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Encyclopedia > Frances Perkins
Frances Coralie Perkins
Frances Perkins

In office
1933 – 1945
Preceded by William N. Doak
Succeeded by Lewis B. Schwellenbach

Born April 10, 1882(1882-04-10)
Boston, Massachusetts
Died May 14, 1965 (aged 83)
New York
Political party Democratic

Frances Coralie Perkins (born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the US Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. Image File history File links Fcperkins. ... The United States Secretary of Labor is the head of the United States Department of Labor. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... William Nuckles Doak (December 12, 1882–October 23, 1933) was an American labor leader who served as United States Secretary of Labor from December 9, 1930 to March 4, 1933 under Herbert Hoover. ... Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach was an American lawyer, politician, and judge. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Boston redirects here. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... FDR redirects here. ... Labor unions in the United States today function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries, but are strongest among public sector employees such as teachers and police. ... The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that period, although they had only one Presidential majority after 1944. ...

Contents

History

Perkins was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Frederick W. Perkins, the owner of a stationer's business, and Susan Bean Perkins, but spent much of her childhood in Worcester.[1] She attended the Ferry Hall School in Illinois before graduating from Mount Holyoke College in 1902, and from Columbia University in 1910 with a master's degree in sociology. In between, she held a variety of teaching positions and volunteered at settlement houses, including Hull House. Boston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Worcester (disambiguation). ... The Ferry Hall School was a girls preparatory school founded in Lake Forest, Illinois in 1869. ... Mount Holyoke College is a liberal arts womens college in South Hadley, Massachusetts. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Hull House was co-founded in 1889, in Chicago, Illinois, by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. ...


In 1910 she came to statewide prominence as head of the New York Consumers League, in which position she lobbied with vigor for better working hours and conditions. The next year, she witnessed the tragic Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, a pivotal event in her life. Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was the largest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York, causing the death of 146 garment workers who either died from the fire or jumped to their deaths. ...


In 1913 Frances Perkins married Paul Caldwell Wilson. She kept her maiden name, defending in court her right to do so. Prior to going to Washington, Perkins held various positions in New York State government. In 1918, Perkins accepted Governor Al Smith's offer to join the New York State Industrial Commission, becoming its first ever female member. She became chairwoman of the commission in 1926. Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ...


In 1929, the new governor, Franklin D. Roosevelt, appointed Perkins the state's industrial commissioner. Having earned the cooperation and respect of various political factions, Perkins ably helped put New York in the forefront of progressive reform. She expanded factory investigations, reduced the workweek for women to 48 hours and championed minimum wage and unemployment insurance laws. FDR redirects here. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... Unemployment benefits are sums of money given to the unemployed by the government or a compulsory para-governmental insurance system. ...


In 1933, Roosevelt appointed Perkins as Secretary of the Department of Labor, a position she held for twelve years, longer than any other Secretary of Labor and making her the first woman to hold a cabinet position in the United States (thus becoming the first woman to enter the presidential line of succession). She and Harold L. Ickes were the only two secretaries to hold their posts throughout the entire FDR presidency. Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ...


President Roosevelt almost always supported the goals and programs of Secretary Perkins. In an administration filled with compromise, the President's support for the agenda of Frances Perkins was unusually constant.

Frances Perkins wearing a veil after the death of President Roosevelt

As Secretary of Labor, Perkins played a key role writing New Deal legislation, including minimum-wage laws. However, her most important contribution came in 1934 as chairwoman of the President's Committee on Economic Security. In this post, she was involved in all aspects of the reports and hearings that ultimately resulted in the Social Security Act of 1935. Frances Perkins, outside the White House, on her way to President Trumans swearing-in ceremony, shortly after learning of President Roosevelts death. ... Frances Perkins, outside the White House, on her way to President Trumans swearing-in ceremony, shortly after learning of President Roosevelts death. ... This article is about Franklin D. Roosevelts 1930s political reforms in the United States. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... United States Social Security Card Social Security is a social insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration under the authority of the United States federal government. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


In 1939, she came under fire from some members of Congress for refusing to deport the communist head of the west coast International Longshore and Warehouse Union, Harry Bridges. Bridges was ultimately vindicated by the Supreme Court. The International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU) is a labor union which primarily represents dock workers won the West Coast of the United States, Hawaii and Alaska; it also represents hotel workers in Hawaii, cannery workers in Alaska and warehouse workers throughout the West. ... Harry Bridges (July 28, 1901 – March 30, 1990) was an influential American labor leader in the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU), a union of longshore and warehouse workers on the West Coast, Hawaii and Alaska which he helped form and led for over forty years. ...


Smith, a machine politician from the old school, was an early social reformer with whom Frances Perkins made common cause. At Smith's funeral in 1944 two of his former Tammany Hall political cronies were overheard to speculate on why Smith had become a social crusader. One of them summed the matter up this way: "I'll tell you. Al Smith read a book. That book was a person, and her name was Frances Perkins. She told him all these things, and he believed her." In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ...


