ourselves I think it would be risky to try and do anything in the way of eugenics... I would be astonished if, in the next 100 or 200 years, society did not come round to the view that they would have to try to improve the next generation in some extent or one way or another." Some observers have labeled Crick's views on eugenics as "controversial"[59] Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Liberal eugenics is the study and use of genetic engineering to improve human beings, specifically in regards to biological characteristics and capacities. ...


Creationism

It has been suggested by some observers that Crick's speculation about panspermia, "fits neatly into the intelligent design concept."[60] Crick's name was raised in this context in the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial over the teaching of intelligent design. However, Crick wrote: Panspermia is a proven process (based on the principles of Biology, Microbiology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and assumption that life existed already in the universe) that explains how all life in the universe and/or solar system comes from a seed of life. ... Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ...

"The age of the earth is now established beyond any reasonable doubt as very great, yet in the United States millions of Fundamentalists still stoutly defend the naive view that it is relatively short, an opinion deduced from reading the Christian Bible too literally. They also usually deny that animals and plants have evolved and changed radically over such long periods, although this is equally well established. This gives one little confidence that what they have to say about the process of natural selection is likely to be unbiased, since their views are predetermined by a slavish adherence to religious dogmas."[61]

In the 1987 United States Supreme Court case Edwards v. Aguillard, Crick joined a group of other Nobel laureates who advised that, "'Creation-science' simply has no place in the public-school science classroom."[62] Crick was also an advocate for the establishment of Darwin Day as a British national holiday.[63] Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Holding Teaching creationism in public schools is unconstitutional because it attempts to advance a particular religion. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Darwin Day is the anniversary of the birthday of Charles Darwin on February 12, 1809. ...


Recognition

The Francis Crick Prize Lectures at The Royal Society, London
The Francis Crick Prize Lecture was established in 2003 following an endowment by his former colleague, Sydney Brenner, joint winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.[64] The lecture is delivered annually in any field of biological sciences, with preference given to the areas in which Francis Crick himself worked. Importantly, the lectureship is aimed at younger scientists, ideally under 40, or whose career progression corresponds to this age. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


The Francis Crick Graduate Lectures at the University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge Graduate School of Biological, Medical and Veterinary Sciences hosts The Francis Crick Graduate Lectures. The first two lectures were by John Gurdon and Tim Hunt.[65][66] The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... John Gurdon is a controversial British biologist. ... Dr. Richard Timothy (Tim) Hunt (b. ...


"For my generation, Francis Crick was probably the most obviously influential presence. He was often at lunch in the canteen of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology where he liked to explain what he was thinking about, and he was always careful to make sure that everyone round the table really understood. He was a frequent presence at talks in and around Cambridge, where he liked to ask questions. Sometimes, I remember thinking, they seemed slightly ignorant questions to which a man of his extraordinary range and ability ought to have known the answers. Only slowly did it dawn on me that he only and always asked questions when he was unclear or unsure, a great lesson." (Tim Hunt, first Francis Crick Graduate Lecturer: June 2005)


The wording on the new DNA sculpture outside Clare College's Thirkill Court, Cambridge, England is The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... College name Clare College Named after Elizabeth de Clare Established 1326 Previously named University Hall (1326-1338) Clare Hall (1338-1856) Location Trinity Lane Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


a) on the base:


i) "These strands unravel during cell reproduction. Genes are encoded in the sequence of bases." ii) "The double helix model was supported by the work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins."


b) on the helices:


i) "The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 by Francis Crick and James Watson while Watson lived here at Clare."


ii) "The molecule of DNA has two helical strands that are linked by base pairs Adenine - Thymine or Guanine - Cytosine."

  • Fellow of the Royal Society
  • Fellow International Academy of Humanism
  • Fellow CSICOP
  • [1] Westminster City Council unveiled a green plaque to Francis Crick on the front façade of 56 St George's Square, Pimlico, London SW1 on the 20th June 2007; Crick lived in the first floor flat, together with Robert Dougall of BBC radio and later TV fame, a former Royal Navy associate.

The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... The Council for Secular Humanism (originally the Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism, or CODESH) is a secular humanist organization headquartered in Amherst, New York. ... The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, or CSICOP, is an organization formed to encourage open minded, critical investigation of paranormal and pseudoscientific claims from a responsible, scientific point of view. ... Robert Dougall (27 November 1913 - 19 December 1999) was a British broadcaster and ornithologist, mainly known as a newsreader and announcer. ...

Books by Francis Crick

  • Of Molecules and Men (Prometheus Books, 2004; original edition 1967) ISBN 1-59102-185-5
  • Life Itself (Simon & Schuster, 1981) ISBN 0-671-25562-2
  • What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery (Basic Books reprint edition, 1990) ISBN 0-465-09138-5
  • The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search For The Soul (Scribner reprint edition, 1995) ISBN 0-684-80158-2
  • Kreiseliana: about and around Georg Kreisel; ISBN 1-56881-061-X; 495 pages. For pages 25 - 32 "Georg Kriesel: a Few Personal Recollections" by Francis Crick.

The Astonishing Hypothesis is Francis Cricks book about consciousness. ...

Books about Francis Crick and the structure of DNA discovery

  • John Bankston, Francis Crick and James D. Watson; Francis Crick and James Watson: Pioneers in DNA Research (Mitchell Lane Publishers, Inc., 2002) ISBN 1-58415-122-6
  • Soraya De Chadarevian; Designs For Life: Molecular Biology After World War II, CUP 2002, 444 pp; ISBN 0-521-57078-6
  • Edwin Chargaff; Heraclitean Fire, Rockefeller Press, 1978
  • S. Chomet (Ed.), "D.N.A. Genesis of a Discovery", 1994, Newman- Hemisphere Press, London
  • Dickerson, Richard E.; "Present at the Flood: How Structural Molecular Biology Came About", Sinauer, 2005; ISBN 0-878-93168-6;
  • Edward Edelson, "Francis Crick And James Watson: And the Building Blocks of Life"' Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-19-513971-2.
  • Hager, Thomas; "Force of Nature: The Life of Linus Pauling", Simon & Schuster 1995; ISBN 0-684-80909-5
  • Graeme Hunter; Light Is A Messenger, the life and science of William Lawrence Bragg, ISBN 0-19-852921-X; Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Horace Freeland Judson, "The Eighth Day of Creation. Makers of the Revolution in Biology"; Penguin Books 1995, first published by Jonathan Cape, 1977; ISBN 0-14-017800-7.
  • Torsten Krude (Ed.); DNA Changing Science and Society (ISBN 0-521-82378-1) CUP 2003. (The Darwin Lectures for 2003, including one by Sir Aaron Klug on Rosalind Franklin's involvement in the determination of the structure of DNA).
  • Brenda Maddox Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA, 2002. ISBN 0-00-655211-0.
  • Robert Olby; The Path to The Double Helix: Discovery of DNA; first published in 0ctober 1974 by MacMillan, with foreword by Francis Crick; ISBN 0-486-68117-3; revised in 1994, with a 9 page postscript. Professor Olby has written a full length scientific biography of Francis Crick for publication by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press in February 2008.
  • Matt Ridley; Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code (Eminent Lives) first published in June 2006 in the USA and then in the UK September 2006, by HarperCollins Publishers; 192 pp, ISBN 0-06-082333-X. See: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/10/science/11books-excerpt.html
  • Anne Sayre. 1975. Rosalind Franklin and DNA. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-32044-8.
  • James D. Watson; The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, Atheneum, 1980, ISBN 0-689-70602-2 (first published in 1968) is a very readable firsthand account of the research by Crick and Watson. The book also formed the basis of the award winning television dramatization Life Story by BBC Horizon (also broadcast as Race for the Double Helix).
  • James D. Watson; The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA; The Norton Critical Edition, which was published in 1980, edited by Gunther S. Stent: ISBN 0-393-01245-X. (It does not include Erwin Chargaff's critical review unfortunately.)
  • James D. Watson; "Avoid boring people and other lessons from a life in science" New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-41284-4, 366pp
  • Maurice Wilkins; The Third Man of the Double Helix: The Autobiography of Maurice Wilkins ISBN 0-19-860665-6.