Following the end of her tenure as Secretary of Labor in 1945, Perkins was asked by President Harry Truman to serve on the United States Civil Service Commission, which she did until 1952, when her husband died and she resigned from federal service. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the victim of Mt. ... The Office of Personnel Management or OPM is the United States government agency which serves to manage the civil service of the United States by the recruitment of qualified personnel into and the administration of their careers as part of the United States Civil Service. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1946, Perkins published a detailed memoir of her years working with Franklin Roosevelt, called The Roosevelt I Knew. The book is clearly biased in favor of a president she called a friend; but it is also a subtle character study and is frequently recommended by scholars.[attribution needed]


Perkins explained in her memoir some of the means she had used to earn the President's remarkable support. She described a process of preparing the President for a position taken by boiling down the costs and benefits to a one or two-page summary, with the political opposition clearly marked for him in advance.


Perkins believed that most of those who felt the President had unjustly dropped support for their programs had not outlined what they needed simply enough; or had not identified the political opposition to their measure.


Following her government service career, Perkins remained active as a teacher and lecturer at the New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University until her death in 1965, aged 83. The School of Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) at Cornell University was established in 1944 (first students admitted 1945) as the worlds first school for college-level study in industrial and labor relations. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


The headquarters building of the United States Department of Labor in Washington, DC is named in her honor. Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


Notes

  1. ^ She was christened Fannie Coralie Perkins but later changed her name to Frances. Frances Perkins Collection. Mt Holyoke College Archives [1]

References

  • Berg, Gordon. "Frances Perkins and the Flowering of Economic and Social Policies." Monthly Labor Review. 112:6 (June 1989).
  • Keller, Emily. Frances Perkins: First Woman Cabinet Member Greensboro: Morgan Reynolds Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978193179891
  • Martin, George Whitney. Madam Secretary: Frances Perkins. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976. ISBN 0395242932
  • Pasachoff, Naomi. Frances Perkins: Champion of the New Deal New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0195122224
  • Perkins, Frances. The Roosevelt I Knew. New York: Penguin Group, 1946. ISBN 0670607371

External links

Preceded by
William N. Doak
U.S. Secretary of Labor
1933–1945
Succeeded by
Lewis B. Schwellenbach
William Nuckles Doak (December 12, 1882–October 23, 1933) was an American labor leader who served as United States Secretary of Labor from December 9, 1930 to March 4, 1933 under Herbert Hoover. ... The United States Secretary of Labor is the head of the United States Department of Labor. ... Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach was an American lawyer, politician, and judge. ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... The United States Secretary of Commerce and Labor was the head of the short-lived United States Department of Commerce and Labor, which was concerned with business, industry, and labor. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... Victor Howard Metcalf (October 10, 1853–February 20, 1936) was an American politician. ... Categories: Stub | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce and Labor ... Image File history File links US-DeptOfLabor-Seal. ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... William Bauchop Wilson (1862 - 1934) was a U.S. (Scottish-born) labor leader and political figure. ... James J. Puddler Jim Davis (October 27, 1873-November 22, 1947), was a U.S. Republican Party politician, He was born in Tredegar, South Wales in the United Kingdom, and emigrated to the United States in 1881 at the age of eight and was apprenticed as a puddlers assistant... William Nuckles Doak (December 12, 1882–October 23, 1933) was an American labor leader who served as United States Secretary of Labor from December 9, 1930 to March 4, 1933 under Herbert Hoover. ... Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach was an American lawyer, politician, and judge. ... Maurice Joseph Tobin (May 22, 1901–July 19, 1953) was a Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, governor of the U.S. state of Massachusetts, and U.S. Secretary of Labor. ... Martin Patrick Durkin (1894 – 1955) was a U.S. administrator. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The official portrait of W. Willard Wirtz hangs in the Department of Labor W. Willard Wirtz (born March 14, 1912) was a U.S. administrator. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... James D. Hodgson (born December 3, 1915, in Dawson, Minnesota) is an American politican. ... Peter Joseph Brennan (May 24, 1918 - October 2, 1996) was United States Secretary of Labor under President Nixon and President Ford. ... John Thomas Dunlop (born July 5,1914, died October 2nd 2003) was a U.S. administrator. ... The official portrait of W. J. Usery, Jr. ... Freddie Ray Marshall is the Professor Emeritus of the Audre and Bernard Rapoport Centennial Chair in Economicis and Public Affairs at the University of Texas in Austin, Texas. ... Raymond J. 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Frances Perkins - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (862 words)
In 1933, Roosevelt appointed Perkins as Secretary of the Department of Labor, a position she held for twelve years, longer than any other Secretary of Labor and making her the first woman to hold a cabinet position in the United States (thus becoming the first woman to enter the presidential line of succession).
In 1946, Perkins published a first-rate memoir of her years working with Franklin Roosevelt, called "The Roosevelt I Knew." The book is clearly biased in favor of a president she called a friend; but it is also a subtle character study, and useful reading for any student of the New Deal.
Perkins believed that most of those who felt the President had unjustly dropped support for their programs had not outlined what they needed simply enough; or had not identified the political opposition to their measure.
Frances Perkins - definition of Frances Perkins in Encyclopedia (407 words)
Perkins as his United States Secretary of Labor, a position she held for twelve years, longer than any other Secretary of Labor and making her the first woman to hold a cabinet position in the United States.
Perkins was asked by President Harry Truman to serve on the United States Civil Service Commission, which she did until 1952 when her husband died, and she resigned from federal service.
Perkins continued to be active as a teacher and lecturer at the New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University until her death in 1965.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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