The biographer Brenda Maddox is a Harvard graduate who has lived for many years in the UK. Her biographies of Elizabeth Taylor, D.H. Lawrence, Nora Joyce, W.B. Yeats and Rosalind Franklin have been widely acclaimed. ... Robert Olby is a professor in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh. ... Matthew (Matt) Ridley (born February 7, 1958 at Newcastle upon Tyne) (not to be confused with Mark Ridley) is an English science writer. ... James Watson The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA is an autobiographical account of the discovery of structure of DNA. It was written by James D. Watson and published in 1968. ...

See also

The neural correlate of consciousness (NCC) is a term made popular by Francis Crick and Christof Koch in the early 1990s. ... The Discovery of the DNA Double Helix Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid by James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick. ... Wobble base pairs for inosine Wobble base pairs for Uracil A wobble base pair is a G-U and I-U / I-A / I-C pair fundamental in RNA secondary structure. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An atheist is one who disbelieves[1] in the existence of a deity or deities. ...

References

  1. ^ How I Got Inclined Towards Atheism
  2. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962. Nobel Prize Site for Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962.
  3. ^ Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code (Eminent Lives) by Matt Ridley, (2006); HarperCollins Publishers; 192 pp, ISBN 0-06-082333-X.
  4. ^ Shermer, Michael (2004-07-30). Astonishing Mind: Francis Crick 1916–2004. Skeptics Society. Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
  5. ^ a b Chapters 1 and 2 of What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery by Francis Crick (Basic Books reprint edition, 1990 ISBN 0-465-09138-5) provide Crick's description of his early life and education
  6. ^ Page 13 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  7. ^ Nature, Obituary, volume 430, 19 August 2004, p 845
  8. ^ Bio at Wellcome Trust
  9. ^ "Francis Crick, Co-Discoverer of DNA, Dies at 88", New York Times, July 30, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "Francis H. C. Crick, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, the genetic blueprint for life, and the leading molecular biologist of his age, died on Wednesday night in a hospital in San Diego. He was 88. He died after a long battle with colon cancer, said Andrew Porterfield, a spokesman for the Salk Institute, where he worked." 
  10. ^ Page 17 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  11. ^ Page 18 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  12. ^ Page 22 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  13. ^ a b Page 30 of The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology by Horace Freeland Judson published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (1996) ISBN 0-87969-478-5.
  14. ^ Page 25 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  15. ^ a b Page 32 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  16. ^ Pages 33-34 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  17. ^ a b Chapter 4 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  18. ^ Cochran W, Crick FHC and Vand V. (1952) "The Structure of Synthetic Polypeptides. I. The Transform of Atoms on a Helix", Acta Cryst., 5, 581-586.
  19. ^ See "Evidence for the Pauling-Corey alpha-Helix in Synthetic Polypeptides" (1952) Nature Volume 169 pages 234-235 (download PDF). Crick's scientific publications and letters are in the list of Francis Crick's Papers from the Wellcome Library or the National Library of Medicine.
  20. ^ Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids by James D. Watson and Francis H. C. Crick. Nature 171, 737–738 (1953).
  21. ^ Francis Crick's 1962 Biography from the Nobel foundation.
  22. ^ Crick traced his interest in the physical nature of the gene back to the start of his work in biology, when he was in the Strangeways laboratory; Page 22 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  23. ^ In The Eighth Day of Creation, Horace Judson describes the development of Watson's thinking about the physical nature of genes. On page 89, Judson explains that by the time Watson came to Cambridge, he believed genes were made of DNA and he hoped that he could use x-ray diffraction data to determine the structure.
  24. ^ Page 22 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  25. ^ Page 90, In The Eighth Day of Creation by Horace Judson.
  26. ^ Linu Pauling and the Race for DNA: A Documentary History Special Collections, The Valley Library, Oregon State University.
  27. ^ Chapter 3 in The Eighth Day of Creation by Horace Judson.
  28. ^ "DNA helix" by M. F. Perutz, J. T. Randall, L. Thomson, M. H. Wilkins J. D. Watson in Science journal Science (1969) Volume 164 pages 1537-1539. Entrez PubMed 5796048
  29. ^ Franklin's citation to the earlier work of W. T. Astbury is in "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate" by R. Franklin and R. G. Gosling in Nature (1953) volume 171 pages 740-741. The full text of this article is available for download in PDF format.
  30. ^ The Double Helix: A Personal View by Francis Crick (1974) in Nature Volume 248, page 766-769. PMID:4599081
  31. ^ See Chapter 3 of The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology by Horace Freeland Judson published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (1996) ISBN 0-87969-478-5. Judson also lists the publications of W. T. Astbury that described his early X-ray diffraction results for DNA.
  32. ^ "Genetical implications of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid" by J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick (1953) in Nature Volume 171 pages 964-967.
  33. ^ *Morgan, G.J. (2003). "Historical Review: Viruses, Crystals and Geodesic Domes". Trends in Biochemical Sciences 28: 86-90. .
  34. ^ "The structure of collagen" by A Rich and F. H. C. Crick in Nature (1955) Volume 176, pages 915-916.
  35. ^ "On Degenerate Templates and the Adaptor Hypothesis: A Note for the RNA Tie Club" by Francis Crick (1956).
  36. ^ "On protein synthesis" by F. H. C. Crick in Symp Soc Exp Biol. (1958);12:138-63.
  37. ^ "General nature of the genetic code for proteins" by F. H. C. Crick, L. Barnett, S. Brenner and R. J. Watts-Tobin in Nature (1961) Volume 192 pages 1227-1232.
  38. ^ "The Croonian lecture, 1966. The genetic code" by F. H. C. Crick in Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. (1967) Volume 167 pages 331-347.
  39. ^ Chapter 3 of The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology by Horace Freeland Judson published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (1996) ISBN 0-87969-478-5.
  40. ^ Maurice Wilkins; The Third Man of the Double Helix by Maurice Wilkins (ISBN 0-19-860665-6). Wilkins provides a detailed account of the fact that Franklin's results were interpreted as most likely indicated three, and possibly four, polynucleotide strands in the DNA molecule.
  41. ^ Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA by Brenda Maddox. (2002) ISBN 0-06-018407-8.
  42. ^ McKie, Robin. "Genius was in his DNA", The Guardian, 2006-09-17. Retrieved on 2007-08-04. 
  43. ^ Of Molecules and Men (Prometheus Books, 2004; original edition 1967) ISBN 1-59102-185-5. A portion of the book was published as "The Computer, the Eye, the Soul" in Saturday Review (1966): 53-55.
  44. ^ Francis Crick refers to himself as a skeptic and an agnostic with "a strong inclination towards atheism", see reference 42.
  45. ^ Wellcome Archive article on Crick see also eg Telegraph Article
  46. ^ "Molecular Biology in the Year 2000" by Francis Crick in Nature Volume 228 (1970) pages 613-615.
  47. ^ "The serotonin system and spiritual experiences" by J. Borg, B. Andree, H. Soderstrom and L. Farde in The American Journal of Psychiatry (2003) Volume 160, pages 1965-1969. Entrez PubMed 14594742
  48. ^ "The origin of the genetic code" by F. H. C. Crick in J Mol Biol. (1968) Volume 38 pages 367-379. Entrez PubMed 4887876
  49. ^ "Directed Panspermia” by Francis Crick and Leslie E Orgel in Icarus (1973) Volume 19 pages 341-346. Crick later wrote a book about directed panspermia called Life Itself (Simon & Schuster, 1981) ISBN 0-671-25562-2
  50. ^ a b "Anticipating an RNA world. Some past speculations on the origin of life: where are they today?" by L. E. Orgel and F. H. C. Crick in FASEB J. (1993) Volume 7 pages 238-239.
  51. ^ Page 145 of What Mad Pursuit by Francis Crick.
  52. ^ "Towards a Neurobiological Theory of Consciousness" by Francis Crick and Christof Koch in Seminars in the Neurosciences (1990): Volume 2 pages 263-275.
  53. ^ The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search For The Soul by Francis Crick. (Scribner reprint edition, 1995) ISBN 0-684-80158-2
  54. ^ Watson's book The Double Helix painted a vivid image of Crick, starting with the famous line, "I have never seen Francis Crick in a modest mood." The first chapter of Horace Judson's book The Eighth Day of Creation describes the importance of Crick's talking and his boldness in his scientific style.
  55. ^ Describing Crick's influence on his scientific colleagues, Francis Crick Papers archivist Chris Beckett wrote of the importance of, ".....Crick's presence and eloquence —direct and beguiling, by all accounts in the archive— at conference after conference, through formal lectures, extempore summaries, informal meetings and individual conversations. Indeed, one has the impression that it was through these frequent persuasive moments of personal delivery and purposive conversations that Crick was most influential." Also described as an example of Crick's wide recognition and public profile are some of the times Crick was addressed as "Sir Francis Crick" with the assumption that someone so famous must have been knighted.
  56. ^ Eagleman, D.M. (2005). Obituary: Francis H. C. Crick (1916-2004). Vision Research. 45: 391-393.
  57. ^ See The Twentieth-Century Darwin by Mark Steyn published in The Atlantic Monthly October 2004. Crick's description of his religious views (as given in What Mad Pursuit, see Chapter 1 of reference #2, above) after having told his mother that he no longer wished to attend church services: "...from then on I was a skeptic, an agnostic with a strong inclination toward atheism."
  58. ^ Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code by Matt Ridley, published in 2006 by HarperCollins Publishers.
  59. ^ Francis Crick's controversial archive on first public display at the Wellcome Library and Information Services. Archivists' comments on Crick's views.
  60. ^ Intelligent design tied to creationism in Dover trial by Bill Toland for the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (September 28, 2005).
  61. ^ The Astonishing Hypothesis
  62. ^ Amicus Curiae Brief of 72 Nobel Laureates, 17 State Academies of Science, and 7 Other Scientific Organization in Support of Appellees filed in the case Edwards v. Aguillard before the U.S. Supreme Court (1986).
  63. ^ Press release from the British Humanist Association: Darwin Day a natural holiday? (February 12, 2003).
  64. ^ The Francis Crick Lecture (2003): The Royal Society website. Retrieved 12 July 2006
  65. ^ Back and Forward: From University to Research Institute; From Egg to Adult, and Back Again by Professor Sir John Gurdon, Francis Crick Graduate Lectures, 29th November 2005. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 12 July 2006.
  66. ^ A Life in Science by Dr Tim Hunt, Francis Crick Graduate Lectures, 29th June 2005. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 12 July 2006.

Matthew (Matt) Ridley (born February 7, 1958 at Newcastle upon Tyne) (not to be confused with Mark Ridley) is an English science writer. ... Michael Shermer Michael Shermer (born September 8, 1954 in Glendale, California) is a science writer, historian of science, founder of The Skeptics Society, and editor of its magazine Skeptic, which is largely devoted to investigating and debunking pseudoscientific and supernatural claims. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Horace Freeland Judson is a historian of molecular biology and the author of several books, including The Eighth Day of Creation, a history of molecular biology, and A Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science, an examination of the deliberate manipulation of scientific data. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... New Wellcome Trust building on Euston Road The Wellcome Trust is a United Kingdom-based charity established in 1936 to disburse the fortune of the pharmaceutical magnate Sir Henry Wellcome and the income of Burroughs Wellcome & Co. ... The U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the U.S. federal government, is the worlds largest medical research library. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Horace Freeland Judson is a historian of molecular biology and the author of several books, including The Eighth Day of Creation, a history of molecular biology, and A Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science, an examination of the deliberate manipulation of scientific data. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Horace Freeland Judson is a historian of molecular biology and the author of several books, including The Eighth Day of Creation, a history of molecular biology, and A Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science, an examination of the deliberate manipulation of scientific data. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... ICARUS is the official journal of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society. ... Horace Freeland Judson is a historian of molecular biology and the author of several books, including The Eighth Day of Creation, a history of molecular biology, and A Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science, an examination of the deliberate manipulation of scientific data. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... Atheist redirects here. ... The Wellcome Trusts Gibbs Building on Euston Road The Wellcome Trust is a United Kingdom-based charity established in 1936 to administer the fortune of the American-born pharmaceutical magnate Sir Henry Wellcome. ... The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the PG, is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. // The paper began publication on July 29, 1786, with the encouragement of Hugh Henry Brackenridge as a four-page weekly, initially called The Gazette. ... The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence and was founded in 1660. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ...

External links

Crick papers

  • [2] Crick's personal papers at Mandeville Special Collections Library, Geisel Library, University of California, San Diego
  • Francis Crick Archive - Papers by Francis Crick are available for study at the Wellcome Library’s Archives and Manuscripts department. These papers include those dealing with Crick’s career after he moved to the Salk Institute in San Diego. The Crick papers
  • Comprehensive list of pdf files of Crick's papers from 1950 to 1990 - National Library of Medicine.
  • Francis Crick papers - Nature.com
  • http://www.intuition.org/txt/crick2.htm for Crick's comments on LSD
  • Manuscripts and Correspondence - Mark Bretscher Discovery of Crick's original scientific material in Cambridge, England.

The Wellcome Trusts Gibbs Building on Euston Road The Wellcome Trust is a United Kingdom-based charity established in 1936 to administer the fortune of the American-born pharmaceutical magnate Sir Henry Wellcome. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...

Hear or see Crick

  • An Interview with Francis Crick by Nick Spitzer on UCSD GuestBook
  • An interview with Francis Crick and Christof Koch, 2001
  • Listen to Francis Crick
  • Presentation speech at the Nobel Prize ceremony in 1962.
  • Francis Crick video at the Peoples Archive
  • The Quest for Consciousness - The Quest for Consciousness - 65 minute audio program - a conversation on Consciousness with neurobiologist Francis Crick of the Salk Institute and neurobiologist Christof Koch from Caltech.
  • Listen to Francis Crick and James Watson talking on the BBC in 1962, 1972, and 1974.

The Peoples Archive [sic] is a website which has videos of notable persons telling their life stories. ...

About his work

  • "Quiet debut for the double helix" by Professor Robert Olby, Nature 421 (January 23, 2003): 402-405.
  • Reading list for discovery of DNA story from the National Centre for Biotechnology Education.

About his life

  • Salk Institute Press Release on the death of Francis Crick.
  • BBC News: Francis Crick dies aged 88
  • Francis Crick - MSN Encarta

Miscellaneous

  • National DNA Day, 25th April 2006 Moderated Chat Transcript Archive
  • Obituary in "The Times" (London) of Francis Crick, 30 July 2004.
  • Independent On Line article about Consciousness, 7th June 2006.
  • Francis Crick Obituary The Biochemist
  • Obituary: Francis H. C. Crick (1916-2004) by David M. Eagleman, in Vision Research
  • Obituary: Francis Crick's Legacy for Neuroscience by Ralph M. Siegel and Edward M. Callaway, in PLoS Biology
  • 100 Scientists and Thinkers: James Watson and Francis Crick from TIME magazine.
  • Francis Crick: Nobel Prize 1962, Physiology or Medicine
  • Associated Press story on the death of Francis Crick
  • King's College London team of - in alphabetical order - Franklin, Gosling, Randall, Stokes, Wilkins, and Wilson, all of whom worked under the direction of (Sir) John Randall.
  • First press stories on DNA but for the 'second' DNA story in The New York Times, see: http://www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/science/dna-article.pdf - for reproduction of the original text in June 1953.
  • 'Death' of DNA Helix (Crystalline) joke funeral card.
  • Lynne Elkins' article on Franklin.
  • 50th anniversary series of articles -from The New York Times.
  • Quotes of Robert Olby on exactly who may have discovered the structure of DNA.
  • listen to Matt Ridley talking about Francis Crick.
  • [3] A celebration of Francis Crick's life in science.
Persondata
NAME Crick, Francis Harry Compton
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION molecular biologist,
DATE OF BIRTH 8 June 1916(1916-06-08)
PLACE OF BIRTH Weston Favell, Northamptonshire, England
DATE OF DEATH 28 July 2004
PLACE OF DEATH San Diego, California, U.S.
Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Weston Favell is a district of Northampton in the English county of Northamptonshire. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

 
 

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